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Reconstruction of wagon found at Tsujibatake, Fukuoka Prefecture, ? 1st–2nd century CE; only the soundboard survives

Reconstruction of wagon found at Tsujibatake, Fukuoka Prefecture, ? 1st–2nd century CE; only the soundboard survives

Shakuhachi (notched flute) made of stone, 8th century (Shōsōin repository, Nara)

Shakuhachi (notched flute) made of stone, 8th century (Shōsōin repository, Nara)

Mr D P Berger

Shakuhachi (notched flute): (a) played by the Japanese virtuoso Yamaguchi Gorō; (b) view showing the front four finger-holes (private collection)

Shakuhachi (notched flute): (a) played by the Japanese virtuoso Yamaguchi Gorō; (b) view showing the front four finger-holes (private collection)

Mr D P Berger

Priests of emptiness and nothingness: a train of komusō‘beggar priests’

Priests of emptiness and nothingness: a train of komusō‘beggar priests’

The International Shakuhachi Society

Shamisen player; coloured woodcut by Hokuei, early 19th century

Shamisen player; coloured woodcut by Hokuei, early 19th century

Japan Information Centre

Hayashi (drums and flute) notation from the nō dance ‘Jo no mai’; column 1 contains the kotsuzumi pattern names, column 2 the kotsuzumi and drum call notation, column 3 the ōtsuzumi pattern names and notation with drum call notation (with the taiko patterns on the left), column 4 the taiko notation and flute mnemonics; the numbers down the left-hand side indicate the beats

Hayashi (drums and flute) notation from the nō dance ‘Jo no mai’; column 1 contains the kotsuzumi pattern names, column 2 the kotsuzumi and drum call notation, column 3 the ōtsuzumi pattern names and notation with drum call notation (with the taiko patterns on the left), column 4 the taiko notation and flute mnemonics; the numbers down the left-hand side indicate the beats

From "Yokyoku Maibyoshi Taisei" (Osaka, 1914)

Stage plan of a nō theatre

Stage plan of a nō theatre

After S. Kishibe

Nō performance with shite (principal actor) and waki (second principal actor) in the foreground, and instrumental ensemble behind, including (left to right) taiko (barrel drum), ōtsuzumi and kotsuzumi (hourglass drums), and nōkan (flute), with the jiutai (chorus) to the right

Nō performance with shite (principal actor) and waki (second principal actor) in the foreground, and instrumental ensemble behind, including (left to right) taiko (barrel drum), ōtsuzumi and kotsuzumi (hourglass drums), and nōkan (flute), with the jiutai (chorus) to the right

Japan Information Centre

Taiko (barrel drum)

Taiko (barrel drum)

Japan Information Centre

Japan Nihon Nippon VIII. Regional traditions 1. Ryūkyū (v) Notation and structure (a) Notation system: Ex.21

Japan Nihon Nippon VIII. Regional traditions 1. Ryūkyū (v) Notation and structure (a) Notation system: Ex.21

Japan Nihon Nippon VIII. Regional traditions 1. Ryūkyū (v) Notation and structure (b) Structural elements: Ex.22 Scales

Japan Nihon Nippon VIII. Regional traditions 1. Ryūkyū (v) Notation and structure (b) Structural elements: Ex.22 Scales

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[flourished]
Yearbook of the International Folk Music Council
Perspectives of New Music
Acta musicologica
Ethnomusicology
Antiphonale monasticum pro diurnis horis (Tournai, 1934)
Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart
Sammelbände der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft
Asian Music
Studia musicologica norvegica
The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments
Yearbook for Traditional Music
Journal of the American Musicological Society
Contemporary Music Review
Galpin Society Journal