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Ned Quist

revised by Linda L. Giedl

[Schlossberg, Artur ]

(b Hamm, Germany, Sept 27, 1909; d Aurora, CO, May 28, 2002). Composer, musicologist, conductor, and pianist of German birth; naturalized American. Born Artur Schlossberg, he grew up in an orthodox Jewish family. After the Schlossbergs moved to Mannheim in 1919, he was introduced to German organ and choral literature by Arno Landmann, first Kantor (1911–43) of Christuskirche, and received piano instruction from Landmann’s wife. With Mannheim’s proximity to Strasbourg and Alsace-Lorraine, Schlossberg became fluent in French. Shortly after entering the University of Heidelberg in 1928, he applied for musicological studies with medievalist Heinrich Besseler. At the end of three years of intensive work, he submitted his doctoral dissertation (Die italienische Sonate für mehrere Instrumente im 17ten Jahrhundert, diss., U. of Heidelberg, 1932). Later that year he was engaged as a coach and conducting assistant to Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt at the Darmstadt Opera.

Beaten with guns by Adolf Hitler’s Stormtroopers in early ...


Philip Brett, Heather Wiebe, Jennifer Doctor, Judith LeGrove, and Paul Banks

(b Lowestoft,Nov 22, 1913; d Aldeburgh, Dec 4, 1976). English composer, conductor and pianist. He and his contemporary Michael Tippett are among several pairs of composers who dominated English art music in the 20th century. Of their music, Britten’s early on achieved, and has maintained, wider international circulation. An exceedingly practical and resourceful musician, Britten worked with increasing determination to recreate the role of leading national composer held during much of his own life by Vaughan Williams, from whom he consciously distanced himself. Notable among his musical and professional achievements are the revival of English opera, initiated by the success of Peter Grimes in 1945; the building of institutions to ensure the continuing viability of musical drama; and outreach to a wider audience, particularly children, in an effort to increase national musical literacy and awareness. Equally important in this was his remaining accessible as a composer, rejecting the isolationism of the postwar avant garde and developing a distinctive tonal language that allowed amateurs and professionals alike to love his work and to enjoy performing and listening to it. Above all, he imbued his works with his own personal concerns, some of them hidden, principally those having to do with his love of men and boys, some more public, like his fiercely held pacifist beliefs, in ways that allowed people to sense the passion and conviction behind them even if unaware of their full implication. He also performed a fascinating, as well as problematic, assimilation of (or rapprochement with) Asian cultures, attempting an unusual integration of various non-Western musical traditions with his own increasingly linear style....


Christopher Fifield

revised by R. Allen Lott

(b Dresden, Germany, Jan 8, 1830; d Cairo, Egypt, Feb 12, 1894). German conductor, pianist, and composer. He studied piano with Friedrich Wieck, Max Eberwein, and Louis Plaidy before briefly pursuing a law degree to appease his parents. Under Wagner’s influence he began an operatic conducting career, then in 1851 began studying piano with Liszt, becoming one of his most important pupils. After teaching in Berlin (1855–64) and undertaking concert tours as a pianist, Bülow was appointed Hofkapellmeister in Munich, where he gave the premieres of Tristan und Isolde (1865) and Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (1868). In 1869 Bülow resigned from Munich, unable to cope when his wife—Liszt’s daughter Cosima, whom he had married in 1857—left him for Wagner. He began to undertake concert tours from 1872, making the first of several visits to England in 1873 and the United States in ...


Sorab Modi

[Carlone, Francis Nunzio ]

(b Providence, RI, March 25, 1903; d Mesa, AZ, March 7, 2001). American pianist, composer, arranger, and bandleader. At the age of seven he appeared as a piano soloist and in 1918 he led his first band. His graceful and relaxed piano improvisations established him with the public and earned him the nickname “the Golden Touch.” In 1933 he joined the band of Mal Hallett, which he left to join the Horace Heidt band in 1939. He formed his own big band in 1944 but abandoned it in the 1950s in favor of a smaller group. At the end of the decade Carle retired, but in 1972 he appeared briefly for a three-month tour with Freddy Martin in the show Big Band Cavalcade.

