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Guide to Musical Examples in Grove Music Online


Link to articles: To link to an article which features Sibelius examples, click on the heading in the list below.

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Added sixth chord
Two interpretations of the added 6th chord and their resolutions

Arabesque created through rapid harmonic change, Chopin: Nocturne, op.9 no.2, 12–14

Augmented sixth chord
Augmented 6th chords and their resolutions

Bass (i)
A cadence on E, as described by Pietro Aaron in Thoscanello de la musica (1529/R)

Binary form
Binary form with a recapitulation in the dominant, Bach: Das wohltemperirte Clavier, i, Prelude 9


  • Resolutions of the 'characteristic dissonance' (Rameau)
  • Common endings in note-against-note organum
  • Bach: Chorale no.59 'Herzliebster Jesu'
  • Palestrina: Jubilate Deo omnis terra (last four bars)
  • Bach: Brandenburg Concerto no.3 in G, 'slow movt'
  • Handel: Fugue in B minor for organ (last seven bars)
  • Medial cadences
  • Beethoven: Symphony no.1, 1st movt
  • Common three-part endings in 14th-century polyphony
  • Cadence on E (16th century)
  • Strauss: Don Quixote
  • Haydn: String Quartet in C op.74 no.1, 1st movt
  • Mozart: Symphony in C k551, 3rd movt, Trio
  • Beethoven: Sonata in E♭ op.81a, 1st movt
  • Cadences with a leap in the contratenor part (15th century)


  • Movement from an imperfect to a perfect consonance with one part moving by a semitone, from Marchetto da Padova (c1318)
  • Examples of the correct use of dissonance, according to rhythmic and melodic position, Johannes Tinctoris: Salve martyr virgoque
  • Examples of dissonance treatment, from Gioseffo Zarlino: Le istitutioni harmoniche
  • Two treatments of dissonance not catalogued by Zarlino
  • Vincenzo Galilei's innovations in the treatment of dissonances (1587–91)
  • Downward leap of a dissonant suspension from a 7th to a 3rd
  • The 7th as a chordal dissonance (a), and a suspension (b)

Diminished seventh chord

  • Diminished 7th chord on G♯, resolving in (a) the minor; (b) the major mode
  • Diminished 7th chords and their resolutions

English three-part discant with parts combined to form harmony

Faburden harmonization according to the rules of Wylde's Anonymous

False relation

  • False relations (a) betwen two notes of the same chord; (b) between different parts of adjacent chords; (c) of a tritone between two notes in adjacent chords
  • Gesualdo: Dolcissima mia vita (Venice, 1611)
  • Falsobordone
    Tone VII, P-Cug M.12 (c1500; crosses mark the cantus firmus)

    Feminine ending
    Examples of feminine endings, from H.C. Koch: 'Von der Beschaffenheit der melodischen Theile', Versuch einer Anleitung zur Composition, ii (Leipzig, 1787)


    • The modes and chord sequences of the Italian Renaissance dance style (c1500–1650)
    • A structure using the chord sequence of ex.1(c)
    • Italian Baroque grounds
    • German Baroque grounds
    • English Baroque grounds
    • 20th-century grounds
    • 20th-century grounds


    • Tallis: If ye love me (c1549)
    • Chopin: Nocturne in E, op.62 no.2 (1846)


    • The three positions of the C major triad
    • The four positions of a 7th chord

    Landini cadence

    • A Landini cadence
    • A Landini cadence, taken from Landini
    • A Landini cadence, taken from Landini
    • A Landini cadence, taken from Binchois
    • A Landini cadence, taken from Binchois
    • A Landini cadence, taken from Binchois


    • 'Nature motif', Wagner: Das Rheingold
    • Motif heard at the first appearance of castle Valhalla, Wagner: Das Rheingold
    • Exx.1 and 2 combined in Die Walküre, Act 2, to illustrate the suffering of Wotan
    • Motif of the Rhinemaidens, Wagner: Das Rheingold

    Modulation (i)
    Mozart: Piano Sonata in C major, k545

    Ninth chord
    Ninth chords: (a) three examples; (b) with an appoggiatura; (c) with notes omitted; (d) in wider spacing

    Non-harmonic note

    • Passing notes
    • Anticipations
    • Auxiliaries
    • Echappée and cambiata
    • Appoggiaturas

    Non-quartal harmony
    Du Fay: Du tout m'estoie, c1450

    Nota cambiata

    • Palestrina: Adjuro vos, Liber IV Motettorum
    • Du Fay: Missa Sancti Jacobi, Kyrie
    • Note cambiate

    Avoidance of consecutive intervals through part-crossing

    Pedal point

    • Pedal point emphasising the tonic, Bach: Das wohltemperirte Clavier, i, Fugue 2, 28–end
    • Pedal point as an elaboration of the dominant, Bach: Das wohltemperirte Clavier, i, Prelude 1, 24–32


    • Weber: Turandot, end of theme
    • Chopin: Krakowiak
    • Liszt: Kyrie from Missa Choralis, alto line
    • Debussy: Nuages
    • Bartók: Bluebeard's Castle, Bluebeard's Glory
    • Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring, 'Spring Rounds'
    • African-American spiritual


    • Natural minor scale
    • Melodic minor scale
    • Harmonic minor scale
    • Ascending chromatic scale


    • Beethoven: Sonata in E♭, op.31 no.3, first movt
    • Schumann: Traumeswirren, op.12 no.7
    • Effect of context on physically equal semitones

    Spacing in four-part harmony

    Mozart: String Quartet k160/159a 'slow movt'


    • Bach: Chorale Es ist genug from Cantata no.60
    • Mozart: String Quartet in E♭ k428/421b, 1st movt
    • Beethoven: Trio in C minor, op.1 no.3, 1st movt
    • Debussy: Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune

    Whole-tone scale

    • Glinka: Ruslan and Lyudmila, overture
    • Dargomïzhsky: The Stone Guest, Act 3
    • Debussy: Pelléas et Mélisande, Act 4 scene ii

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