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(b Pisky, near Khar′kiv, 8/Sept 20, 1876; d Paris, Jan 8, 1945). Ukrainian composer and pianist. Aged ten he was sent, along with his brother Yakiv (later known as the composer Stepovy), to sing in the choir of the Imperial Chapel in St Petersburg. It was during his time there (1886–95) that he began to compose under the influence of his teachers Balakirev and Lyapunov. He finished studies with Rimsky-Korsakov and Lyadov at the St Petersburg Conservatory in 1901, the year in which the latter conducted the first performance of the Lyric Poem, op.20. Akimenko then became the director of a music school in Tbilisi (1901–03). He performed widely as a pianist, particularly in France and Switzerland, and lived for a while in Paris (1903–06) before returning to Khar′kiv. In 1914 he was invited to teach composition and theory at the St Petersburg Conservatory, a post he held until ...


(b Bologoye, 22 July/Aug 4, 1905; d Moscow, June 17, 1994). Russian composer and conductor, son of Aleksandr Vasil′yevich Aleksandrov. He studied at the Moscow Conservatory with Glier, graduating in 1929, and worked as a music director in Moscow clubs (1923–9), music director of the Red Army Theatre (1930–37), lecturer at the Moscow Conservatory (1933–41) and leader of the Soviet Radio Song Ensemble (1942–7). From 1937 to 1946 he was deputy director of the Aleksandrov Red Army Song and Dance Ensemble, which was founded by his father and, after the latter's death, came under his direction. He received the State Prize (1950) and the title People's Artist of the USSR (1958). In Dva p′yesï (‘Two Pieces’) op.1 (1928) for piano he developed a compositional system synthesizing the principle of the 12-note series (with inversions and permutations) with a harmonic set technique and mirror symmetry. Later works, such as the well-known musical comedy ...


Viorel Cosma

revised by Ruxandra Arzoiu

(b Bucharest, 2/Aug 14, 1893; d Bucharest, Feb 18, 1959). Romanian composer, pianist, conductor, teacher, music critic, and director of music programmes. A leading figure of the first half of the 20th century, he laid the foundation of the Romanian school in music, concert life, and musical journalism. He studied with A. Castaldi, D. Dinicu, D.G. Kiriac, and E. Saegiu at the Bucharest Conservatory (1903–11), completing his education with two periods of study in Paris (1913–14, 1923–4), where he studied with d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum and with Paul Vidal at the Conservatoire. A remarkable accompanist, he worked with Enescu, Thibaud, Mainardi, Moodie, and others during the period 1919–45. As a conductor he always achieved a soberly balanced performance; he conducted more than 1500 performances at the Romanian Opera in Bucharest (1921–59), where he specialized in the French repertory (Bizet, Massenet, and Gounod). In his capacities as conductor of the Romanian Philharmonic Society, and as conductor and artistic manager of the Romanian RSO, he did much to encourage Romanian composers. He was also active as a music critic for Romanian and French reviews. Much of his compositional work was done during his youth, including ...


Guy Bourligueux

(b Astigarraga, Guipúzcoa, 1893; d Seville, Dec 7, 1970). Spanish composer and organist. He studied with Donostia and others in San Sebastián, with Otaño at the Comillas Seminary, and in Paris with Eugène Cools. In 1919 he was appointed maestro de capilla at Orense Cathedral and then organist at Seville Cathedral, where he became ...


August Corbet

revised by Corneel Mertens and Diana von Volborth-Danys

(b Antwerp, Sept 12, 1876; d Antwerp, Oct 5, 1954). Belgian composer and conductor. He studied in Antwerp at the Flemish Music School (later called the Royal Flemish Conservatory) under Peter Benoit and Jan Blockx, and conducting under Eduard Keurvels. In 1903 he became professor at the Conservatory, and was director of that institution from 1934 to 1941, when he retired. He was also active as an orchestral and operatic conductor, and was a member of the Académie Royale de Belgique.

Alpaerts was one of the outstanding personalities in Flemish musical life, both as conductor and composer; he was also a great teacher and an admirable organizer. As a composer he was, like Paul Gilson and August de Boeck, a typical Flemish representative of the Impressionist school. However, his Impressionism came closer to Richard Strauss and Respighi than to Debussy. An example of this tendency is the symphonic poem ...


