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Article

Dennis Libby

(b Milan, c 1720; d after 1766). Italian tenor . He made his début in opera seria in Venice in autumn 1737, then sang with the Mingotti company in central Europe, resuming his Italian career in autumn 1740 when he was quickly recognized as a leading artist with engagements in the most important theatres. In Venice he sang in Gluck’s ...

Article

Michael Davidson and J.H. Giskes

The Schouwburg on the Keizersgracht (see fig.1), inaugurated in 1638, soon became the cultural centre of Amsterdam, giving ballets, plays with music and French opera. The whole audience paid for their seats; enormous surplus profits were given to charities. In 1680 an opera house was opened on the Leidsegracht: it had an initial success, but failed financially and closed in 1682. In the 18th century the popularity of opera grew rapidly and some theatres thrived outside the city boundaries. Dutch, Italian and German operas predominated. The Flemish troupe of Jacques Toussaint Neyts performed French and other operas in Dutch. In 1772 the Schouwburg burnt down; the company moved first to nearby Haarlem, then to the Overtoomseweg just outside Amsterdam, and finally to the new Schouwburg (later the Stadsschouwburg on the Leidseplein, which opened in 1774); its principal conductor was Bartholomeus Ruloffs.

After 1770, various societies were founded to break the monopoly of the Schouwburg. The Collège Dramatique et Lyrique (founded ...

Article

( fl 1719–42). Italian choreographer and dancer . He was probably a native of Florence, since he is often cited in librettos as ‘Francesco Aquilanti, Fiorentino’ or ‘da Firenze’. His early choreographic work was concentrated in Venice, where he provided ballets for 17 operas at the Teatro S Giovanni Grisostomo (1721–34; including Leo’s Catone in Utica, Porpora’s Semiramide riconosciuta and works by Gasparini, Orlandini, Vinci and others), and for five operas during Ascension seasons at the Teatro S Samuele (1722–35; including Vivaldi’s Griselda). During this time he is also listed as a choreographer in Reggio Emilia (1725, Porpora’s Didone abbandonata) and as a dancer for opera productions in Turin (1727–8, 1729–30), along with Chiara Aquilanti who may have been his wife, sister or daughter. He spent two seasons in Naples as a choreographer, first for operas at the Teatro S Bartolomeo (1736–7...

Article

Gerard Béhague

There is scant evidence of musical life in Argentina during this period. As in most Latin American countries, the earliest efforts to establish a regular musical life in the European sense were made by missionaries, especially the Jesuits whose missions covered the Paraná river area and the La Plata region (Paraguay and Argentina). Music was important in the catechization of the indigenous Amerindian population, but the absence of conventual historians and the disappearance of the music archives of the Jesuits (see Lange) restrict any assessment of music-making during the 16th and 17th centuries. The first missionaries were Father Alonso Barzana, a Jesuit, and Francisco Solano, a Franciscan who was eventually canonized.

The first reference to an organ in the church of Santiago del Estero dates from 1585; the first school of music was founded by Father Pedro Comental (1595–1665). The music taught was mainly plainchant and polyphonic song, and Amerindians and African slaves soon became skilful musicians and instrument makers: there is documentary evidence of locally made European instruments before ...

Article

Distinctions within traditional Argentine music are based on both musical and non-musical historical criteria and arise according to whether the music is that of a pre-Hispanic indigenous group (for further discussion of the music of Amerindians in Argentina see Latin America, §I) or is Creole, that is of Spanish language and musical heritage, occasionally with some indigenous features. The main differences lie in the presence or absence of European influences in the music and texts of songs and the degree to which societies and groups themselves share the cultural institutions of the majority. The imposition on the indigenous population of the Spanish language and of Roman Catholicism and its religious calendar prepared the ground for the development of a rural Creole culture, creating the environment for Creole music traditions, which later absorbed other incoming population influences. At the same time, in terms of language and religious belief, some pre-Hispanic indigenous cultures survived into the 20th century. In the 20th century the musical map was inevitably altered, and significant changes occurred due to the migration of population from rural to urban areas, the partial adoption of Protestantism by some indigenous groups and the increased popularity of Creole music. The Amerindian–Creole dimensions of traditional music, instrumentaria and dance vary according to region....