As a composer Carle has several hits to his credit, including “Sunrise Serenade,” “Carle Boogie,” “Lover’s Lullaby,” “Sunrise in Napoli,” and “Dreamy Lullaby” (co-written with Benny Benjamin and George Weiss). Carle’s arrangements were published in the collections ...


Stanislav Tuksar

(b Dubravka near Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 16, 1934). Croatian musicologist, composer, organist, and choir conductor. He started his theological studies in Split and graduated in 1961 from the Catholic Theological Faculty in Zagreb, where he also attended courses in music at the Institute for Church Music. He gained the PhD in musicology in 1978 at the University of Cologne. From 1959 to 1961, and again from 1970 to 1975, he served in Dubrovnik as organist and choir conductor at the local cathedral. From 1965 until 1969 and from 1980 on he was regens chori at the Zagreb Cathedral. In 1969 he helped in resuming the publication of the oldest Croatian church music journal Sv. Cecilija in Zagreb, which had been interrupted in 1944. His most important scholarly contributions consist of several modern facsimile editions and commentaries on medieval neumatic codices and of musicological activities dealing mostly with Dubrovnik musical history. Among the facsimile editions the most interesting is ...


Milena Bozhikova

(b Vidin, Bulgaria, Sept 12, 1951). Bulgarian composer, conductor, and piano improviser. He was educated at the High School of Music in Sofia (percussion class under Dobri Paliev, 1965–71), and at the State Musical Academy in Sofia (1973–9), majoring in composition under Tsvetan Tsvetanov and Parashkev Hadzhiev, and orchestral conducting under Konstantin Iliev. He made his name as an active jazz pianist and composer, forming his own jazz trio and participating in several international festivals (in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, Cuba, Romania, Germany, Portugal, and Yugoslavia). While a student he won the position of conductor at the State Musical Theatre (1977–86), bringing to the stage a number of classical operettas and contemporary musicals. His background also includes courses in conducting under Franco Ferrara (1980, Siena, Italy) and Edward Dawns (1981, Hilversum, Holland), and in composition with Anatol Vieru (...


Joseph A. Bomberger

(b Potsdam, Germany, Dec 7, 1820; d Berlin, Oct 14, 1879). German pianist, composer, and conductor. Considered a prodigy by the age of six, Eckert, through the support of the poet F. Förster, studied with some of the best instructors in Berlin, including Rechenberg and Karl Wilhelm Greulich (piano), Bötticher and Hubert Ries (violin) and Karl Friedrich Rungenhagen (composition). By the age of ten he had written an opera, Das Fischermädchen. At 13 he wrote an oratorio, Ruth. He spent the early years of his adult life traveling with the aid of wealthy patrons, studying with various well-known musicians including Felix Mendelssohn. In 1851 he became accompanist at the Theatre des Italiens, Paris. A year later he was appointed conductor. That same year he made a trip to America with Henriette Sontag, a tour marred by public scandal and disputes with the impresario Bernard Ullman. In 1853 he was director of the Court Opera in Vienna. He succeeded Friedrich Wilhelm Kücken as director at Stuttgart from ...


Richard Jackson

(b Paris, France, 1781; d New York, NY, Jan 17, 1859). American pianist, teacher, and conductor. He was a student of François-Adrien Boieldieu and Charles-Simon Catel and recipient of the first prize in both piano and accompaniment at the Paris Conservatoire in 1800 before immigrating to the United States in 1814 or 1815. He probably performed and taught in various American cities, and in September 1816 was in Boston, where he published a piece for piano, Battle of New Orleans, before settling in New York. He is mentioned from 1818 until 1835 in directories of New York, where he maintained a leading position in the musical community. In 1824 he was chosen to be the permanent conductor of the newly founded Philharmonic Society; he also played the piano in the orchestra of the first Italian opera season in New York (which began on 29 November 1825) and conducted Weber’s ...


