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  • J. Richard Haefer


Single-headed conical drum of Surinam. Played with the hands or sticks, it is used in the winti cults of the Saramaka Maroon people, especially for the ampuku and kromanti, spirits of the forest and the sky pantheons, respectively. The drum is made from a hollowed log about 50 to 60 cm long and 35 to 45 cm in diameter at the base and 18 cm at the top. The skin head is held by eight pegs driven into the body about a quarter of the distance below the top. Driving the pegs further into the drum tightens the head. The drums are usually played in groups of three, the drummers seated and holding the instrument between their knees to accompany dancers who sing and play a ...

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