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Article

James W. McKinnon

Muristus [ Mūrisṭus, Mīrisṭus, Mūrṭus ] Inventor of organ-like instruments. His name appears only in medieval Arabic sources, and he has been inconclusively identified with various Greek technical writers, notably with Ctesibius (by Farmer). Two devices were attributed to him: one had 12 pipes, their valves operated in an unspecified fashion and supplied with wind by the lung power of four men; the other was a primitive quasi-siren, with a hydraulic wind apparatus similar to that of the hydraulis, and therefore looked upon by some as its forerunner.

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

supported by the existence of an Alexandrian treatise, surviving only in Arabic translation; this describes and illustrates a hydraulic musical device of a type much earlier than that described by Vitruvius or by Hero of Alexandria. His attempt, however, to identify the author, a certain Muristus (whose name exists in several variant forms), with Ctesibius is highly conjectural and involves difficulties. No description of the hydraulis by Ctesibius himself has survived. According to reasonable modern conjecture, a lever-actuated piston forced air into a chamber partially

Article

Ellen Hickmann

invention and the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus confirms that it was played in the circus in the 3rd century ce (Fleischhauer, 1964 ; Wille, 1967 ). In the 8th and 9th centuries Arab scholars translated the writings of classical antiquity, especially those of the Greeks. Muristus gives an account of the organ accompanied by a drawing showing its construction (Farmer, 1931 ), but we have no archaeological evidence indicating whether it still existed. The depiction in the 9th-century Utrecht Psalter may not be organologically accurate. Another instrument known

Article

Robert Anderson, Arturo Chamorro, Ellen Hickmann, Anne Kilmer, Gerhard Kubik, Thomas Turino, Vincent Megaw and Alan R. Thrasher

283–246 bce) with the invention of the hydraulis and the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus confirms that it was played in the circus in the 3rd century ce. In the 8th and 9th centuries Arab scholars translated the writings of Classical antiquity, especially those of the Greeks. Muristus gives an account of the organ accompanied by a drawing showing its construction, but no archaeological evidence indicates whether it still existed. The depiction in the 9th-century Utrecht Psalter might not be organologically accurate. A good example of the way in which archaeology

Article

Organ  

Barbara Owen, Peter Williams and Stephen Bicknell

seen one. A famous source, the Epistle to (or from) Muristus, describes two organs, one of which is a kind of siren or signal-organ; the sources containing Muristus's writings are also interesting in that two of them (in Beirut and in the British Library) show how a diagrammatic plan can become, under the scribe's hand, an unintelligible pattern of abstract design. Nothing is known of Muristus, and the graphic similarity of his name in Arabic to Qatasibiyus (Ctesibius) was pointed out by Farmer (D(i) 1931 ); Muristus appears to have been a Greek (or Byzantine), and