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Gerard Béhague

(b Montevideo, August 4, 1940). Uruguayan composer, musicologist and teacher of Armenian parentage. He studied composition with Tosar (1955–7, 1966–9), the piano with Adela Herrera-Lerena (1945–59), conducting with Jacques Bodmer (1966–9), musicology with Ayestarán (1964–6) and electro-acoustic techniques with Henry Jasa (1961–3). In Buenos Aires he studied at the Instituto Torcuato di Tella with Gandini and Kroepfl (1969), in Venice with Nono (1970), at the Darmstadt summer courses with Ligeti, Aloys Kontarsky, Xenakis, Globokar and Christian Wolff (1970, 1974), and at various of the Latin American Courses for Contemporary Music with Mumma, Rabe and others (1971–89).

Aharonián has been influential as a teacher and as an organizer of activities in music and music education both in Uruguay and abroad. His teaching specializations range from composition, choral conducting and organology to analysis, musical folklore and music and society; he has taught mainly at the Uruguayan National University and the National Institute for Teacher Training, as well as privately. An assiduous participant and lecturer in seminars and workshops in Europe, the Americas and the Philippines, he has been a member of the executive committee of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music and of the presidential council of the ISCM, and the executive secretary of the Latin American Courses for Contemporary Music. He has received numerous awards from Uruguay and other countries for his work as a composer, musicologist and choral conductor, and commissions from France, Poland, Sweden and Germany....


Gulbat Toradze

(b Vladikavkaz, Feb 23, 1878; d Tbilisi, Aug 13, 1953). Georgian composer, musicologist and teacher. An academician of the Georgian Academy of Sciences and Laureate of the USSR State Prize (1950), Arakishvili is one of the founders of the Georgian School of composition. In the period 1894–1901 he attended the school of music and drama (attached to the Moscow Philharmonic Society) where he studied composition with A. Il′insky, and theory with S. Kruglikov (1894–1901), later improving his compositional technique with Grechaninov (1910–11). In 1917 he graduated from the Moscow Institute of Archaeology. In 1897 he had started writing for the Russian and the Georgian press on musical matters, in 1901 became a member of the musico-ethnological commission at Moscow University, and in 1907 a member of the Georgian Society for Literature and Art in Moscow. He was an associate of the foremost Russian composers of the day – such as Taneyev, Ippolitov-Ivanov, Arensky and Pyatnitsky – and was one of the organizers of the People’s Conservatory in Moscow (...


Saadalla Agha Al-Kalaa

(b Aleppo, Syria, 1884; d Aleppo, Nov 26, 1952). Syrian musician and music researcher. He studied music and muwashsha singing in Aleppo and Istanbul. From 1912 to 1920 he lived in Turkey, where he taught music and wrote an unpublished book entitled The Real Theories in the Science of Musical Readings. On return to Aleppo he became leader of the Mawlawi Sufi group, playing the flute (nāy) during the ceremonies and teaching muwashsha singing.

In 1927 he was invited to teach at the Royal Institute of Music in Cairo; his pupils included the composers Riyād al-Sunbaṭī and Muḥammad ‘Abd al-Wahhāb. In Egypt he documented many old muwashsha and musical pieces. In 1931 he went to Tunisia to do joint research with the French musicologist Baron D'Erlanger, and while resident in Tunis taught muwashsha for six years. He made the first notations of Tunisian Andalusian ...


Ye Dong  

Su Zheng

(b Shanghai, July 21, 1930; d Shanghai, July 12, 1989). Chinese musicologist . He studied composition and music theory at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music under Ding Shande, Deng Erjing and Sang Tong; after graduating he joined the faculty there in 1956. He became vice-chair of the Department of Chinese Composition, and director of the Chinese Music Research programme in the conservatory’s Music Research Institute. His 1983 book on Chinese instrumental music was one of the earliest and most comprehensive textbooks on the subject.

In 1964 Ye had become interested in the 10th-century ce musical notation from Dunhuang. But his work was soon interrupted by the Cultural Revolution, which took a grave toll on his health. He was only able to resume work early in the 1980s on this and other material relating to Tang dynasty music. This research, along with that of scholars such as He Changlin, Chen Yingshi and Xi Zhenguan, as well as that of ...