Giordano Montecchi

(b Milan, Oct 22, 1929; d Parma, Italy, July 29, 2014). Italian composer, pianist, and conductor. Having studied the piano from a young age, he began to appear at the age of 13 as a conductor and orchestral pianist specializing in light music, and in jazz groups. After the war, while establishing himself as a jazz musician, he completed his studies of the piano, composition, and conducting at the Milan Conservatory (with, among others, Renzo Bossi, Antonino Votto, and Giulini) and at the Accademia Musicale Chigiana, Siena (with Paul Van Kempen). Active for many years as a conductor of various musical groups and as a composer, his growing interest in jazz led him during the second half of the 1950s to attempt to combine jazz and classical music composition.

A key work was the octet Tempo e relazione (1957) – a piece in five movements based on two 12-note series – and from that point on Gaslini became recognized as a major figure of the Italian and wider jazz avant garde. His music continued to be characterized by a determination to integrate different idioms, including free jazz, serialism, pop, and electronics. Alongside this ‘multi-lingual’ approach, set apart from the American Third Stream, he made manifest a political commitment to working-class and student left-wing movements after ...


O Flückiger


(b Indianapolis, Feb 17, 1926; d Anghiari, Toscana, Italy, May 24, 2004). American pianist, vibraphonist, singer, and bandleader. After serving in France during the war he studied music at the conservatory in Dijon, at the University of Washington, and elsewhere. He led a jump band, the Question Marks, in Seattle through the late 1940s, then formed a trio modeled after that of Nat “King” Cole. From 1952 to mid-1953 he toured the USA and Canada with Lionel Hampton and later traveled in Alaska and California with his own groups. Having settled on the Canadian west coast, Gill hosted jazz projects involving such guest stars as Wes Montgomery. From the mid-1980s he toured internationally.


Jacquelyn Sholes

(b Shenandoah, IA, June 2, 1898; d Memphis, TN, Feb 4, 1990). American music critic, conductor, and pianist. He studied at the University of Nebraska (1915–16), Chicago Music College (1920–22, subsequently incorporated into Roosevelt University), and the Gunn School in Chicago (MM 1923). He worked as a music critic for the Chicago Herald and Examiner between 1925 and 1936 and for the Chicago Tribune from 1943 to 1947. Between 1935 and 1943 he served as the Illinois state director of the Works Progress Administration’s Federal Music Project and as a co-conductor of the Illinois SO. In 1947 he became the first full-time music critic for the Los Angeles Times, a position from which he officially retired in 1965. He subsequently contributed to the LA Times as a staff writer and, from 1966 until shortly before his death, as Critic Emeritus. Goldberg was known for his emphatic support of conductors Zubin Mehta and Georg Solti and also for his recollections of such figures as Percy Grainger, Josef Hofmann, Vladimir Horowitz, Lauritz Melchior, and Artur Rubinstein. Trained as a pianist, he was especially knowledgeable about pianists and piano repertory....


[Greenstein, Robert Stern]

(b New York, Sept 4, 1922; d Amagansett, NY, Oct 13, 2013). American pianist and bandleader. He was largely self-taught and first played traditional jazz with Baby Dodds and recorded with Conrad Janis (1950), Sidney De Paris (1951), and Johnny Wiggs (?1954). A graduate of Columbia University, he worked for a number of years as a writer of radio documentaries, and in the mid-1960s he supplied speeches for Lyndon Johnson and then Bobby Kennedy. At this time he returned to music, performing and recording with Zutty Singleton (1967, 1969) and Don Ewell (1970). In 1968, after Kennedy was assassinated, he made jazz his full-time career and formed his own band. He performed a tribute to Jelly Roll Morton’s music at the jazz festival in New Orleans in 1969. In Copenhagen he recorded with Albert Nicholas (1970) and the Peruna Jazz Band (...


