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Colby Leider

Appleton, Jon ( Howard ) ( b Los Angeles , Jan 4, 1939 ). American composer . Born into a family of musicians, he studied the piano and began composing as a child. He attended Reed College (BA 1961 ) and studied privately in Berkeley with Imbrie ( 1961–2 ). While at the University of Oregon (MA 1965 ), he worked with Homer Keller and began composing electronic music, an interest that led him to the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center ( 1965–6 ), where his teachers included Ussachevsky. After teaching for a year at Oakland University (Rochester

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Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer A digital synthesizer developed by Sydney Alonso, Cameron Jones, and Jon Appleton in 1972–4 ; it was superseded by their Synclavier . See also Electroacoustic music .

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Robert E. Eliason

digital music synthesizer, introduced at the 1977 International Computer Music Conference in San Diego, California. It was designed and built by New England Digital Corporation (NED) founders Sydney Alonzo and Cameron W. Jones in collaboration with Dartmouth College professor Jon Appleton. During the 1980s it developed into a digital audio system capable of FM synthesis, sound analysis, sampling, stereo recording and playback on up to 200 tracks, audio editing, video synchronization, and music printing. By 1985 over 400 systems had been sold to recording studios

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David Cope

Gottfried Michael Koenig at the Studio voor Elektronische Muziek, University of Utrecht ( 1968 ). An extended study of electronic and computer music culminated in his The Development and Practice of Electronic Music (Englewood Cliffs, 1975 ), a major text which he edited with Jon Appleton. He has been a MacDowell Colony Fellow four times ( 1974 , 1978 , 1981 , 1988 ) and in 1976 and 1988 received fellowship awards from the NEA. The Paderewski Fund ( 1972 ), the Goethe Institute ( 1974 ) and the Massachusetts Arts Council ( 1983 ) have commissioned works from

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Gary W. Kennedy

Hampton’s big band Jazzmasters ( 1995–6 ), in the Carnegie Hall Jazz Band under the direction of Jon Faddis, with the sextet Faddis–Hampton–Heath (from 1997 , with Jimmy Heath), and with James Moody (from 1998 ). In 1995 he became a member of the cooperative sextet One for All (alongside Eric Alexander, Steve Davis (iii), and Peter Washington), and in the same year he formed a trio with Washington and Louis Hayes; he led other small groups with the drummer Ray Appleton among his sidemen, and from 1998 he co-led, with Joe Locke, a quartet that included Billy Drummond

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segments of his piece Deserts . Milton Babbitt created several pieces with the RCA synthesizer, such as Composition for synthesizer ( 1960–1961 ), or Philomel ( 1963 ) for soprano and stereo tape ( 1963–1964 ). Other composers to create landmarks of new music at CPEMC include Jon Appleton, Bulent Arel, Luciano Berio, Walter [Wendy] Carlos, Mario Davidovsky, Alfred del Monaco, Charles Dodge, Jacob Druckman, Halim El-Dabh, Paul Lansky, Alcides Lanza, Ilhan Mimaroglu, Pauline Oliveros, Ramon Sender, Alice Shields, Pril Smiley, Harvey Sollberger, Diane Thome, Michiko

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Rolf Haglund

Clouds, 1976 Nästan [Almost], 1977 Plus, 1977 For Jon I: Fragments of a Time to Come, 1977, collab. Johnson, A. Mellnäs, J.W. Morthenson, L. Nilson; Stockholm Fireworks and Water Music 1978: a City Event, 1978 Epilogue: rapsodie de la seconde récolte, 1979 A Soundscape of Europe (Stockholm), 1979 For Jon III: they extricated their extremities, plus: for John, 1982 Mémoires du temps d’avant la destruction, 1982 For Jon II: Retrospective Episodes, 3 parts, 1983, rev. 1989 On Speaking

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Hugh Davies

amounts of electrical current to power the sound-generating systems in Alvin Lucier's Solar Sounder installation and in work by Peter Appleton, Liz Phillips and James Seawright, and sensors such as photoelectric cells that respond to changes in the level of light they receive, whether caused by the varying intensity of daylight or by shadows cast by passing people, have been used to supply variable resistance in other works by Appleton, Phillips and Seawright, as well as by Dale Amundson, Eastley, Howard Jones and Lunetta (for descriptions of other similar environmental

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John Strawn and Alan Shockley

constructed by Systems Concepts, and delivered to Stanford University in 1977 . Another is Dean Wallraff’s DMX-1000, which was used, for example, at Dexter Morrill’s studio at Colgate University. This development spurred the design of commercial digital keyboard synthesizers. Jon Appleton at Dartmouth College was among the first to use these devices for composition (some of his works, using an early forerunner of the commercial instruments, are recorded on The Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer , 1976 ). The earliest commercial digital synthesizers, such as the Fairlight

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Hugh Davies

electromagnetically in its successor, the Rhodes electric piano. Electromagnetic pickups are used to amplify a variety of vibrating materials in instruments built by Mario Bertoncini, Hugh Davies, members of the ensemble Sonde, Max Eastley, Dieter Trüstedt, Alvin Lucier, and Peter Appleton, and specified in works by John Cage. Keyed percussion has also been amplified: in 1931 the bass notes of a five-octave marimba, incorporating a two-octave vibraphone, were amplified, and in the 1930s electric glockenspiels and vibraphones were developed; in the 1960s a special

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Jack Hylton. The club closed about 1935 and the premises later became a cinema. Another club of the same name operated on Regent Street around the turn of the decade; among the musicians it engaged were the reed player and bandleader Teddy Joyce and Al Jennings, in whose band Joe Appleton was a sideman. Leicester Square Jazz Club. Above Café de l’Europe, Leicester Square. It operated on Monday nights in 1947–8 in premises rented from the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children and was the first jazz club in London to offer traditional jazz