Article

Philip Weller

( fl 1704–7). French soprano . After making her début at the Paris Opéra in 1704, as Venus and La Jeunesse in Destouches’ Le carnaval et la folie, she sang Iris in the revival of Lully’s Isis later that year. She created the role of Electra in Desmarets and Campra’s ...

Article

Dennis Libby

(b ?Rome, c 1720; d after 1755). Italian soprano . She is first found in comic opera in Naples in 1735–6, and was expelled from the kingdom for unknown reasons, probably her sexual conduct. She was seconda donna in opera seria in Parma in Carnival 1737 and rose to prima donna in Carnival ...

Article

David Cummings

(b Graglia, nr Vercelli, 1720; d Turin, Oct 28, 1757). Italian soprano. After study with Bravio in Milan she made her début at the Teatro Regio, Turin, in Il Ciro riconosciuto by Leonardo Leo (1739). She sang at the Teatro S Samuele, Venice, from 1739 and appeared with Caffarelli at the S Carlo, Naples (...

Article

Elizabeth Keitel

revised by Marc Signorile

Member of Aubert family

(b Paris, Dec 15, 1732; d c1810). French writer, dramatist and abbé, son of Jacques Aubert. He may have composed some of the music to his own plays (Jephté ou le voeu, 1765; and La mort d’Abel, 1765), but he is remembered more for his essays on music, the most famous being his reply to J.-J. Rousseau’s controversial ...

Article

Thomas Bauman

(b Graz, Nov 19, 1722; d Vienna, May 18, 1809). Austrian librettist. Educated in medicine at the University of Vienna, he made a name for himself as the inventor of the percussion method of diagnosing diseases of the chest cavity (1761). In 1775 he stood witness at the wedding of the court composer Antonio Salieri, for whom he wrote his only stage work, the libretto for ...

Article

Harris S. Saunders

(b Bergamo; d ?Turin, by aut. 1720). Italian librettist. In Bergamo, he was a member of the Accademia degli Arioni. By 1686 he had moved to Venice and in 1687 he moved to Turin, by which time he was an abbate. In 1692 or 1693 he resigned his order to marry the singer Diana Margherita Aureli; they settled in Turin in 1697.

In the preface to Angelica nel Cataj, Averara claims to have written over 40 librettos, a number yet to be confirmed by bibliographic sources. His documented librettos were produced for Venice, Turin and Milan. In Turin, he also acted as impresario for two seasons, 1688–9 and 1689–90. From the preface to Filindo, it is clear that he had died by autumn 1720

The fact that Averara drew many of his subjects from mythology reflects the preferences of the court of Savoy and the Spanish dependency of Milan. ...

Article

Christoph Wolff and Ulrich Leisinger

Member of Bach family

(46) (b Weimar, March 8, 1714; d Hamburg, Dec 14, 1788). Composer and church musician, the second surviving son of (7) Johann Sebastian Bach (24) and his first wife, Maria Barbara. He was the most important composer in Protestant Germany during the second half of the 18th century, and enjoyed unqualified admiration and recognition particularly as a teacher and keyboard composer.

He was baptized on 10 March 1714, with Telemann as one of his godfathers. In 1717 he moved with the family to Cöthen, where his father had been appointed Kapellmeister. His mother died in 1720, and in spring 1723 the family moved to Leipzig, where Emanuel began attending the Thomasschule as a day-boy on 14 June 1723. J.S. Bach said later that one of his reasons for accepting the post of Kantor at the Thomasschule was that his sons’ intellectual development suggested that they would benefit from a university education. Emanuel Bach received his musical training from his father, who gave him keyboard and organ lessons. There may once have been some kind of ...

