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Henry Stobart

and ‘female’ erkes (without drums) to perform melodies, which are sometimes pentatonic. Exceptionally, the smaller ‘female’ size is played by a woman. Secondly, the erke exists as a side-blown trumpet, 2 to 6 metres long, made of cane, with a bell made from the dried skin of a cow's tail, animal horn or metal. It plays impressive fanfare-like figures, rarely moving outside a four-note compass (the major triad and its lower dominant). Performance is usually confined to the dry winter months as its sound is sometimes said to attract frosts. The erke or corneta


Corneta (ii) A term for the Argentine form of the Erke .


John M. Schechter

At the wider end a cow horn is attached with plant fibres or leather as a resonator. Metal instruments, made from gas- or water-pipes, are known among the Mapuche of Lanalhue, Chile. The trutruka is similar in construction to the Argentine Erke , but has a diagonal cut at the tip which serves as a mouthpiece, whereas the erke is side-blown or uses a single reed. It is played, together with other instruments, at the elüwún funeral rite for a shaman, in the ngillatún ceremony when Araucanians meet to supplicate their gods for protection against calamities and



Beryl Kenyon de Pascual and John M. Schechter

clairon it is sometimes applied loosely to the bugle ( corneta ). The instrument is used particularly in cavalry formations to embellish the calls of the trompeta . (2) A valveless trumpet of Oaxaca, Mexico. (3) A side-blown, straight trumpet up to 2 metres long, similar to the Erke , used in Peru, Ecuador and Chile. The Peruvian instrument has a body made of a single piece of bamboo and a calabash or metal bell. Played in open spaces, it is used to animate religious festivals and communal labour (particularly wheat-threshing in Cajamarca). In Chile it joins with


Lada Brashovanova

[Funerary and other lamentations in Bulgaria] (Sofia, 1988) [incl. Russ. and Eng. summaries] ‘The Folk Music of the Ashkenazi Jews’, Godishnik na evreite ot Balgariya , no.25 (1991), 197–212; see also ibid., no.26 (1992), 211–43 ‘Instrumentalna muzika uz pogreb u naseljima oko reke Dunav’ [Instrumental music at funeral rites in settlements along the Danube], Značenje djelatnosti Vinka Žganca: Čakovec 1990 [Narodna umjetnost , 3 (1991)], 269–82 [with Eng. summary] Balkarska narodna muzika [Bulgarian folk music] (Sofia, 1970; Ger. trans., 1977) Balgarskata


Leon Stefanija

fl, hpd, 1996 Vocal works without dates published in 1990 Mixed chorus Vedra barva, 1980 Alegorija; Cantus magicus; Drim, drim, drimala; Istrska suita; Iz Trsta rivala je mašina; Moja ljubezen je položila; Oponašanje zvonov; Pa da bi znal; Turist; Vsi potoki, vse reke; On the String of Mercury (cant.), T, Bar, SATB, 1990 Pesmi od ljubezni in kafeta, 1995 Male chorus Ta zemlja je naša, 1989 Božanski ples; … in spomin marčeve lune; … in ecce homo; Jadra žalosti; Kadar te ni; Na livadi; Počakaj luč; Prva pomlad; Tehtanje duš; Ecce memoria,


Alla Vladimirovna Grigor′yeva

stikhotvoreniya (S. Gorodetsky), B/Bar, pf, 1973 5 stikhotvoreniya (F. Tyutchev), 1v, pf, 1985 2 stikhotvoreniya (Lermontov), 1v, pf, 1988 Chamber and solo instrumental Poėma, vn, 1930 Pf Qnt, 1938 Sonata, tpt, pf, 1951 Sonata, vn, 1952 Qnt, hp, str qt, 1953 Vecher na Moskve-reke [An Evening on the Moscow River], hp, 1953 Concert Aria, 1961 [3 versions: 1, vc; 2, vc, hp; 3, vc, pf] 3 p′yesï [3 Pieces], vc, 1961 Qt, 2 hp, 2 fl, 1963 Klassicheskoye skertso [Classical Scherzo], sonata, bn, pf, 1969 Sonata, vc, pf, 1972 Ėpitafii nad grobiyu F.M. Dostoyevskogo


Gerard Béhague and Irma Ruiz

Ruiz. Pub. in C. Vega: Las canciones folklóricas de la Argentina (Buenos Aires, 1965 ) Irma Ruiz Tritonic music of different origin is found further north, in pieces for corneta or caña ( erke in Peru), a pre-Hispanic transverse trumpet, used on religious occasions. It is also found in some pieces for Erke or erkencho , a post-Hispanic clarinet, played primarily during Carnival celebrations, the player accompanying himself with the caja . Traces of the pentatonic system of the Incas survive in the Huayno dance played by



Juan Orrego-Salas and María Ester Grebe

straight, tubular trumpet with a mouthpiece, played laterally. Its cane tube measures between 1·3 and 1·5 metres in length and it is decorated with multicoloured pieces of wool. It plays tritonic arpeggios, which accompany vocal music, and it shares some characteristics with the Argentine erke and the Mapuche trutuka . The putu is a natural, tubular vertical or lateral trumpet, curved, with or without mouthpiece. Decorated with a cow’s horn, ornamented with balls of multicoloured wool, it emits sustained notes, and is related to the Argentine erkencho , the altiplano


Dorothea Redepenning

(Pushkin), 1936: Sosnï [Pine Trees], Pumyanoy zareyu [With a Blush], V tvoyu svetlitsu [In your Brightness] 78bis Three Songs from Aleksandr Nevskiy (Lugovsky), 1939: Vstavayte, lyudi russkiye [Arise, Men of Russia], Otzovitesya, yasnï sokolï [Mark, ye Bright Falcons], A i bïlo delo na Neve-reke [And it happened on the Neva River] 79 Seven Songs, 1939: Pesnya o rodine [Song about the Fatherland], Stakhanovka, Nad polyarnïm morem [On the Polar Seas], Provodï [Send-Off], Smelo vperyod [Bravely Forward], Shyol stanitseyu Kazak [Through the Village Came a Cossack], Hey, po doroge


Bruno Nettl, Victoria Lindsay Levine and Elaine Keillor

§II, 1(i): Traditional music: Local traditions: Amerindian Chunchus-collas Dvořák, Antonín, §6: The American period, 1892–5 Ethnomusicology, §II, 4(i): History to 1945: North America French Guiana, §1: Amerindians Honduras, §II, 1: Traditional and popular musics: Amerindians Erke Lament, §5: The Americas MacDowell, Edward, §3: Orchestral music Maya music Mexico, §II, 3: Traditional music: Indigenous forms Paraguay, §2(i): Traditional and popular music: Indigenous music Suriname, §1: Amerindians Trinidad and Tobago, §1: Amerindian heritage USA, §II, 4:


Sydney Robinson Charles, George R. Hill, Norris L. Stephens and Julie Woodward

Documents, iii ( 1939 , 2/ 1945 / R ) —— Complete Works , ed. L. Schrade, PMFC, iv ( 1958 / R ) Lanier, Nicholas (ii): The Complete Works , ed. G.J. Callon, Boethius Editions, xi ( 1994 ) Lanner, J.: Werke , ed. E. Kremser (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1889–91 / R 1973 as Sämtliche Erke für Klavier ), 8 vols. La Rue, P. de: Opera omnia/Collected Works , ed. N.S. Davison, J.E. Krieder and T.H. Keahey, CMM, xcvii ( 1989 –), 12 vols. planned Lassus, O. de: Sämtliche Werke , ed. F.X. Haberl and A. Sandberger (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1894–1926 / R , rev. 2/