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Article

Wolfgang Plath

[Jean]

Member of André family

(b Offenbach, March 28, 1741; d Offenbach, June 18, 1799). German composer and publisher, of French extraction. His peasant grandfather, a Huguenot, fled persecution in Languedoc and settled in 1688 in Frankfurt, where he became a manufacturer of silks. When only ten years old Johann succeeded to the family firm, which was directed during his minority by his mother and an uncle. His early education in music, described by Gerber as ‘notes, metre and some playing of chorales’, came through a friend who took lessons in Frankfurt; from 1756, while he learnt business management in the family firm, he had lessons in thoroughbass for several months from a transient musician, apparently the only regular instruction he ever received. Around 1758 he went to Mannheim to further his business training and there he enthusiastically attended concerts, plays, and operas, acquainting himself with the current repertory of serious and comic Italian opera as well as the modern instrumental style specific to Mannheim....

Article

Samuel F. Pogue

revised by Jonathan Le Cocq

Member of Ballard family

(b Paris, April 12, 1641; d Paris, before May 28, 1715). French music printer, eldest son of Robert Ballard (iii). On 11 May 1673 he was named sole music printer to the king. In anticipation of his own death his father had obtained letters-patent from the king dated 25 October 1672 to assure Christophe’s succeeding him in the title. Like his father, he had started independently in business as a bookseller, besides working as a helper in the family firm. His only brother Pierre (ii) (d 1703) also printed music for some time, but a court edict of 8 August 1696 ordered him to turn over his supply of music type to Christophe and denied Pierre or his widow the right to print any more music.

A highpoint in the firm’s success, equal to that of the 16th century, was reached in about ...

Article

Samuel F. Pogue

revised by Jonathan Le Cocq

Member of Ballard family

(b Paris,c1701; d Paris, Sept 5, 1765). French music printer, son of Jean-Baptiste-Christophe Ballard. He received the royal privilege on the death of his father. He had been active as a bookseller since 1741 and as a printer since 1742. With him the fame and success of the firm ended. A police report described him as ‘lazy and untalented’. In the 18th century printing privileges had become less a matter of royal approval than a means to add to the royal treasury. In 1762 a royal decree restricted their period to 15 years and in 1790 they were abolished. The Ballards, equipped with increasingly meaningless privileges, still using lozenge-shaped notes and old-fashioned initial letters from the 16th century, were unwilling or unable to change with the times. A report from a Parlement commission in 1764 said ‘the public has been disgusted for a long time with the music of Sieur Ballard’....

Article

Samuel F. Pogue

revised by Jonathan Le Cocq

Member of Ballard family

(b Paris, c1663; d Paris, May 1750). French music printer, son of Christophe Ballard and Marie Lamielle. He was established as a master printer and bookseller in the rue Frementelle on 6 June 1694. On his father’s death he moved to the Ballard shop in the rue Saint-Jean-de-Beauvais and received his father’s title as royal printer for music. He continued the monthly Airs sérieux et à boire and flooded the market with various ‘Tendresses’, ‘Parodies’, ‘Amusements’ and ‘Menuets chantants’, in an attempt to capture a wider audience. He produced monumental editions of the works of Lully, Destouches and Campra and was the publisher of Rameau’s Traité (1722) and Nouveau système (1726). During his later years, as more and more engraved music was issued by others, the prestige and influence of the house of Ballard began to decline.

For Bibliography ...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(fl Castleton, Derbys., 1723–53). English psalmodist and ?composer. In 1723 he published the first edition of A Book of Psalmody in conjunction with John Barber. A second edition, by Robert Barber alone, followed in 1733, and a third, entitled David’s Harp Well Tuned, in 1753. He also published The Psalm Singer’s Choice Companion in 1727. A Book of Psalmody enjoyed a good deal of popularity in the north Midlands. It was similar to other parochial collections, and most of its contents were derivative. The second edition, however, had a remarkable feature: it included, as well as chants for the canticles, a complete musical setting of Morning Prayer, litany and ante-communion on cathedral lines, but for alto, tenor and bass only. Barber made it clear on the title-page that this was designed for ‘our Country Churches’. He thus brought to its logical conclusion the trend begun by Henry Playford, who published anthems for parish church use in ...

