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[‘il Moretto’]

(b Verona, c1577; d Verona, Feb 15, 1637). Italian maestro and composer. He was of modest origins (his stepfather was a cobbler); his nickname (‘the little Moor’) in the Verona documents renders some African or Levant heritage plausible at the very least. Educated in the Verona scuola degli accoliti (which implied taking minor orders), he became a singer at the cathedral under Baccusi in 1603 and also worked for the Accademia Filarmonica from 1602, despite his class status. In 1609, he arranged for a long sabbatical to go to Rome, where he was maestro at S Maria dei Monti (almost a job switch with G.F. Anerio, who went thence to Verona); more importantly, he saw his first works into fairly cheap print, a medium that would underlie his future career. Back in Verona in 1611, he was the cathedral’s second but final choice to be the new ...


(fl Russia, mid-16th century). Russian bell and cannon founder. Of unknown origin, Ganusov might have come from Germany or the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to Moscow, where in the mid-16th century he worked at the court of Ivan the Terrible. A very large bell cast at the Moscow cannon foundry in 1550 has been tentatively credited to him; it has not survived. Presumably before 1564 he moved to Smolensk, where a cannon bearing his name or names of his apprentices survived into the 19th century. Ganusov is not named in documents after the late 1560s. His apprentices included Bogdan Andreytokhov, Yuri Bochkaryov, Semyon Dubinin (who moved to Pskov), Nikita Tupitsyn, and most famously Andrei Chokhov (Chekhov) (c1545–1629), whose castings in Moscow included many famous pieces of artillery and other massive bronze armaments as well as bells. Boris Godunov donated two of Chokov’s bells, cast in ...


Georgios Mentzos and Konstantinos Mavrogenis

revised by Iain Fenlon

[Frankiskos Leontaritis, detto il Greco]

(b Iraklion; d Crete, 1572). Cretan composer, active mostly in Germany and Italy. By 1535 he had been ordained priest, and between 1537 and 1544 served as organist at the cathedral of S Titus in Iraklion. It may have been the destruction of the cathedral by fire in that year that caused Londariti to move to Venice, where he was employed as a singer at S Marco until about 1556. In the following year he served briefly as a singer at Padua Cathedral, after which he is next heard of in 1562 as a member of the Bavarian ducal chapel in Munich. There he remained until about 1566, and by 1569 he had returned to Crete. Londariti’s two books of published motets contain a number of occasional pieces including two in honour of the second marriage of the banker Johann Jacob Fugger. The six-voice collection opens with an encomiastic piece, ...


Lewis Lockwood, Noel O’Regan, and Jessie Ann Owens


(b probably at Palestrina, almost certainly between Feb 3, 1525 and Feb 2, 1526; d Rome, Feb 2, 1594). Italian composer. He ranks with Lassus and Byrd as one of the towering figures in the music of the late 16th century. He was primarily a prolific composer of masses and motets but was also an important madrigalist. Among the native Italian musicians of the 16th century who sought to assimilate the richly developed polyphonic techniques of their French and Flemish predecessors, none mastered these techniques more completely or subordinated them more effectively to the requirements of musical cogency. His success in reconciling the functional and aesthetic aims of Catholic church music in the post-Tridentine period earned him an enduring reputation as the ideal Catholic composer, as well as giving his style (or, more precisely, later generations’ selective view of it) an iconic stature as a model of perfect achievement....


Robert L. Kendrick

(b c 1570; d Milan, between 1613 and 1619). Italian composer. She was a nun at the Lateran Canoness house of S Maria Annunciata in Milan; her singing abilities were praised by visitors on Margherita of Austria’s 1598 visit to the city; possibly she was from the Daverio (Lombardy) branch of this widespread family. Puteanus (Modulata Pallas, 1599) and Borsieri’s posthumous encomium (1619) remark on her outstanding musical talents and model life, the latter noting her death just as she was beginning to compose. She may have been the nun whose singing Francis de Sales lauded on a 1613 visit to Milan, while Isabella Andreini wrote a sonnet in her praise. Her two sacred songs, Vattene pur, lasciva orechia humana and Occhi io vissi di voi (for soprano and basso continuo; in Canoro pianto di Maria Vergine, RISM 1613³), belong to the north Italian monodic tradition; ...


Peter Le Huray, John A. Irving, and Kerry McCarthy

British family of church musicians and composers.

Tomkins, Thomas (b St Davids, Pembrokeshire, 1572; d Martin Hussingtree, Worcestershire, bur. June 9, 1656)

Tomkins, John (b St Davids, 1586; d London, Sept 27, 1638)

Tomkins, Giles (b St Davids, after 1587; d Salisbury, before Nov 30, 1668)

Tomkins, Nathaniel (b Worcester, 1599; d Martin Hussingtree, Oct 20, 1681)

Tomkins, Robert (fl 1628–41)

KermanEM; LafontaineKM; Le HurayMR; MeyerECME.F. Rimbault: The Old Cheque-Book, or Book of Remembrance of the Chapel Royal (London, 1872/R)I. Atkins: The Early Occupants of the Office of Organist and Master of the Choristers of the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary, Worcester (Worcester, 1918)D.H. Robertson: Sarum Close (London, 1938, 2/1969)H.M. Miller: ‘Pretty Wayes: for Young Beginners to looke on’, MQ, 33 (1947), 543–56R.W. Cavanaugh: The Anthems in ‘Musica Deo Sacra’ by Thomas Tomkins...