Ferenc Bónis

(b Pest, Oct 6, 1825; d Budapest, Aug 31, 1901). Hungarian musical administrator, composer and teacher. The fourth son of the composer and theatre director András Bartay, he read law and also studied the piano and music theory with his brother András (b ?1822; d St Petersburg, 1 July 1846). He worked in the independent Hungarian Ministry of Transport (1848–9) but was forced to earn a living as a piano teacher after the defeat of the Hungarian struggle for independence. About 1850 he completed his musical studies on his own, and a few years later he was a sought-after teacher and a popular composer of piano music. From the 1860s, Bartay played an increasingly important role in Hungarian musical life. He set up an organization to aid musicians living in Hungary (1863), and was its president until his death. As a qualified lawyer, he was responsible for drawing up and presenting to the Hungarian parliament a plan for the organization of the new state music academy (...


Kara Gardner

(b Detroit, March 28, 1866; d Chicago, Dec 6, 1945). American violinist, conductor, musical director, teacher, and composer. Bendix was born to Jewish parents who had emigrated from Germany. His father William was a music teacher. Bendix began formal study at the Cincinnati College of Music where, at the age of twelve, he performed with the college orchestra, directed by Theodore Thomas. This began a long association between the two men, leading to Bendix’s appointment as first violinist and concertmaster of the Theodore Thomas Orchestra in 1886. In August 1893 Thomas resigned his position as music director of the Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition following a series of unsuccessful concerts. Bendix took Thomas’s place as conductor of the Exposition orchestra. This created tension between the two men, and Bendix left the Thomas orchestra in 1896. He went on to serve as conductor at the Manhattan Opera House and to conduct orchestras for world fairs in St. Louis (...


Franz Gehring

revised by John Warrack and Rudolf Walter

(b Breslau, May 16, 1780; d Breslau, May 9, 1827). German organist, teacher, composer and musical organizer. He studied music with his father, Johann Georg Berner (1738–1810), organist at St Elisabeth, Breslau, becoming his assistant at 13 and succeeding him in 1810. He also learnt many other instruments, and at the age of 16 became clarinettist in the city theatre orchestra; he also studied composition with Franz Gehirne. Around 1798 he heard the organist David Traugott Nicolai, whose father had been a pupil of Bach, and was so impressed that he abandoned ‘the galant style of organ playing’ for that of Bach. When Weber was appointed Kapellmeister in 1804 Berner befriended him, and when Weber accidentally drank some engraving acid, it was Berner's prompt action which prevented disastrous consequences. In 1812 Berner went to Berlin with Joseph Schnabel, leader of the theatre orchestra, to study Zelter's teaching methods at the Sing-Akademie, the Prussian government's intention being to form similar institutions. While in Berlin he played Mozart's Concerto for two pianos with Weber, and also performed as an organist. Three years later the Akademische Institut für Kirchenmusik was founded in Breslau, with Berner and Schnabel as directors. After the dissolution of the Silesian monasteries in ...


Bo Wallner and Hans Åstrand

(b Växjö, Oct 19, 1916; d Kungsängen, nr Stockholm, June 14, 1968). Swedish composer, teacher and administrator. He went to Stockholm in 1934 to study biochemistry, but soon his interest in music prevailed and in 1935 he began lessons with Rosenberg. His earliest works – the Trio for woodwind (1938), the First String Quartet (1939) and the Symfoniska danser (1939) – already show solid craftsmanship and thorough motivic work; stylistically they recall not only contemporary Rosenberg but also Nielsen and Sibelius. Blomdahl continued his studies, after wartime service, at the Swedish Royal Academy of Music with Tor Mann (conducting) and Mogens Wøldike (Baroque music). In the mid-1940s he appeared frequently as a conductor outside Stockholm, but later he conducted only occasionally, and then only his own music.

At this time there began also the acitivies of the Monday Group, an informal association of young composers, instrumentalists and musicologists who met in Blomdahl’s flat to discuss and analyse new works and compositional techniques, their attention being centred on Hindemith’s ...


