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Jan van der Veen

revised by J.H. Giskes

Among Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck’s (see Amsterdam: Concert life) pupils were founders of the so-called North German organ school, as well as dilettantes from well-to-do families. During the 17th and 18th centuries instrument makers also gave music lessons to their customers and apprentices. Music, mainly singing, was taught in elementary schools in the 18th century. Didactic books were published and such societies as the Maatschappij tot Nut van 't Algemeen (1784) were founded with the improvement of music education among their aims.

In 1827 the Koninklijke Muziekschool opened (later called the Stedelijke Muziekschool, 1844–52). The Maatschappij tot Bevordering der Toonkunst started a new music school in 1853, with J.B. van Bree as its director; it closed in 1857. In 1862 Toonkunst opened a ‘Zangschool’ for dilettantes. The Amsterdam Conservatory was founded in 1884 with Frans Coenen as director, followed by Daniël de Lange and Julius Röntgen. Bernard Zweers, Willem Pijper and Ton de Leeuw taught composition there. The Orkestschool, an initiative of Willem Kes, was opened in the Concertgebouw in ...


Leonard Burkat

revised by Pamela Fox

Early settlers were concerned with musical education, and devotional singing is said to have had a place in the original curriculum at Harvard College, founded in 1636. The first published musical teaching material is the ‘admonition to the reader’, in the Bay Psalm Book of 1640, and the instructive introductions to 18th-century tune books extended this practice. By 1720 the traditional ‘old way of singing’ came under attack from those who favoured musically literate ‘regular singing’, and singing schools were established. A century of Yankee tunesmiths wrote and published the psalm settings and hymns that were their teaching pieces, but early 19th-century hymnodic reformers sought to replace earlier American psalmody with ‘scientific’ European models.

Lowell Mason studied the methods of Swiss educational theorist Pestalozzi and applied them to the children’s music classes that he taught in churches and private schools. In the Boston Academy of Music he held teacher-training classes in addition to its concerts. In ...


Ury Eppstein

Musical life in modern Jerusalem can be divided into two separate spheres: the liturgical music of the various Jewish, Christian and Muslim religious communities who maintain their living musical traditions; and Western secular art music.

Most of the many Jewish religious musical traditions are represented in the synagogues of the various communities, the most ancient being of Middle Eastern origin, mainly from the Yemen, Baghdad, Kurdistan, Iran, Bokhara and Syria. On further investigation, these may prove to preserve elements of musical traditions from biblical times. There are also representatives of the musical traditions of Spanish-based Sephardi communities, especially those from North Africa, Greece and Turkey, as well as of the mainstreams of eastern European Ashkenazi tradition, namely Hasidism (which created in Jerusalem a special vocal style imitating instruments, stimulated by the ban on instrumental music imposed to signify mourning for the destruction of the Temple) and its opponents, Mithnagdim, who developed a Jerusalem version of the Lithuanian-style Bible cantillation. Western European communities, mainly from Germany, also have synagogues with their own musical traditions....



Robert N. Freeman

Town in Lower Austria. The strategic location of the fortress Medelica (Melk) on a slope overlooking the Danube led the Babenbergs, Austria's medieval rulers, to establish their court there in 976. Monks from the Benedictine abbey of Lambach were invited to join the court in 1089; shortly after 1110, when the Babenbergs moved to Klosterneuburg, the Benedictines became the owners of Melk and a large area of land. This link with the Austrian monarchal line made the wealthy abbey one of the Empire's most powerful institutions.

Soon after their arrival the Benedictines founded a boys' choir; pueri are mentioned as early as 1140 and a cloister school, training boys for singing in processions and daily church services, is described in a manuscript dating from 1160. The scriptorium was most productive in the first half of the 13th century. A great fire (1297) destroyed most of the manuscripts recording this formative musical period. 133 codices survived intact, about half of which originated at Melk, including the ...