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(fl 1546–87). Italian lutenist and composer. ‘Pestrin’ is Venetian dialect for ‘mill’ or ‘dairy’, and it has been thought that this may indicate his family’s occupation and Venetian origins; more recent evidence suggests that the name refers to his residence in Calle del Pestrin in the parish of San Stefano. He published at least seven volumes of solo lute music, of which only three are extant. A book of lute music by ‘Pestrin’, now lost, is listed in Vincenti’s catalogue of 1591; that this is by Abondante is confirmed by Giunta’s catalogue of 1604. Because of the different forms of Abondante’s name and the 41 years that elapsed between the publication of the first and fifth books, Eitner mistakenly concluded that ‘Julio Abondante’, composer of the first two books, and ‘Giulio Abundante, detto dal Pestrino’ or ‘Giulio dal Pestrino’, composer of the fifth book, were different musicians. In the dedications of his ...



(b Antwerp, c1554; d Antwerp, bur. Feb 27, 1604). Flemish lutenist, teacher and composer. He went to Rome to study in 1574, a visit that probably accounts for the Italian elements in his publications. He was a Protestant, but after the fall of Antwerp in 1585 he was compelled for political reasons to embrace the Catholic faith. With his brother Gysbrecht he opened a school for lutenists at Antwerp, but in 1587 they came into conflict with the musicians’ guild because neither of them was a member; later, however, Emanuel must have qualified as a freeman of the guild, for he occasionally assumed the title of master. He was appointed captain of the citizens’ watch, which brought him a regular income, and in 1595 he took part in the relief of the nearby town of Lier, which had been occupied by the Dutch. He moved in the highest circles in Antwerp, and the principal families doubtless admired his virtuosity as a lutenist and engaged him to perform. His publications brought him wider fame, and they were to be found in the libraries of many prominent people, among them Constantijn Huygens, King João IV of Portugal and Cardinal Mazarin. He was mentioned by Adrian Denss (...


Anthony Newcomb

(b Treviso, c1535; d Ferrara, June 15, 1615). Italian instrumentalist and composer. He came from a family of North Italian musicians that had lived in Treviso since the mid-15th century. His father was the town trumpeter; his uncle and brother were musicians in the courts of Ferrara and Munich respectively. He was one of the three young men brought to the newly founded Accademia degli Elevati in Padua in 1557 as music tutors under Francesco Portinaro. His first published madrigals appeared, together with madrigals by Rore, Portinaro and other members of the group around Rore, in Rore’s fourth book of madrigals for five voices (RISM 1557²³). In 1560 the Accademia degli Elevati was dissolved and Alberti went to work for the Este court at Ferrara. He remained on the salary rolls there, listed among the instrumentalists as ‘Innocentio del Cornetto’, until the dissolution of the court early in ...


Arthur J. Ness

[Albutio, Joan Jacomo, Hans Jacob von Mailandt]

(b Kleve; fl Milan, 1536). German lutenist, viola player and composer, active in Italy. He apparently resided in Milan long enough to acquire the epithet ‘from Milan’ and to be counted among the foremost musicians and composers of that city. His extant music consists of two lute fantasias which first appeared in Giovanni Antonio Casteliono’s Intabolatura de leuto de diversi autori (Milan, 1536/R; ed. R. Smith Brindle, Milan, 1978) and were reprinted in collections of lute music published in Nuremberg, Leuven (both 1552) and Venice (1563). They are characterized by a continuous unfolding of musical ideas within broad phrases that subvert any attempt at a cadence. G. Lefkoff’s Five Sixteenth Century Lute Books (Washington DC, 1960) contains transcriptions of Albuzio’s two fantasias.

R. Chiesa: ‘Storia della letteratura del liuto e della chitarra, XXXIII: il Cinquecento – Pietro Paolo Borrono; Joan Jacobo Albutio’, ...


G. Yvonne Kendall

(b Dijon, France, March 17, 1520; d Langres, France, July 23, 1595). French cleric and dance manual author. Born Jehan Tabourot, son of Pierre Tabourot and Valentine Henriette Dubois, Thoinot Arbeau’s Burgundian family included noted writers and architects. His education in Dijon and Poitiers resulted in a law degree and a career in the church. After joining the Order of St Anthony, also known as the Confrérie de Saint-Didier, the order assigned him to the post of canon for the Department of Haute Marne, which included the dioceses of Dijon and Langres. His uncle Jean Pignard served this latter as cathedral composer and master of music. Later Tabourot was appointed parish treasurer and inspector for diocesan schools in Bar-sur-Aube. In 1567 he returned to Langres as vicar-general, a post that authorized him to speak for the bishop.

