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Francesco Bussi

Member of Andreoli family

(b Mirandola, Jan 9, 1862; d Modena, April 26, 1932). Italian pianist, violinist, conductor and composer, son of Evangelista Andreoli (i). He received his first musical instruction from his father, and from 1876 studied the organ with Polibio Fumagalli, the violin with G. Rampazzini and composition with Bazzini at the Milan Conservatory. He taught harmony, counterpoint and (from 1900) the piano at the conservatory, where his pupils included Victor De Sabata and Franco Vittadini. From 1878 to 1886 he took an active part in the Società dei Concerti Sinfonici Popolari and directed the concerts of the Società del Quartetto; he was a member of the Campanari Quartet for three years. His works include a Fantasia sinfonica and two overtures for orchestra, a requiem, a string quartet, short piano pieces, and songs. He also published Manuale d’armonia (with Edgardo Codazzi, Milan, 1898) and prepared editions of piano music of Beethoven, Chopin, Heller, Mendelssohn, Moscheles, Raff and Weber....


Adriano Mazzoletti

(b Genoa, Italy, May 15, 1902; d Sanremo, Italy, 1994). Italian violinist, pianist, bandleader, arranger, and composer. In Genoa he studied violin and composition and played banjo for a brief period in an orchestra. He was the leader and an arranger for the group Blue Star (to 1931...


Robert Layton

revised by Daniel M. Grimley

Member of Berwald family

(b Stockholm, Dec 4, 1787; d Stockholm, Aug 26, 1861). Swedish violinist, composer, and conductor, son of Georg Johann Abraham Berwald. As a violin prodigy (his début was in 1793) he made a great impression on tours with his father of Finland, Germany, Austria, and Russia (1795–1803), and also by his youthful compositions; his three quartets op.2, written before he was 13, were dedicated to Tsar Aleksandr I. When the family settled in St Petersburg he continued a brilliant career, succeeding his teacher Rode as soloist of the imperial orchestra (1808–12). After his return to Sweden he became a member of the court orchestra (1814), and in 1823 he succeeded J.B.E. Dupuy as Kapellmeister, a position he held until his retirement in 1849. From 1822 to 1847 he also conducted the concerts of the Harmonic Society. His three daughters, notably Julia [Julie] Mathilda Berwald (...


Sergio Martinotti

revised by Christopher Fifield

Member of Bott family

(b Kassel, March 9, 1826; d New York, April 28, 1895). German violinist, pianist, conductor and composer, son of Anton Bott. He received his first music lessons from his father, then (1840–42) studied the violin and composition with Spohr and theory with Moritz Hauptmann. His first public performance as a violinist and pianist at the age of ten was followed by four tours between 1838 and 1846. At 15, through Spohr’s influence, he received (for four years) the first stipend given by the Frankfurt Mozartstiftung. In 1846 he joined the orchestra of the Kassel Kapelle, becoming leader in 1849 and second Kapellmeister to Spohr in 1852. He left Kassel in summer 1856, and in autumn 1857 became Kapellmeister at Meiningen. He greatly improved the orchestra, which had both Spohr and Liszt as occasional guest conductors, and in 1861 organized the first music festival there. In ...


R. Allen Lott

revised by Scott Alan Southard

(b Parma, Italy, Sept 1, 1860; d Chicago, IL, Dec 19, 1919). Italian conductor, opera manager, and violinist. After violin study in Parma, he began to conduct there in 1880. Campanini was assistant conductor with the Metropolitan Opera in its inaugural season (1883–4), often leading his brother, tenor Italo. Returning to Europe, Campanini conducted extensively in Italy; successes there led to engagements in Spain and South America. In 1887 Campanini returned to the United States and conducted the American premiere of Verdi’s Otello (Academy of Music, New York, 16 April 1888). His wife Eva, sister of Luisa Tetrazzini, sang Desdemona. Returning once again to Europe, he conducted at Covent Garden, London, and led the premieres of Cilea’s Adriana Lecouvreur (1902) and Puccini’s Madama Butterfly (1904) at La Scala, Milan. Campanini was principal conductor of Oscar Hammerstein’s Manhattan Opera Company during its first three seasons (...


Nicholas Tochka

(b Tirana, Albania, Dec 8, 1945). Albanian conductor and violinist. The son of vocalist Mihal Ciko and nephew of composer Nikolla Zoraqi, he was a leading member of the first generation of musicians to be trained by socialist-era Albania’s new music institutions. A virtuoso violinist, he graduated from the State Conservatory in 1967 and immediately assumed teaching duties and an appointment as concertmaster to the Theatre of Opera and Ballet’s Orchestra. Ciko was named artistic director of the same institution in 1970. Between 1973 and 1974, a number of musicians and artists came under attack for exhibiting so-called politically subversive attitudes. Caught up in this purge, Ciko was reassigned to Patos, a large village, where he remained effectively exiled until his rehabilitation a decade later. First reappointed to the faculty at the Arts Lyceum ‘Jordan Misja’ he then organized a successful string ensemble, Tirana’s Young Virtuosi, which toured and recorded in the country and abroad. Ciko was appointed director of the Radio-Television Orchestra in ...