Rosemary Williamson

(b London, Sept 13, 1925; d Oxford, May 29, 2004). English writer on music and social historian. A self-taught pianist, he served in the RAF and Army from 1943 to 1947 and while carrying out duties in India lectured on musical appreciation across the country. He studied economic history at the London School of Economics (BSc Econ 1950), continued as research assistant (1950–52) and gained the PhD in 1958. From 1952 to 1961 he taught at Makerere College, Uganda. He joined the staff of the Queen’s University of Belfast in 1961, becoming reader in economic and social history in 1969, professor in 1974 and emeritus professor in 1986. He was visiting professor of music at Royal Holloway, University of London, 1995–7.

Ehrlich’s main area of study was the economic and social history of music in Britain since the 18th century and he was the first scholar to write extensively on this subject. His work, much of which considers the piano as a social and economic indicator, is based on painstaking archival and statistical research and is characterized by its clarity and wit. His monographs on the PRS and the Royal Philharmonic Society are official yet critical histories. In tracing the links between music, technology, business and society, he was outspoken about the negative effects of commercialism and cultural paternalism on professional music-making....


William R. Lee

(b Cesarea, Turkey, Nov 29, 1859; d Thetford, VT, May 22, 1947). American music educator and scholar. Born of American missionary parents, he was educated at Robert College in Constantinople and later studied and taught piano in Worcester, Massachusetts (1880–88). He became music supervisor in Boulder, Colorado and head of the Music Department at the University of Colorado (1888–1900). Later, as head of the Music Department at Teachers College, Columbia University (1900–24), Farnsworth organized one of the pioneering bachelor’s degrees in music education (1901). Among his several books were his Education through Music (New York 1909), which was influential in teacher education, The Why and How of Music Study (New York 1927), and Short Studies in Music Psychology (New York 1930). He served on the prestigious Educational Council of the Music Supervisors National Conference and was president of the Music Teachers National Association (...


(Abdul Huseyn)

(b Agjabedï, nr Shusha, Sept 17, 1885; d Baku, Nov 23, 1948). Azerbaijani composer, musicologist and teacher. He was the founder of modern art music in Azerbaijan and of a national school of composers. It was while he was at the teachers’ seminary in Gori (1899–1904) that his youthful interest in folk music developed into a professional one, for he sang in the choir as a baritone, played the violin, the cello and folk instruments and also began to compose. From 1905 he lived in Baku, where he worked as a teacher, engaged in compiling textbooks and dictionaries, translated Gogol into Azerbaijani and published newspaper articles on issues of the day, criticizing retrograde social attitudes. In 1907 he created the first opera of eastern Islam, Leyli i Mejnun, in which only the parts for chorus and European orchestral instruments were fixed. For the majority of cases he indicated only ...


William Y. Elias

[Hersh, Donald Lee]

(b Cambridge, MA, April 22, 1936; d June 15, 2016). Israeli musicologist of American birth. At Yale University he studied French literature (1953–7); he then studied musicology at the University of California, Berkeley (1957–62, MA 1959), where he took the doctorate under Kerman in 1963 with a dissertation on Verdelot and the early madrigal. In 1963 he settled in Israel, where he lectured at the Rubin Academy of Music, Jerusalem (1963–6), before being appointed to the musicology department of the Hebrew University (1966); he was also a regular guest lecturer at the Bar-Ilan University (from 1970) and worked as corresponding reporter in Israel for Current Musicology of Columbia University (from 1968). He received research grants from the Edmond de Rothschild Foundation for work on mannerism in Renaissance music (1964), from the Hebrew University for work on ...


Masakata Kanazawa

(b Tokyo, April 9, 1946). Japanese musicologist. After earning the MA from Keiō University (1973), he studied with Dadelsen at Tübingen University, taking the doctorate (1979) with a dissertation on J.S. Bach’s cantatas for funerals and other ceremonies. Returning to Tokyo, he lectured at Keiō and other universities, before being appointed to Meiji Gakuin University as associate professor (1989) and professor (1994). A specialist on Bach, he became an editorial member of the Neue Bach-Ausgabe in 1975. For his Bach studies he won the Kyoto Music Prize (1988), and the Tsuji Prize (1989). He has also been active as a choral conductor and a music critic.