At the age of 62, Tabourot chose the anagrammic pseudonym Thoinot Arbeau and began to write. His first publication, an almanac of religious holidays titled ...


Nigel Fortune

revised by Tim Carter

[‘Antonio di S Fiore’]

(b Albano, late 1541 or 1542; d Florence, bur. Nov 14, 1612). Italian singer, lutenist and ?composer, husband of Vittoria Archilei . He was in the service in Rome of Cardinal Alessandro Sforza dei Conti di S Fiora, who died on 16 May 1581, after which he entered the service of Cardinal Ferdinando de’ Medici. The latter became Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1587, and Archilei, with his wife, followed him to Florence, where he became a musician at court, with a salary of 18 scudi a month from 1 September 1588; his salary was reduced to 11 scudi on 30 November 1589 (though he continued to receive a monthly pension of 12 scudi granted for life by Cardinal Ferdinando in 1582). He participated in the spectacular intermedi marking Ferdinando’s wedding in 1589: he is known to have played one of two chitarroni accompanying his wife’s singing of the florid solo song ‘Dalle più alte sfere’ (ed. D.P. Walker, ...


Walter Pass

(b Cremona, 1550–60; d ?Prague, after1611). Italian composer and instrumentalist, active in Bohemia. From 1582 until 1612 he served at the imperial court at Prague, where there were other instrumentalists with the same surname, of whom the older Alberto Ardesi may have been his father. He published ...


Lavern J. Wagner

[Renverset, Jean]

(b Arras; d ?Madrid, 1582). Flemish organist active in Italy and Spain. On 1 January 1556 he was engaged at the ducal chapel of Parma. In 1580 he was organist in the chapel of Philip II of Spain, as is shown by a receipt that he signed for wages. His tenure there continued until his death. A madrigal by him, Due rose, is found in Josquino Persoens’s first book of madrigals (RISM, 1570²8). A chanson by him was published by Phalèse (RISM, 15754).

Jean d’Arras should not be confused with a younger man of the same name who was listed in 1596 as a mozzo de capilla (‘youth in the chapel’) to Philip II, and to whom further references occur in listings of chapel personnel in 1598, 1599 and 1608.

Vander Straeten MPB P. Becquart: Musiciens néerlandais à la cour de Madrid: Philippe Rogier et son école 1560–1647...


Christoph Wolff


Member of Bach family

(b Andelsbuch, Vorarlberg, c1555; d Nürtingen, Dec 1, 1615). Violinist and court musician. He became a Spielmann (violinist) and jester at the Stuttgart court of Duke Ludwig of Württemberg about 1585, and in 1593 he followed the widowed Duchess Ursula to the court of Nürtingen, where he remained until his death. He apparently often travelled, both alone and in the court entourage. Of his work all that survives is the text of a narrative song of 1614 describing a visit to the town of Weil (Hanss Baachens Lobspruch zur Weil der Statt: ‘Es ist nun über zwantzig Jahr’); its manner is reminiscent of the late medieval style of Oswald von Wolkenstein. There are two extant portraits of him, an etching of about 1605 and an engraving of 1617. The etching bears the inscription:

Hie siehst du geigen/Hansen Bachen

Wenn du es hörst/so mustu lachen...


Emilio Ros-Fábregas

(b Ecija, province of Seville, c1460; d after 1524). Spanish poet, vihuelist and composer. He was one of the leading Castilian poets of the generation of Juan del Encina; one of his poems received a response by Pedro de Cartagena, who died in 1485. His poetic style, quick-witted sallies and ingenious conceits were praised long after his death by Lope de Vega and Baltasar Gracián. His poetry is characterized by a desperate amatory vein in which suffering and death are always present. He is supposed to have been imprisoned for some time, owing to a madness brought on by an incestuous passion for a close relation, probably his sister. He is last recorded attending an imperial feast in Toledo in 1525.

The Cancionero General (Valencia, 1511/14/R, 2/1520/R) contains eight poems attributed to ‘Badajoz el músico’, and there are five villancicos and three canciones ascribed to ‘Badajoz’ in the ...


