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  • James Blades,
  • Janet K. Page,
  • Edmund A. Bowles,
  • Anthony King,
  • Mervyn McLean,
  • Mary Riemer-Weller,
  • Robert Anderson
  •  and James Holland


(Fr. tambour; Ger. Trommel; It. tamburo; Port., Sp. tambor). A Membranophone (or occasionally an Idiophone ), usually with a resonating cavity, sounded by percussion (more rarely by friction or plucking). It has been made in many varieties and has been known in almost every age and culture....

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J. Blades: Percussion Instruments and their History (London, 1970, 2/1974)
A. Lavignac and L. de La Laurencie, eds.: Encyclopédie de la musique et dictionnaire du Conservatoire
Early Music
Revista de musicología
J.H. Beck: Encyclopedia of Percussion
Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft
C. Sachs: The History of Musical Instruments (New York, 1940)
Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society
Galpin Society Journal