John Moran

revised by Ned Kellenberger

(b Vienna, 17 Nov 1780; d Vienna, 3 Nov 1842). Austrian violinist, conductor, and composer. He began to play the violin at the age of four with his father, who recognized his unusual musical gifts. At the age of five he began giving private concerts. At the age of seven the boy prodigy was enlisted in lessons under Kurzweil, concertmaster for Prince Grassalkovich. Shortly thereafter Clement gave his first public concert (11 April 1788). He spent two years in England (1790–92) giving concerts, appearing with Haydn, Salomon, and the young Bridgetower. Clement took a journal with him on his travels, consisting mostly of entries by people he met along the way, many of them illustrious, including entries by Haydn and Beethoven from 1791 and 1794 respectively. During this time Clement studied with the eminent violinist Giovanni Giornovichi, who mentored the young violinist. Back in Vienna in ...


Emmanuel Resche

(b Aurillac, June 18, 1784; d Tours, February 3, 1846). French conductor, composer, and violinist. He studied the violin with his uncle Jean Crémont in Limoges, and maybe with Pierre Baillot. He left France around 1800 and was presumably a student of Beethoven, as he wrote himself later. At the age of 19, he became the director, concertmaster, and conductor of the Imperial Theatre in Moscow. He left Russia in 1812, when the Great Fire destroyed the theatre and his music. He made a successful début in Paris in 1815 playing a Violin Concerto he had composed in Moscow, and then reached some important positions: principal conductor at the Odéon from 1824 to 1828, and then at the Opéra Comique. He imposed new dispositions and rigour in his orchestras, with a favourable outcome. He collaborated with Rossini, Meyerbeer, Weber, and other composers to rearrange their opéras comiques for the French scene. He also published a Clarinet Concerto, a Quartet, and string duos and trios, and composed ...


Thomas Goldsmith

(b Lexington, KY, Aug 27, 1937; d Nicholasville, KY, Dec 24, 2021). American bluegrass banjoist and bandleader. Of the inspired five-string banjoists who built on Earl Scruggs’ genre-defining breakthroughs of the late 1940s and early 1950s, few had the individualistic talent and impact of J.D. Crowe. Also influenced by rhythm and blues and early rock and roll, Crowe first stood out as a banjoist and baritone singer with Jimmy Martin and the Sunny Mountain Boys (1956–62). He started the Kentucky Mountain Boys in Lexington along with Doyle Lawson and Red Allen in the mid-1960s. In 1972 he formed the New South with several budding stars including Ricky Skaggs, Tony Rice, and Jerry Douglas, heavily influencing the burgeoning New grass revival with folk-pop material and adventurous instrumental approaches. Crowe turned his focus back to tradition in 1980 as a co-founder with Rice of the Bluegrass Album Band, which performed repertoire associated with Bill Monroe and Ralph Stanley with an ever-changing lineup featuring such leading lights as Rice, Douglas, Lawson, Todd Phillips, Vassar Clements, and Bobby Hicks. Crowe announced his retirement in ...


Barry Kernfeld

[Edward Lozano]

(b San Francisco, Sept 6, 1925; d Sonoma, CA, Nov 22, 2019). American guitarist and leader. He learned piano, then guitar from the age of eight, and first played professionally when he was 15. At the time of his draft registration in September 1943 he was working at Chez Paree in San Francisco. He subsequently served in the navy. In 1948, with his brothers, the pianist Manny (Manuel) Duran and the double bass player Carlos Duran, he formed a trio modeled after that of Nat “King” Cole; it disbanded in 1952. From the early 1950s he performed in San Francisco with Charlie Parker and Chet Baker (both c1953), Flip Phillips, Red Norvo (in whose group he deputized for two weeks for Jimmy Raney), George Shearing (touring nationally through 1954), and other bop and swing musicians; he spent two weeks with Stan Getz’s group in Vancouver in ...