Digby Fairweather and Barry Kernfeld

(b Joppa, nr Edinburgh, Aug 12, 1930; d Stevenage, England, Nov 17, 2012). Scottish pianist, drummer, and bandleader. The son of a drummer and piano-tuner, he played with Sandy Brown’s first Jazz Band while in high school (1945), and later performed on piano and drums with Brown (1948–54). After moving to London he played drums with Ken Colyer (summer 1954–1955), Humphrey Lyttelton (spring 1955 – summer 1956, late 1956 – spring 1957, with an interruption for service in the Royal Engineers in Egypt), Bruce Turner (doubling on piano), Brown again (summer 1957), and the Fairweather–Brown All Stars, led by Brown and Al Fairweather (1958–9). He re-joined Turner as a pianist before becoming a member of Acker Bilk’s Paramount Jazz Band (July 1960 – July 1968). From 1969 Greig concentrated on piano and led his own trio and quintet, which played mainly swinging boogie-woogie and blues. He also worked as a sideman with Dave Shepherd and the double bass player Johnny Hawksworth. In ...


Peter Schwalm

revised by Barry Kernfeld


(b Basel, Switzerland, June 24, 1932; d Basel, Jan 10, 2013). Swiss keyboard player, composer, and bandleader. He studied music at the conservatories in Basel and Zurich. From 1956 he was a member of Flavio Ambrosetti’s small groups, with which he later recorded (1959–67). After performing and recording at the Newport Jazz Festival in 1958 as a member of Marshall Brown’s International Youth Band he appeared at the jazz festival in Comblain-la-Tour, France, as a member of Dusko Goykovich’s band in both 1960 and 1961. In the 1960s he was a member of a bop trio that accompanied such American musicians as Donald Byrd, Dexter Gordon, Roland Kirk, and Lee Konitz on their visits to Europe. Having supported himself as an automobile salesman during the early portion of his career, he worked exclusively as a musician from 1963, when he toured the Far East with Helen Merrill. Later he played in Phil Woods’s European Rhythm Machine (...


Marisol Negrónh

[Kahn, Lawrence Ira ]

(b Brooklyn, NY, March 20, 1939). American salsa pianist, bandleader, and producer. He developed an interest in both jazz and Latin music as a teenager, while he attended the New York High School of Music and Art in Harlem. A multi-instrumentalist most widely recognized for his talent as a pianist, he has been known for combining traditional Cuban sounds with innovative arrangements. He debuted as bandleader in 1965 with Heavy Smoking, the second album released by the newly formed Fania Records. Affectionately nicknamed “El judío maravilloso” (the marvelous Jew) by fellow musicians, he became a member and producer of the original Fania All-Stars, an ensemble band that achieved international acclaim for its live concerts. In 1973 Harlow brought Latin music to Carnegie Hall with the opera Hommy (inspired by the Who’s rock opera Tommy), and in 1974 he released Salsa, considered one of his best recordings. In addition, ...


(b Chicago, IL, Sept 15, 1943; d New York, NY, March 7, 2000) American conductor, pianist, and composer. After her first piano recital, given in 1947 at the Cary Temple Auditorium of Chicago, her teachers Mildred Hall and Leo Salkin supported her tour through the United States. In 1953 she performed one of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s concertos with the Chicago SO and won a scholarship to attend the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia. She earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the Juilliard School. She later achieved prominence as an African American female conductor of symphony orchestras and several ballet companies. She took over as musical director of Opera Ebony, which she had co-founded in 1973, and of Broadway musicals such as Hair, Raisin, Two Gentlemen of Verona, Guys and Dolls, and Amen Corner. In 1972 she received a National Association of Negro Musicians Award, and in 1987 she became a Dame of Honour and Merit, Order of St. John Knights of Malta. Some months before her death, Harris had been appointed associate dean of the Pennsylvania Academy of Music in Lancaster. Her compositions include two ballets, an operatic work (...