Article

Sally Drage

(bap. Sunningwell, Oxon., June 23, 1700; d after 1758). English psalmodist and singing teacher . He was a farmer's son. One of the first itinerant singing teachers to engrave and print his own music, he was arguably the ‘father’ of the fuging-tune, which became popular in England and America during the late 18th century. A psalmody book, apparently produced in the mid-1720s, has not survived, but four later publications, all undated, make a substantial contribution to our knowledge of country psalmody. The different editions had identical titles, but the use of separate engraving plates meant that contents could vary according to the purchaser's requirements. The music, which Beesly collected but may not have composed, exemplifies the bare harmony and unresolved dissonance of much early Gallery music. Although a few previous examples exist, his claim that the 20 new psalm tunes were ‘Compos'd with veriety of Fuges after a different manner to any yet extant’ is fully justified; his tune to Psalm viii was widely reprinted....

Article

Frank Kidson

revised by H.G. Farmer, Peter Ward Jones, and David Hunter

(b ?London, ?1706; d London, bur. June 23, 1771). English engraver, publisher and bookseller. He worked in Covent Garden, London, having learnt the trade from his father George Bickham (b ?1684; d London, 4 May 1758), an engraver best known for The Universal Penman (1733–41). He was principally famous in music circles for his two illustrated folio volumes The Musical Entertainer, first issued in fortnightly parts, each containing four plates, from January 1737 to December 1739. The 200 plates are songs, headed and surrounded with pictorial embellishments illustrative of the song (see illustration), and engraved in the style of and even copied directly from Gravelot and Watteau. This work was the first of its kind to be published in England and quickly produced imitators such as Lampe’s British Melody, engraved by Benjamin Cole.

A second edition, corrected by Lampe, was also issued in parts (...

Article

Sylvette Milliot

(b c1693; d Paris, Nov 25, 1733). French music seller and music publisher. He was the nephew of the double bass player and composer Montéclair, and brother of the string instrument maker Claude Boivin. On 15 July 1721 Boivin bought the music shop ‘A la règle d’or’ on the rue St Honoré, Paris, after the death of Henry Foucault who had owned it; he and his uncle went into partnership to trade there. In addition to selling scores he soon published music and bought two licences in 1728 and 1729. He published works by Montéclair, Jacques Loeillet and Quantz, among others. On 2 July 1724 he married Elizabeth Catherine Ballard, second daughter of Jean-Baptiste-Christophe Ballard, who assisted him. As a result of their efforts, and the family connection with Montéclair and Ballard, ‘A la règle d’or’ became one of the foremost music shops in Paris. Works by Vivaldi, Corelli, P.A. Locatelli, Telemann and Quantz could be found there, but the mainstay of the stock was French, including cantatas by Nicolas Bernier and Clérambault, harpsichord works by François Couperin, Louis Marchand and Jean-François Dandrieu, violin sonatas by J.-M. Leclair and Senaillé, sonatas for flute by Louis Hotteterre, suites for viola da gamba by Marais and Caix d’Hervelois, motets by Lalande (...

Article

Robert J. Bruce and Ian Bartlett

(b London, bap. Sept 11, 1711; d London, Feb 7, 1779 ). English composer, organist and editor. Though formerly best known for some of his anthems and his editing of Cathedral Music (1760–73), the significant contribution he made to instrumental music, song, secular choral and theatre music in England is now widely recognized.

Ian Bartlett

Boyce’s family came from Warwickshire, where his grandfather was a farmer. His father, John, the youngest of five sons, came to London in 1691 to be apprenticed to a joiner. He settled in the City of London, as a joiner and cabinetmaker, and married Elizabeth Cordwell in 1703. They were living in Maiden Lane (now Skinners Lane) when William, the last of their four children, was born. In 1723 John Boyce was appointed resident beadle for the Joiners’ Company, whose headquarters were situated close to his house. Joiners’ Hall became William’s home for the next 30 years or so....

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(bap. Almondbury, Yorks. June 8, 1688; bur. Skipton, June 26, 1746). English psalmodist. Almondbury parish records show two baptisms of John Chetham, son of James Chetham: one on 26 December 1687, the other on 8 June 1688; presumably the first infant died soon after he was baptized. Axon printed a letter of 1752 by William Chetham giving details of the writer’s father, John Chetham; it is not certain, however, that this is John Chetham the psalmodist. The only certain facts about Chetham are his appointments as Master of the Clerk’s School, Skipton, on 7 July 1723 and curate of Skipton on 4 February 1741 at £30 a year, and his burial.

Chetham’s importance in English parish church music is considerable, although resting on a single work: A Book of Psalmody, published in Sheffield in 1718, but advertised in the Nottingham Weekly Courant as early as 27 February 1717...