Bachs Kantaten zu Trauerfeiern und verschiedenen Bestimmungen (diss., U. of Tübingen, 1979) Bahha [Bach] (Tokyo, 1985) Gentenban no hanashi [An introduction to the Urtext edition] (Tokyo, 1986) Bahha kantāta kenkyū...


Yosihiko Tokumaru

(b Otaru, April 1, 1935). Japanese musicologist. After graduating from the department of French studies at the University of Tokyo (BA 1959), he entered the department of Japanese language and literature to study Japanese music, which he had practised since childhood. After receiving a second BA in 1963, he continued to carry out research on Japanese music while working as a part-time Japanese language lecturer and a general assistant at various universities. In 1969 he joined the faculty of Tōhō Gakuen College of Music as lecturer in Japanese music, and was promoted to the rank of associate professor in 1971. After helping to form a department of musicology at the Musashino Academia Musicae (1975–84), he moved to the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music in 1984 as associate professor; he was promoted to full professor in 1990. His administrative abilities have been a great asset to all these universities as well as to scholarly societies such as the Musicological Society of Japan and the Society for Research in Asiatic Music....


Hooman Asadi

(b Mashhad, April 9, 1927; d Tehran, Feb 2, 1999). Iranian ethnomusicologist and composer. He was educated at the Tehran Superior Conservatory of Music and the University of Tehran, where he took the BA in law in 1950. Then he moved to Paris, where he studied with Line Taluel, Georges Dandelot and Noel Gallant at the Paris Conservatoire and the Ecole Normale de Musique. In 1954 he moved to Leipzig to continue his studies in composition with Ottmar Gerster and Johannes Weyrauch at the Hochschule für Musik, where he received the Superior Diploma in composition in 1963. Afterwards he studied musicology with Karl Gustav Fellerer and ethnomusicology with Marius Schneider at the University of Cologne and took the PhD in 1968. Upon finishing his postgraduate studies he returned to Iran and began teaching in the music department of the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, where he held the position of professor of music....


Nana Kavtaradze

(b Tbilisi, May 28, 1904; d March 5, 1984). Georgian composer, teacher and ethnomusicologist. A representative of the first generation of Georgian composers, he studied at the Tbilisi Conservatory, graduating from the composition class of Bagrinovsky and Barkhudarian (1930). As a postgraduate in Leningrad, he finished his studies with V. Shcherbachyov in 1933. From 1929 to 1984 he was a teacher and later (1942) professor of the Tbilisi Conservatory; he was also head of the composition department, dean of the faculty of theory and composition, later assistant director and then director. He directed the Paliashvili Opera and Ballet Theatre (1950–52) and was also chairman of the Georgian Composers’ Union (1940–51). He has been awarded many Soviet state prizes and the Nehru State Prize of India.

Although Mshvelidze’s development coincided with the isolation of Soviet culture from the newest compositional thinking of Western countries, his style is notable for its orginality and is based on Georgian musical folklore, especially of the Pshava mountain region in the north-west part of the country. He used as his starting point the severe and courageous character of Pshavian folk song with its characteristic monody consisting of a descending improvisatory melody over the range of seventh and set in an original mode similar to the phrygian but with a sharpened sixth and named by him the ‘Pshavian’ mode. This scale and declamatory monody were organically assimilated into the stylistic system of his symphonic works; since this treatment found a response in the creative process of many other Georgian composers Mshvelidze can be considered the founder of Georgian epic symphonism. In his conception of epic cycles, the rhapsodic unfolding of the material through the course of consecutive sections is carried out by means of continuous development; the general structure, however, sometimes falters through looseness of construction. The depiction of Vazha-Pshavela’s poetry in the symphonic poems ...