(b Brassó [Kronstadt], Transylvania [now Braşov, Romania], 1526–30; d Padua, Aug 22, 1576). Hungarian lutenist and composer. His biography, formerly founded on inadequate documentation and misconstruction of available facts, has been badly distorted; more recently discovered evidence and reinterpretation of received data allow a far more accurate story to be given. Bakfark’s family belonged to the German minority in Transylvania; the Hungarian form ‘Bálint’ for his Christian name, common in modern scholarship, is not found in contemporaneous sources. From 1565 he preferred the form ‘Greff alias Bakfark’ for his surname, which has also undergone variation in spelling in modern scholarship beyond what occurred during his lifetime. Bakfark’s father Thomas was a lutenist, and so were his brother Michael (probably) and Michael’s son Johannes (two dances ed. in Valentini Bakfark opera omnia, iii, appx 1–2). Valentin Bakfark’s date of birth was formerly believed to be 1507 (or 1506/...


Monique Rollin

revised by David Ledbetter

Member of Ballard family

(b ?Paris, c1575; d after 1649). French lutenist and composer, son of Robert Ballard (i). He apparently never took part in the family business. His father’s partner Adrian Le Roy was probably his first lute teacher; after Le Roy’s death in 1598 he became a lutenist of some distinction, and by 1600 he was teaching the lute to his landlord’s son in lieu of part of his rent. In 1611 he published his first lutebook, and in the following year the regent, Maria de’ Medici, employed him as her maître de luth; in this capacity he became responsible in September 1612 for the tuition of the young King Louis XIII. In 1615 he was still in Maria’s service and performed on the lute in the Ballet de Madame; but in the retrenchments of court expenditure of 1618 his salaried position was terminated and he was henceforth paid only as required. Under this arrangement he continued for 16 years to bear the title ‘musicien ordinaire du roi’ and, although a notarial act of ...


Jeanette B. Holland

revised by Arthur J. Ness

(fl Piacenza, 1554). Italian lutenist and composer. He is known only from his lutebook Intabolatura de lauto … di varie sorte de balli … libro primo (Venice, 1554; ed. G. Lefkoff, Five Sixteenth Century Venetian Lute Books, Washington DC, 1960). The dedication to Conte Honorio Scotto was signed in Piacenza. Most of the 14 pieces in the volume are familiar Italian dance forms: there are two paduana and saltarello pairs, a work based on the romanesca (La favorita), and two pieces on the bergamasca harmonic formula (I–IV–V–I). The first of these, Il sgazzotte, is an independent work, but the second is a ‘represe’ for La moretta and is a striking piece of more than 50 virtuoso variations. Several dances (La rocha il fuso, Ciel turchino and Non ti partir da me) use popular song melodies; Non ti partir appeared later as Ti parti cor mio caro...


Frank Dobbins


Member of Barbe family

(b Antwerp, after 1573; d Antwerp, June 10, 1636). Flemish theorist, organist and teacher, son of Antoine Barbe (ii). On 23 February 1596 he was appointed organist of St Jacobskerk, Antwerp, and later acted as repairer and tuner of organs in other churches in the city. In ...


Arthur J. Ness

(fl Padua, c1545–50). Italian priest, composer, lutenist and guitarist. He composed or intabulated books 4, 5, 6, 9 and 10 in Girolamo Scotto’s ten volume series of lute tablatures (Venice, 1546–9), which also included tablatures by Francesco da Milano, Rotta, Giovanni Maria da Crema and Borrono. Barberiis’s name is absent from lists of prominent Paduan musicians of the time, and only two of his pieces were reprinted in later collections. At best, his five books preserve the practical repertory of a ‘sonatore eccellentissimo di lautto’ who had little or no formal musical training.

Barberiis’s ricercares, fantasias and canzonas, some of which are in two or three sections, are usually constructed from a succession of chords (often drawn from madrigals or dances) filled out and linked by ornamental passage work. One fantasia is a simple gloss upon a composition by Francesco da Milano. Book 4 (1546...


Carol MacClintock

revised by Dinko Fabris

(b ?Padua c1540; d after 1603). Italian lutenist and composer. Title-pages of his publications refer to him as ‘Padoano’. Padua was one of the centres of lute building and teaching. Barbetta's surviving lute books are among the most important Italian sources for the old six-course (‘second l'uso antico’) and new seven-course lute. The dedications of some of his publications to German aristocrats suggests connections with Germany (through German students at the University of Padua). His music was well known in northern Europe: ten gagliardas and two of the passamezzos from his first book (1569) were reprinted in Theatrum musicum (RISM 157116) without attribution to Barbetta.