Article

Frank Kidson

revised by William C. Smith, Peter Ward Jones, and David Hunter

(b ?London, late 17th century; d London, Oct 1728). English music printer and publisher. As early as 1715 he was active in London as a general printer whose production included ballads, chapbooks, labels and shopkeepers’ signs. He soon turned to music printing and issued some of the best engraved music of his period. A considerable innovator, he experimented with new methods of printing both from engraved plates and from music types. Beginning with the printing of the Suites de pièces pour le clavecin in 1720, Cluer had business relations with Handel, publishing in score nine of his operas, the first being Giulio Cesare in 1724, which was issued in the unusual format of a large pocket-size volume. Both this and the later operas are remarkable for their finely engraved title-pages and frontispieces. Other notable publications include the two volumes of A Pocket Companion for Gentlemen and Ladies (...

Article

Stanley Boorman

(fl London, 1740–60). English engraver. Several engravers of this name flourished in England during the 18th century, though probably only one worked at music. His first work appears in Walsh's publication of J.F. Lampe's Songs and Duetto's in … The Dragon of Wantley (1738) and music from the same composer's Margery (1740). His most important work was for the British Melody, or The Musical Magazine, published in 15 (probably fortnightly) instalments from February 1738. It reappeared as a set, published by Cole, in 1739. This was the first of the many rivals and successors to Bickham's The Musical Entertainer. Cole's work is of a very high standard, though less flexible and imaginative than Bickham's; the latter twice referred disparagingly to Cole in his second volume. As was customary, Cole continued to reissue separate plates for several years. He also engraved the music plates for ...

Article

William C. Smith

revised by Peter Ward Jones

(b ?London, 1695–1705; d ?London, after1742). English music seller and publisher, father of organist and composer Benjamin Cooke. He was active in London from 1726 to 1743, and published a considerable number of vocal and instrumental works, some of them obviously pirated from other publishers, others under licence as authoritative first editions. His publications were mostly in a heavy bold style, but some were engraved in a lighter style by Thomas Cross. After Cooke’s death or retirement some of his plates were acquired by John Johnson (ii), who reissued copies from them. Cooke’s publications include Roseingrave’s XII Solos for a German Flute (1730), Handel’s Sonatas op.2 (c1733) and 42 ‘suites’ by Domenico Scarlatti in two volumes (1739). His most interesting publication, however, was that of the five books of sonatas and the 12 concertos of Corelli issued in 1732. Not only do these constitute a collected edition of the composer’s works, but all, including the concertos, were published in score expressly for study purposes, an extraordinary form of publication for instrumental music at that time. Cooke’s plates were used well into the 19th century for reissues of these works....

Article

Lowell Lindgren

(b Rome; d ?London, after 1741). Italian teacher of languages and editor of librettos . He was in London by 1723, when he published A New Method for the Italian Tongue: or, a Short Way to Learn It. Its title-page identifies him as ‘a Roman, Master of the Latin, Spanish and Italian Languages; living at Mr. Wallis’s in Lisle-Street, near Leicester-Fields’, and its list of subscribers includes Ariosti, Bononcini, Geminiani, J. J. Heidegger and John Rich, the poet Paolo Antonio Rolli and many diplomats (including Riva of Modena). Rolli refers to Cori as Padre or Fra ‘Ciro’ in five extant epigrams and declares that he was defrocked and became a freemason. Rolli also describes him and the aged ‘Roscio’ (Giacomo Rossi) as teachers of Mongolese Italian who exercised their poetic ability where the ‘cembalo alemanno’ (‘German harpsichord’) had banished good sense. Cori as well as Rossi may thus have adapted texts for Handel in the 1730s....

Article

Frank Kidson

revised by William C. Smith, Peter Ward Jones, and David Hunter

(b ?London, ?1660–65; d ?London, ?1732–5). English music engraver, printer, publisher and music seller. He was probably the son of the 17th-century engraver Thomas Cross, who engraved some frontispieces and portraits for John Playford’s publications, including the portrait of the composer John Gamble (Ayres and Dialogues, 1656), and who may have engraved some music. From 1683 to about 1710 the younger Cross often signed himself ‘Tho. Cross junior sculpt.’, as on his first known work, Purcell’s Sonnata’s of III. Parts (1683), printed for the composer. From about 1692 to about 1720 he kept a music shop in London. He was the first to issue songs in single sheet format rather than in collections, and from the 1690s a considerable number of these appeared under his imprint. At first they were engraved on copper plates, which was an expensive method considering the ephemeral nature of the sheet songs, but he later used a cheaper material, probably pewter. He had a virtual monopoly of the music engraving trade until Walsh established his business in ...