Alina Pahlevanian

[Oganyan, Aleksandr]

(b Soganlug, Georgia, 1889; d Tbilisi, May 31, 1932). Armenian k‘emanch‘a player, teacher, theorist and composer. He began to play the k‘emanch‘a at the age of seven and joined a sazander ensemble in which he played the tiplipito and the duduk as well as the k‘emanch‘a. He became a soloist in the composer Anton Mailian's Eastern Orchestra in Baku in 1905 and often appeared with the instrumental ashugh group Haziri in Tbilisi. In the same year he toured the Transcaucasian region, Central Asia and Iran with two mugam performers, the singer D. Karyagdogli and the t‘a player K. Pirimov. During the period 1906–12 recordings of his performances of classical mugam and Armenian dance music were released by the companies Kontzert-Rekord, Patye and Sport-Rekord. He studied the k‘emanch‘a with Oganez Oganezov, an authority on the Persian mugam, and took the pseudonym Oganezashvili (‘son of Oganez’) in his honour; Oganezashvili added a fourth string to the ...


Katy Romanou

(b Ortaköy [Ortakioi], Bithynia [now Geyve, Turkey], 1869; d Constantinople, July 23, 1915). Greek ethnomusicologist, musicologist, music teacher, and composer. He was taught Byzantine music as a child in Ortaköy, finished the Varvakeion school in Athens, and studied philology at the University of Athens, and music in the Odeion Athinon (‘Athens Conservatory’). In 1895 Pachtikos settled in Constantinople, and was involved in the leading cultural institutions of the Greek Orthodox community, such as the Ellinikos Filologikos Syllogos (‘Greek Literary Society’) and the Ekklisiastikos Mousikos Syllogos (‘Ecclesiastical Music Society’). He also composed music for and staged performances of ancient Greek tragedies and comedies, collected folk music, and, in 1912–15 edited Mousiki, a monthly music periodical with polyethnic collaborators (from Turkey to the USA), in which over 180 of his own articles were published.

Through these activities, Pachtikos contributed to the growing interest among the literati Greeks in Constantinople – immersed in the study of Byzantium – in ancient Greek culture. He was well informed on the studies of ancient Greek music in Western Europe, while his own work was presented in important editions, such as the ...


Regine Allgayer-Kaufmann

(Hubertus )

(b Beuel am Rhein, June 23, 1953). German ethnomusicologist. He studied musicology with Josef Kuckertz at Cologne University, with German language, Malaysian studies and dramaturgy as secondary subjects (MA 1979). He took the doctorate in comparative musicology in 1988 at the Freie Universität Berlin, where he taught comparative musicology (1980–86), he also lectured at the Musikhochschule in Hanover (1987–9) and at Kiel University (1985). He was appointed professor at Berlin in 1990, and later professor and head of the ethnomusicology department at Cologne University in 1994. He is president of the Maria Laach Institute for Hymnology and Ethnomusicology in Cologne and general secretary of the European Ethnomusicological Seminar (from 1997). In 1995 he was awarded the Jaap-Kunst prize for his musicological research in Java and Bali. Schumacher has carried out fieldwork in Java (1977 and 1990) and Bali (...


Robyn Holmes, Peter Campbell, and Judith Crispin


Robyn Holmes and Peter Campbell, revised by Judith Crispin

(b Tianjin, China, Sept 10, 1934). Australian composer, pianist, and musicologist. Born to Russian-Chinese parents, he emigrated to Australia with his family in 1951. He studied the piano at the NSW Conservatorium of Music, Sydney, where his teachers included Winifred Burston (1952–8), and in San Francisco with Egon Petri (1959–61). On his return to Australia, he taught at the Queensland Conservatorium (1961–5) and lectured on contemporary composition at the University of Queensland. In 1965 he assumed the position of Head of Keyboard at the newly founded Canberra School of Music (now part of the Australian National University), where he became Head of Composition and Head of Academic Studies in 1978, and Professor Emeritus and Distinguished Visiting Fellow in 2005.

Sitsky first came to prominence as a composer at the inaugural Australian Composers’ Seminar (Hobart, Tasmania, ...