His compositions show the traditional Italian preference for lute fantasias, dance forms of all kinds and vocal intabulations. The first book of intabulations contains only pieces for solo lute: paduanas, gagliardas, passamezzos and fantasias. His 1582 book was issued in two versions, one with a Latin title and German text and another with Italian title and text. The collection contains original lute pieces (preambles, fantasies, dances) and intabulations of vocal works – madrigals and motets by Janequin, Wert, Lassus and Mouton. The ...


Argia Bertini and Susan Parisi

Italian family of singers and instrumentalists.

Baroni, Adriana [Adreana] (b Posillipo, nr Naples, c1580–83; d probably Naples, after 1642)

Baroni, Leonora [Eleanora, Lionora] (b Mantua, Dec 1611; d Rome, April 6, 1670)

Baroni, Caterina (b Naples, 1619; d ?Rome, c1670)

DBI (L. Pannella)ES (E. Zanetti)A. Maugars: Response faite à un curieux sur le sentiment de la musique d'Italie, escrite à Rome le premier octobre 1639 (Paris, c1640/R with Eng. trans., Geneva, 1993; ed. E. Thoinan, Paris, 1865/R; Eng. trans. in J.S. Shedlock: ‘André Maugars’, Studies in Music, ed. R. Grey, London, 1901; ed. J. Heuillon, Paris, 1991)P. Della Valle: Della musica dell'età nostra (MS, 1640); pr. in G.B. Doni: Lyra Barberina amphicordos, ed. A.F. Gori and G.B. Passeri, ii (Florence, 1763/R); repr. in A. Solerti: Le origini del melodramma...


Susan Parisi


Member of Baroni family and Basile family

(b Posillipo, nr Naples, c1580–83; d probably Naples, after 1642). Italian singer and instrumentalist, sister of Giovanni Battista Basile and Lelio Basile. She was the mother of Leonora Baroni (see Baroni family). Little is known about her early life. She may have been the singer in the household of Luigi Carafa; Duke of Traetto, whom Cardinal Montalto considered trying to obtain for his sister, the Duchess of Bracciano, in 1590. Between 1609 and 1610, when Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga and his wife negotiated to bring her to Mantua, her husband, Mutio Baroni, a nobleman, was in Carafa’s service and she was in the employ of Carafa’s wife, Isabella Gonzaga. Adriana and her family travelled to Mantua via Rome, Bracciano, Bagnaia (the country residence of Cardinal Montalto) and Florence, where her singing won her considerable acclaim (she was lodged in the house of Giulio Caccini and performed with Jacopo Peri, among others). Adriana worked from ...


Anthony Newcomb

[Orazio della Viola]

(b Cento, c1550; d Nov 8, 1615). Italian instrumentalist and composer. Bassani was a renowned virtuoso of the viola bastarda. He entered the service of the Farnese court at Parma as a viola player on 1 November 1574. His service there was interrupted by a brief period with Cardinal Farnese in Rome in 1583. During the 1580s and 90s the courts of Mantua and Ferrara tried vigorously but unsuccessfully to lure Bassani to their own music establishments. Upon the death of Ottario Farnese in October 1586, Bassani was called to the service of Alessandro Farnese in Brussels, with an annual pension of 300 gold scudi. Upon the death of Alessandro Farnese in 1592, he returned to Parma and the service of Duke Ranuccio Farnese, who commissioned Agostino Caracci to paint the portrait of Bassani now in the Museo nazionale di Capodimonte in Naples. After returning to Rome again in ...


Carol MacClintock

revised by Iain Fenlon

[Belgioioso, Baldassare de; ‘Baltazarini’]

(b Piedmont, c1535; d c1587). Italian ballet-master and violinist. He went to France in about 1555 as leader of a band of violinists sent by the Maréchal de Brissac to Catherine de' Medici; soon he adopted French nationality and changed his name to Balthasar de Beaujoyeux. Beaujoyeux was not only a good musician and a competent violinist, but also a tactful and successful courtier who rapidly found favour with his French masters, serving successively as valet de chambre to the sovereign, to Queen Catherine, Mary Stuart, Charles IX and Henri III of Valois. His principal duties at court were those of ballet-master and ‘master of the revels’, devising and superintending a variety of court entertainments, including masquerades, pastorals and intermedi. Influenced on the one hand by the performances of the Italian travelling troupe, the Compagnia dei Gelosi, then in Paris, and on the other by the aesthetics of the Pléiade, Beaujoyeux' choreographic skills found full expression in the luxurious and costly ...