Article

Anne Schnoebelen

(d Oct 6, 1749). Italian music publisher and bookseller. His firm was active in Bologna for most of the 18th century and was famous in the art of typography and for the accuracy and elegance of its editions. In 1720, as head of a society of Bolognese printers, Della Volpe acquired the printing establishment of the widow of Giulio Borsaghi. His first musical publication was an enlarged edition (1720) of Angelo Bertalotti’s Regole utilissime per … il canto fermo. He issued a further enlarged edition in 1744 (reprinted 1756, 1764 and 1778). He ordered musical type characters from the Netherlands and in 1734 began his music printing activities in earnest, starting with Giovanni Battista Martini’s op.1, Litaniae atque antiphonae finales B. Virginis Mariae. Della Volpe was also active as a bookseller, handling the musical publications of the Bolognese printers P.M. Monti and G.A. Silvani. In ...

Article

William C. Smith

revised by Peter Ward Jones

(fl c1736–40). French music engraver and printer, active in England. Though his musical activities in London were apparently short-lived (according to Hawkins he was also a watchmaker), he is renowned for the excellence of his engraving, particularly in his superb edition of Domenico Scarlatti’s Essercizi per gravicembalo (1739), with notes and staves of a larger size than usual (see illustration). Other fine engravings by Fortier include Porpora’s Sinfonie da camera … opra II (1736), De Fesch’s XII sonate, VI per il violino e basso per l’organo … e VI a duoi violoncelli … opera ottava (1736), a song by Farinelli, Ossequioso ringraziamento (c1737), Giuseppe Sammartini’s VI concerti grossi … opra II (1738) and Guerini’s Sonate a violino con viola da gamba ó cembalo (c1740).

HawkinsH Humphries-SmithMP R. Kirkpatrick: Domenico Scarlatti (Princeton, 1953, 4/1983)...

Article

Frank Dobbins

(fl Paris, 1690–1719/20). French music dealer and publisher. It is not known whether he was related to earlier publishers with the same family name, none of whom was apparently involved in music printing. Like other 18th-century music dealers, Henri Foucault was associated with the corporation of haberdashers and jewellers rather than that of the booksellers. He was originally a paper seller, with a shop ‘A la règle d’or’, rue St Honoré, but seems to have branched out from this trade by 28 June 1690, when a condemnation issued by the Conseil d’Etat accused him – in association with the engraver Henri de Baussen – of contravening Christophe Ballard’s royal privilege by publishing ‘divers airs de musique’. Two years later Foucault’s name appears on the title-page of Marais’s Pièces en trio pour les flûtes, violons et dessus de viole, in association with Hurel, Bonneüil and the composer, but he is still designated simply as ‘marchand papetier’. However by ...

Article

H. Edmund Poole

revised by Stanley Boorman

[le jeune]

(b Paris, Sept 15, 1712; d Paris, Oct 8, 1768). French typographer. The son of a typefounder, he was cutting punches and casting type by 1736, and in 1739 was registered in this craft with the printing section of the Chambre Syndicale of Paris. He issued his first specimen book, Modèles des caractères de l’imprimerie, in 1742. It was a tremendous achievement, showing (among other material) 4600 letters that he had cut in a wide range of styles with their sizes correlated in a logical and mathematical way. This system, quite new in typefounding, he had evolved in 1737, and he showed it in his Modèles as ‘Table des proportions des differens caractères de l’imprimerie’.

Fournier’s power of analysis and prodigious technical skill were clearly demonstrated in the six types that he devised for the printing of music. Two were for plainchant, one was for ‘Hugenot music’. Three were for songs and instrumental music. The first of this group was designed for double impression, with the staff lines printed first and the notes and other signs overprinted in a second pass through the press (...

Article

Jamie C. Kassler

(b ?London, ?1715; d Bedford, April 5, 1767). English lexicographer of French parentage. He served an apprenticeship to a Mr Godfrey, chemist in Southampton Street, Covent Garden. Since he was fluent in French, understood Latin and knew ‘a little’ about music, he became amanuensis to J.C. Pepusch, for whom he extracted passages from music-theoretical writings and translated into English some of the Greek music theorists from the Latin of Meibomius. With the recommendation of Pepusch, Maurice Greene and J.E. Galliard, Grassineau compiled A Musical Dictionary (London, 1740), which commentators, following Charles Burney, assumed was a mere translation of the French dictionary by Sébastien de Brossard. Hawkins, however, was closer to the truth when he noted that Grassineau’s Dictionary included considerable matter from other, unnamed, sources. In 1769 it was reissued, by an unknown editor, with a separate appendix, containing articles from Rousseau’s dictionary.

HawkinsH ?J. Grassineau: Extracts relating to music from the ...