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Giovanni Carli Ballola and Roberta Montemorra Marvin

Orlandi [ Orland , Orlando ], Ferdinando ( b Parma , Oct 7, 1774 ; d Parma , Jan 5, 1848 ). Italian composer . He learnt the first elements of music from Gaspare Rugarli, organist at Colorno, a small town near Parma. He continued his studies at Parma under Gaspare Ghiretti and Paer, and later in Naples at the Conservatorio di S Maria della Pietà dei Turchini in 1793–9 under Sala and Tritto. In 1800 he was summoned back to Parma to a post in the ducal chapel, and he produced his first opera, La pupilla scozzese , at the Teatro Ducale. Between


Andrea Lanza

Benincori, Angelo Maria ( b Brescia , March 28, 1779 ; d Belleville, nr Paris , Dec 30, 1821 ). Italian composer and violinist . Son of a secretary of the Duke of Parma, he studied the violin in that city with the virtuoso Alessandro Rolla and counterpoint with Ghiretti, performing at court when he was seven. After his father's death he completed his musical education with financial help from the duke, probably taking lessons with Cimarosa. He may have written some church music at this time, but none appears to have survived. There followed a disastrous



Gian Paolo Minardi

also performances of opere buffe by Paisiello to librettos by Goldoni ( Le virtuose ridicole , Il negligente and I bagni d’Abano ), which marked the beginning of the composer’s fame. Others working at the ducal court during the 18th century were Alessandro Besozzi (ii), Gaspare Ghiretti, Giuseppe Colla, G.F. Fortunati and G.S. Mangot (Rameau’s brother-in-law). In 1792 , towards the end of the Bourbon period, Duke Ferdinand named Ferdinando Paer honorary maestro di cappella . Although he stayed only a few years in his native city before embarking on his illustrious


Edward Neill

travelling expenses and tuition fees. Rolla was so impressed with the boy's outstanding technique and skill in sight-reading that he told him he could teach him nothing and recommended him to study composition with Ferdinando Paer. In Parma Paganini found also another teacher, Gaspare Ghiretti, who no doubt contributed to the completion of his musical education. When Paganini returned to Genoa at the end of 1796 he was already an accomplished composer with an excellent command of music theory, orchestration and counterpoint. As he later told his biographer (Julius Schottky)