Larisa Georgievna Danko

(b Leninakon [now Gryumri, Armenia], April 7, 1924; d Leningrad, March 12, 1977). Soviet musicologist, aesthetician, sociologist and critic. He graduated in 1949 from the faculty of theory and composition at the Leningrad Conservatory, in 1953 from the Research Institute of Theatre and Music, and in 1954 from the philosophy department of Leningrad University. A year later he joined the staff of the Leningrad Institute of Theatre, Music and Cinematography, and in 1968 was also appointed to a professorship at the Leningrad Conservatory. He was awarded the Kanditat degree in 1954 for his dissertation on populist song during World War II and received the doctorate in 1965 for his dissertation on Borodin. In 1976 he initiated the formation of the Soviet Union’s first department of music criticism, at the Leningrad Conservatory. In the last ten years of his life he was a director of the criticism and music studies divisions of the Leningrad Union of Composers and of the Union of Composers of the USSR....


Masakata Kanazawa

(b Wakayama, Dec 9, 1927). Japanese musicologist. He studied political economics at Tokyo University, graduating in 1953. In 1957 he won a scholarship from the Italian government to study European music history and went to Milan to study with Guglielmo Barblan and Federico Mompellio. Returning home, he was appointed professor at Seijo University in 1964. He has also lectured at Tokyo University, Tohoku University, Osaka University and the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music. He was committee chairman of the Kanto Chapter of the Musicological Society of Japan, 1985–7. His musicological interests include Italian music, particularly of the Trecento, and Baroque opera. He has also translated many works from Japanese into Italian, and has translated Romain Rolland's Les origines du théâtre lyrique moderne (1965), Grout's A History of Western Music (Tokyo, 1969–71), its new edition with Palisca (Tokyo, 1998–9) and many opera libretti into Japanese....


Masakata Kanazawa

(b Gifu, Dec 20, 1895; d Tokyo, April 21, 1987). Japanese musicologist. He graduated in psychology at Tokyo University in 1920; he also studied composition and conducting with Ryūtarō Hirota, violin with Shin Kusakawa and gagaku (Japanese court music) with Yoshiisa Oku. In 1922 he began teaching at St Paul’s University, Tokyo, retiring as professor emeritus in 1965; he also lectured at Tokyo University, the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music and Kyūshū University. From 1968 to 1977 he was professor at Kunitachi Music College. The first important Japanese scholar to specialize in European music, Tsuji introduced musicology to Japan. He specialized in Bach and the history of Protestant church music, but is also known for his biographies of Mozart and Schubert. He was one of the founders of the Musicological Society of Japan, serving as president from 1964 to 1970.

Shūberuto [Schubert] (Tokyo, 1950)Mōtsaruto...


Armineh Grigorian

revised by Robert Atayan and Aram Kerovpyan

[Gomidas Vartabed; Soghomonian, Soghomon]

(b Kütahya, Turkey, Oct 8, 1869; d Paris, Oct 22, 1935). Armenian composer, ethnomusicologist, choral conductor, singer and teacher. One of the first Armenians to have a classical Western musical education, as well as instruction in the music of his own people, he laid the foundations for a distinctive national style in his many songs and choruses, all of which are deeply influenced by the folk and church traditions of Armenia. His work on Armenian folksong is also of musicological importance.

Robert Atayan, revised by Aram Kerovpyan

Both of his parents (his father Gevorg Soghomonian was a cobbler) had gifts for music and poetry; in 1881, however, the boy was orphaned and sent to Armenia to study at the Gevork’ian Theological Seminary in Vagharshapat (now Edjmiadzine), and was ordained as a celibate priest in 1894, being given the name Komitas (a 7th-century Catholicos who was also a hymn composer). There his beautiful voice and his musical talents attracted notice, and under Sahak Amatuni’s guidance he mastered the theory and practice of Armenian liturgical singing. He also made decisive contact with folksong, to the collection and study of which he gave himself wholeheartedly. When he had only just learnt Armenian modern notation he set about recording the songs of the Ararat valley peasants and immigrant Armenians of other regions. Although he had no knowledge of European music theory, he harmonized these songs for performance with a student choir at the academy. His earliest surviving collection of folk melodies dates from ...