Sven Hansell

(b Milan, ? end of the 17th century; d Milan, ? c1758). Italian composer, possibly an impresario, singing teacher and violinist. 18th-century sources (e.g. BurneyH; GerberL; GerberNL and La BordeE) blur the distinction between two or more musicians active in Milan by failing to give first names. Only the revised edition of Mancini (1777) supplies Giuseppe Ferdinando as the composer’s first names and describes him as a prominent Milanese singing teacher without identifying him with the violinist, composer and impresario also active in Milan. In fact a family of Brivios could be involved, including an older singing teacher, Carlo Francesco Brivio, who appeared in Milanese operas of 1696, Teodolinda and L’Etna festante, the librettos for which call him ‘musico di S.E. il Castellano’ (the castle commander’s musician). Suggested as Giuseppe Ferdinando’s father (Martinotti in DBI), this Carlo Francesco may have been the bass employed in the ducal court chapel until ...


Rolf Haglund

(b Stocksund, Aug 5, 1927). Swedish composer, teacher and writer on music. After studying the piano with Y. Flyckt and theory with Eppstein, he read musicology at Uppsala University, taking his doctorate in 1953 with a thesis on the ritual of the nuns of Vadstena. He studied composition with Blomdahl (1947–51), Orff, Petrassi and Deutsch. Thereafter he was a university lecturer (1965–9) and cultural attaché at the Swedish Embassy in Bonn (1970–73). Elected a member of the Swedish Royal Academy in 1964, between 1975 and 1985 he was professor of composition at the Royal College of Music, Stockholm, and its director from 1987 to 1993. As an administrator he has served as chairman of Fylkingen (1956–9), chairman of the Society of Swedish Composers (1963–9), a director, chairman and secretary of the Swedish section of the ISCM (1960–69...


Claude V. Palisca

(b Rome, c1550; d Rome, March 11, 1602). Italian composer, organist, singing teacher, dancer, choreographer, administrator and diplomat. He was the composer of the first surviving play set entirely to music, the Rappresentatione di Anima, et di Corpo (Rome, 1600), the score of which is the earliest one printed with a figured bass.

Cavalieri was the son of Lavinia della Valle and Tommaso Cavalieri (1512–87), an architect and intimate friend of Michelangelo Buonarotti. His brother, Mario (d 1580), coordinated the Lenten music in the Oratorio del SS Crocifisso in S Marcello, Rome, between 1568 and 1579. He himself also participated in this Oratorio both as an organist and as a coordinator of Lenten music from 1578 until at least 1584 (the account books are missing for 1584–94); during his administration the yearly expenditure on music rose from 51 to 140 scudi....


Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria)

(b Florence, Sept 8/14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...


Bálint Vázsonyi

[Ernst von]

(b Pozsony [now Bratislava], July 27, 1877; d New York, Feb 9, 1960). Hungarian pianist, composer, conductor, teacher and administrator. Next to Liszt he ranks as the most versatile Hungarian musician, whose influence reached generations in all spheres of musical life. He is considered the first architect of Hungary’s musical culture in the 20th century.

He received his early training in Pozsony. His father, an outstanding amateur cellist, and Károly Forstner, cathedral organist, gave him lessons in piano playing and theory. Despite the absence of professional training, he showed an extraordinary appetite for music and made rapid progress. Having finished at the Gymnasium, he decided to obtain his formal education in music at the Budapest Academy. He was the first Hungarian of significant talent to do so and his example, as well as his personal intervention, induced Bartók (his friend from early schooldays) to follow the same course. Dohnányi studied the piano with Thomán and composition with Koessler, and received his artist’s diploma in ...


Beth L. Glixon


(b Venice, Jan 25, 1621; d Venice, Oct 14, 1678). Italian composer, teacher and opera impresario. He was a canon at the cathedral of Venice, S Pietro di Castello, but the surviving evidence of his musical activities primarily concerns secular genres. He sang in G.A. Cicognini’s and Francesco Lucio's Gl'amori di Alessandro Magno, e di Rossane at the Teatro SS Apostoli, Venice, in 1651 and had begun teaching music to private students by 1652. According to testimony given in 1678, Enno taught the composer Antonio Giannettini during the 1660s. That decade he also published his two songbooks, Arie a una e due voci (Venice, 1654, dedicated to Candido Bentio, vicar-general of the canons of Santo Spirito, Venice) and Ariose cantate (Venice, 1655, dedicated to Giacomo Ascarelli). In 1667 Enno mounted at the Teatro S Moisè Alessandro amante, a reworking of G.A. Cicognini's libretto Gl'amori di Alessandro Magno with music by G.A. Boretti: he had hoped to stage that opera at the Teatro S Apollinare the previous season, when he also prepared two women for operatic roles. Enno continued to train women for the operatic stage during the 1670s. According to testimony given in ...