Stephen Montague

revised by Kelly Hiser

(Arthur )

(b Kankakee, IL, March 22, 1942; d San Rafael, CA, Sept 25, 1996). American composer, trombonist, conductor, and double bassist. He attended the University of Illinois, where he studied trombone with Robert Gray and composition with Kenneth Gaburo, herbert Brün , and salvatore Martirano (BM in performance 1965). He studied jazz improvisation with lee Konitz and electronic music with richard b. Hervig at the University of Iowa (1970–71). He was a member of the Harry Partch Ensemble (1961–2) and the Illinois Contemporary Chamber Players (1963–6) and was an associate artist at the University of Iowa Center for New Music and New Performing Arts (1969–74). From 1974 to 1984 English lived in Europe, where he performed widely as a soloist and with jazz and new music ensembles, at festivals, and on radio. He collaborated with his wife Candace Natvig, a singer and violinist; in ...


Erik Wiedemann


(b Copenhagen, Jan 28, 1916; d Zurich, Nov 28, 2014). Danish double bass player and bandleader. He began his career as a guitarist in Svend Asmussen’s group (1933–4), then played double bass with Asmussen (1935–7) and others. From 1940 to 1948 he led and played trombone in his own bands, for which he composed much of the repertory; these groups made several recordings, including Rain (1942, Odeon D814). Foss also recorded in a duo with Børge Roger Henrichsen in 1942 (Prelude in C, HMV DX6877). Later he performed with Peter Rasmussen (1949–51), and in 1957 he moved to Switzerland, where he continued to work part-time until at least 1999, and to teach guitar and bass playing until, in his 90s, he entered a nursing home. (E. Wiedemann: Jazz i Danmark i tyverne, trediverne og fyrrerne: en musikkulturel undersøgelse [Jazz in Denmark in the twenties, thirties, and forties: a study of musical culture] (Copenhagen, ...


Anne Dhu McLucas

(b ?England, 1770; d Philadelphia, PA, Sept 16, 1826). American violinist, conductor, music teacher, and composer. He was active in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and New York from 1793 to 1826. He is said to have played at the Handel Commemoration in Westminster Abbey in 1784 and was advertised in Philadelphia as “the celebrated violinist from London.” In 1793 he was brought over from England by Thomas Wignell and Alexander Reinagle to lead the orchestra at the Chestnut Street Theater, which they founded and operated. He performed frequently in concerts with Benjamin Carr, Rayner Taylor, and Reinagle, sometimes appearing as “leader of the band,” while Reinagle was listed as “conductor”; his repertory included concertos and duets, which he usually performed with the cellist Menel. In 1814, although still living in Philadelphia, Gillingham appeared at Vauxhall Gardens in New York, and in 1816 he conducted a performance of Messiah with the New York Handel and Haydn Society. By ...


Adriano Mazzoletti

[Gorni, Kramer]

(b Rivarolo Mantovano, Mantova, Italy, July 22, 1913; d Milan, Oct 26, 1995). Italian accordionist, double bass player, and bandleader. He studied accordion with his father, a professional folk musician, and double bass at the A. Boito Conservatory in Parma. For his entire professional career, he inverted his birth name, Kramer Gorni, instead working as Gorni Kramer. Having played double bass in symphony orchestras and accordion in dance groups, from 1934 he led a jazz-oriented quintet that at first included Romero Alvaro; it made several recordings, including After you’ve gone (1938, Fonit 7890) and Tiger Rag (1940, Fonit 8357). Gorni toured the UK with the accordionist Wolmer Beltrami (1948) and played double bass with Armando Trovajoli and Gil Cuppini at the Paris Jazz Fair (1949), the first international jazz festival to be held in Paris. In 1952 he ended his career in jazz to write show music and lead a television orchestra....


Howard Rye

(George W.)

(b nr Osceola, KY, March 10, 1893; d Proviso, IL, Oct 22, 1941). American violinist, alto saxophonist, and bandleader. His brothers Curtis, Otis, and Sidney played banjo, and the brothers worked together around Glasgow until 1912, when they moved to Louisville, Kentucky. Hayes joined Earl McDonald’s Louisville Jug Band in early 1914 and began to act as a booker for the Louisville jug-band players. He left McDonald in 1920 and formed his own group. Up to 1927, when they quarreled, he and McDonald sometimes merged their bands, notably for the 1926 Dixieland Jug Blowers recordings. His own Louisville Stompers, which had Hense Grundy on trombone and Cal Smith on guitar, played a beguiling mix of African-American string-band music and conventional jazz. In 1929 the band recorded with Earl Hines, including Dance Hall Shuffle/Hey! I am Blue (1929, Vic. 38557). Hayes returned to jug-band instrumentation in 1931 and continued to work in this format until his death, but did not record after ...


Stephen D. Winick

(b New York, NY, July 13, 1965). American traditional Irish fiddler, banjo player, and bandleader. Eileen Ivers was raised in the Bronx by Irish parents. She took up the fiddle at age nine, taking lessons with Irish fiddler Martin Mulvihill. She began competing in the All-Ireland championships as a teen, and ultimately won 35 championships, including nine solo fiddle titles and a tenth on tenor banjo, making her the most successful American-born competitor in the All-Ireland’s history.