William Geoffrey Shaman

revised by Jonas Westover

(b New York, NY, April 27, 1869; d New York, NY, Feb 15, 1943). American conductor, composer, and pianist. As a child, he sang boy soprano in several churches, singing solos in many oratorios and cantatas. He studied piano with Charles Blum, singing with William Courtney, composition with Frederick Schilling, and conducting with anton Seidl , and he began his career as an organist at various churches in the New York area. He was a rehearsal pianist and coach at the Metropolitan Opera (1892–5), conductor of the Utica Choral Union (1893–4), and assistant conductor to Seidl at the Brighton Beach Summer Concerts (1895–6); after 1899 he devoted himself primarily to teaching and composing. He also enjoyed a strong reputation as an accompanist, appearing frequently with major concert artists. He was particularly supportive of new music of his era, championing Arthur Foote and others. From ...


William Geoffrey Shaman

(b Guildford, England, Nov 6, 1894; d San Miguel de Allende, Mexico, Feb 20, 1986). Conductor and organist of English birth. A scholarship to the Royal College of Music in London, won when he was only 16, enabled him to study organ with Walter Parrott, piano with Herbert Sharp, and conducting with Walford Davies. For six years he worked in Manila as a church organist before immigrating to the United States in 1920. He was organist and choirmaster at St. Paul’s Cathedral in Rochester, New York (1920–4), and a faculty member of the Eastman School (1922–5, 1944–5). With the encouragement of Albert Coates (director of the Rochester PO, 1923–5), he turned to conducting, first leading the Eastman Theater Orchestra (1924–9). He then conducted the Rochester Civic Orchestra (1929–49), became music director of the Rochester Civic Opera, and from 1930...


José A. Bowen and Michael Mauskapf

(b Cincinnati, OH, 23 June 1943). Conductor and pianist.

He began to learn piano at age four, making his debut at ten with the Cincinnati SO, performing the Mendelssohn Second Piano Concerto. His early success led to music lessons with Walter Levin and summer studies at the Marlboro Music Festival (from 1956, including piano lessons with rudolf Serkin) and the Aspen Music School and Festival (from 1957, where he studied with rosina Lhévinne). In 1961, he entered the Juilliard School of Music's graduate division to study conducting with jean Morel and piano with Lhévinne. He joined the Ford Foundation's American Conductors Project in 1964, working with the Baltimore SO and studying under alfred Wallenstein, max Rudolf, and fausto Cleva. There, he met George Szell, who appointed him assistant conductor of the Cleveland Orchestra (1964–70). Like Szell, Levine is known for his impeccable technique and focus on texture, clarity, and ensemble balance....


Allan Ulrich

revised by Elizabeth N. Morgan

(Alan )

(b Los Angeles, CA, Sept 12, 1956). American pianist and conductor. He studied at the San Francisco Conservatory, from which he graduated in 1977, and at the Juilliard School. He won second prize in the Clara Haskil Competition in 1977 (he was the only American to enter that year), fourth prize in the Van Cliburn Competition in 1981, and first prize in the Arthur Rubinstein International Piano Master Competition in 1983. Kahane has performed at the Mostly Mozart Festival, New York, and under Leonard Bernstein at the Hollywood Bowl, and has appeared with the San Francisco, Pittsburgh, and Oregon symphony orchestras, the Philadelphia and Leipzig Gewandhaus orchestras, and the Rochester, Los Angeles, and Israel philharmonic orchestras. Kahane made his conducting debut in 1988 at the Oregon Bach Festival. In 1997 he became Music Director of the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra, and in 2005 he assumed the post of Music Director of the Colorado Symphony Orchestra, which he held until ...