Gaynor G. Jones and Michael Musgrave

(b Wetzlar, Jan 6, 1807; d Berlin, Nov 25, 1883). German editor of folksongs, teacher, choral director and composer. He received his first musical training from his father, Adam Wilhelm Erk, who was Kantor, cathedral organist and teacher at Wetzlar. In 1813 the family moved to Dreieichenhain in Hesse-Darmstadt where Erk took piano, organ and violin lessons. After his father’s death in 1820, he went to Offenbach, where he entered J.B. Spiess’s educational institute (at which he taught from 1824). His music teachers at Offenbach were the composer Johann Anton André, the violinist C. Reinwald and the organist J.C.H. Rinck. In 1826 he was offered a temporary appointment at the teachers’ seminary at Moers on the lower Rhine; he founded and directed many music festivals in this area (including the Remscheid, Ruhrort and Duisburg festivals), and also performed as a piano soloist and in ensembles. He accepted a teaching appointment at the Royal Seminary in Berlin in ...


Manica Špendal

revised by Jernej Weiss


(b Osenice, nr Jičín, Czech Republic, Dec 20, 1837; d Novo Mesto, Slovenia, June 17, 1926). Slovenian composer, conductor, choir director, and music educator of Czech birth. Uncle of Josef Bohuslav Foerster.

Foerster studied law (graduated in 1863) and music (including work with Smetana) in Prague. He was choirmaster of the cathedral in Senj, Croatia (1865–7), and from 1867 onward worked in Ljubljana. He was conductor of the Dramatical Society, choirmaster of the National Reading Society, choirmaster of the cathedral (1868–1909), and music teacher at Ljubljana’s secondary schools. In 1877 he established the Organ School in Ljubljana, was co-founder of the Cerkveni glasbenik (‘Church Musician’) journal, and was its long-time editor (1878–1908). After his retirement in 1909, he remained active as a composer. In 1917 he moved to Novo Mesto (Slovenia), where he devoted most of his time to collecting and arranging his compositions....


John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...


Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Warsaw, Aug 18, 1856; d Lemberg, Oct 30, 1912). Polish composer, choral director, teacher and critic. After graduating in piano and music theory from the music school of the Muza music society in Kraków (after 1867), he subsequently studied composition with F. Krenn at the Vienna Conservatory, and with Rheinberger and M. Sachs in Munich. From 1879 to 1881 he lived in Kraków, where he began his career as composer and critic. In 1882 he was conductor of the Andante Choir in Leipzig and associate répétiteur for the opera chorus in Weimar; here his songs came to the attention of Liszt. In 1883 he went to Italy to deepen his knowledge of the art of singing, and consulted various teachers including F. Lamperti. From the autumn of 1884 he was conductor of the Music Society in Lemberg, and at the end of 1888 he went to Dresden and Leipzig, where he became musical advisor to the publisher of his songs, Leuckart. From ...


Marcel Frémiot

[Gaultier de Marseille]

(b La Ciotat, ?1642; d at sea nr Sète, 1696). French composer, opera director, organist and teacher. He probably studied in Paris. In 1682 he was in Marseilles as organist and teacher of the organ, harpsichord and composition. On 8 July 1684 he received permission from Lully to establish an academy of music there: this was Lully’s first authorization of an opera house in the provinces. The first performance, on 28 January 1685, was Le triomphe de la paix, with libretto as well as music by Gautier; it was performed successfully several times a week until the beginning of Lent. Later in 1685 Gautier was in Paris to hire new performers. The 1685–6 season met with equal success, with performances of Lully’s Le triomphe de l’amour, Phaëton and Armide. On 5 February 1687 Gautier’s opera Le jugement du soleil was performed before an audience of over 1000 on the terrace of the home of the superintendant of the galleys to celebrate Louis XIV’s successful recovery from an operation. During the summer and autumn of ...