During the 1980s, Ivers was a founding member of Cherish the Ladies, played with Mick Moloney’s ensemble The Green Fields of America, and toured and recorded in an influential duo with accordionist John Whelan. In 1990, she was invited to record and tour with the pop duo Hall & Oates, which she did for over a year. She then returned to New York, where she immersed herself in the multicultural music scene. In ...


Stanislav Tuksar

(b Milan, Italy, Jan 21, 1918; d Milan, May 1, 1989). Italian cellist, conductor, and pedagogue. He was trained at the Milan Conservatory (1928–34) and under Diran Alexanian and Pablo Casals at the École normale de musique in Paris (1934–7). After starting his career as a soloist in Paris, London, and Amsterdam he won second prize at the international competition in Geneva. He took refuge from Italian Fascism and World War II by accepting a cello teaching post at the Zagreb Academy of Music in 1939, occupying it until 1955 in collaboration with Rudolf Matz. Janigro stayed in Zagreb until 1965, when he moved back to Milan. At first, besides teaching, he was active in Zagreb as a soloist and chamber musician, collaborating with the then-leading Croatian performers Božidar Kunc, Ivo Maček, and Stjepan Šulek, under conductors Krešimir Baranović, Lovro von Matačić, Friedrich Zaun, and others. The Maček-Šulek-Janigro Piano Trio has remained one of the best Croatian chamber ensembles of the 20th century....


Mark C. Gridley

revised by Charles Garrett

(b Chicago, IL, March 11, 1932; d New York, NY, Feb 24, 2007). American jazz violinist, composer, and bandleader. He was influenced by the violinists Jascha Heifetz, Eddie South, and Bruce Hayden, as well as the saxophonists Charlie Parker, Ornette Coleman, and John Coltrane. From 1965 to 1969 he played in Chicago with the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians and the Creative Construction Company, becoming the leading violinist in the free jazz style. He then helped to organize the Revolutionary Ensemble (1971) and led his own trio (1977–9) and quintet (1982–3). In addition to collaborating with such musicians as Cecil Taylor, Joseph Jarman, and Myra Melford, he also contributed to the new music scene by serving on the board of directors of the Composer’s Forum. In his later career, he turned to creating theatrical productions, including the operas Mother of Three Sons...


Fatima Hadžić

(b Sarajevo, Bosnia, Dec 1, 1892; d Sarajevo, Oct 8, 1968). Bosnian conductor, cellist, music educator, and composer. He attended the private school of music known as Glasbena škola F. Matějovský in Sarajevo. He graduated in cello from the Royal Academy of Music in Zagreb in the class of Umberto Fabbri (1931). He worked as a teacher of cello, double-bass, and music theory in the District School of Music in Sarajevo (1923–41). Although he was not a formally trained conductor, he successfully led the orchestra of the National Theatre in Sarajevo (1925–41, with interruptions) and the Sarajevo Philharmonic (1927–36); and the choirs of the amateur singing societies the Workers Singing Society ‘Proleter’ (1927–9) and the Jewish Singing Society ‘Lira’ (1931–6). After World War II, he worked as an editor in the transcription of folk music, a conductor of a folk orchestra, and a music producer at the Radio-Television Sarajevo, where his work was of great importance in educating young Bosnian singers about the style of Bosnian folk song called ...


J. Bradford Robinson

(b Baltimore, MD, Dec 31, 1908; d Hollywood, CA, June 14, 1952). American jazz double bass player and bandleader. Originally a trombonist, he played tuba and double bass with Fletcher Henderson (1930–34, 1935–6) and Chick Webb (1934–5), attracting attention with his strong pulse and walking bass lines. In 1937 he established his own small group at the Onyx Club, New York, with the trumpeter Frankie Newton and the alto saxophonist Pete Brown. The following year the band’s personnel stabilized into a sextet: Charlie Shavers (trumpet), Russell Procope (alto saxophone), Buster Bailey (clarinet), Billy Kyle (piano), O’Neill Spencer (drums), and Kirby, with the frequent addition of the singer Maxine Sullivan (Kirby’s wife). From 1938 to 1942 this group was perhaps the leading small jazz ensemble in the swing style and gained a nationwide from its many recordings and network radio broadcasts. The group concentrated on a chamber jazz style with intricate arrangements (many of them by Shavers), a subdued dynamic level, light swing, and extremely precise ensemble playing. In this way they presaged many cool jazz groups of the late 1940s and early 1950s, particularly those of Lennie Tristano. From ...