Article

Hans Joachim Marx

(bc 1700; d after 1726). German bass . He was mentioned in the Hamburg Relations-Courier (4 Dec 1724) as ‘the new bass Mons. Bahn’, who was billed to sing Argante in Handel’s Rinaldo at the Gänsemarkt theatre. He had previously made his début as Mars on 2 November in Giovanni Porta’s ...

Article

Michael Talbot

(b ?Venice, 1700 or 1701; d Venice, Feb 1, 1733). Italian singer . Having sung contralto roles in operas performed in the provinces from as early as 1720, she made her Venetian début in Vignati’s I rivali generosi at S Samuele in 1726. Her career was short; the last opera in which she is known to have appeared was Orlandini’s Adelaide (S Cassiano, Carnival 1729). A contract that she made with Vivaldi on 13 October 1726 shows her to have been a worthy seconda donna; for singing in only one opera (Vivaldi’s Farnace, given at S Angelo, Carnival 1726–7) she was to receive 200 ducats, payable in instalments before, during and after the performances. Her retirement may have been caused by her marriage to a Venetian spicer, Angelo Venzoli. She died from an injury sustained when a carnival booth in St Mark’s Square collapsed.

R. Giazotto: Antonio Vivaldi...

Article

Colin Timms

(b ?Massa; fl 1723–41). Italian singer . He was in the service of the Duke of Massa and Carrara in 1724–5, the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1729 and the Hereditary Prince of Modena from 1730 to 1736. He appeared in eight operas at Florence between 1723 and 1737 and 11 at Venice, 1724–37, including new works by Albinoni, Antonio Pollarolo, Orlandini, Vivaldi and Porpora. He also sang at Livorno in 1727 and at Naples in 1740–41. He may have been married to Teresa Baratta, who appeared at Florence and Venice in 1735–7, Naples in 1739–41 and Turin in 1742–3. She may possibly be identified (according to Weaver) with the soprano (Maria) Teresa Pieri, who performed at Florence (1727–32), Naples (1728–30 and 1740–41) and Venice (1734–5); if so, she appeared as both Baratta and Pieri in 1740–41.

R. L. Weaver and N. W. Weaver...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(fl Castleton, Derbys., 1723–53). English psalmodist and ?composer. In 1723 he published the first edition of A Book of Psalmody in conjunction with John Barber. A second edition, by Robert Barber alone, followed in 1733, and a third, entitled David’s Harp Well Tuned, in 1753. He also published The Psalm Singer’s Choice Companion in 1727. A Book of Psalmody enjoyed a good deal of popularity in the north Midlands. It was similar to other parochial collections, and most of its contents were derivative. The second edition, however, had a remarkable feature: it included, as well as chants for the canticles, a complete musical setting of Morning Prayer, litany and ante-communion on cathedral lines, but for alto, tenor and bass only. Barber made it clear on the title-page that this was designed for ‘our Country Churches’. He thus brought to its logical conclusion the trend begun by Henry Playford, who published anthems for parish church use in ...

Article

(b Bologna, fl 1716–67). Italian singer. She is referred to in some programmes as Ferrarese – perhaps through confusion with her father, the bass Francesco Belisani – but is the ‘Belisania’ mentioned in the celebrated frontispiece of Marcello’s Il teatro alla moda. She sang in opera seria and pastoral dramas from 1716 (Armida abbandonata), mostly in works by the Bolognese composer G. M. Buini, whom she married in 1721, but parts were also written for her by Vivaldi (Gliinganni per vendetta, 1720), Chelleri, Orlandini, Brivio and others. From 1727 she styled herself virtuosa of the Prince of Hessen-Darmstadt, governor of Mantua.

G. F. Malipiero: Antonio Vivaldi, il prete rosso (Milan, 1958) S. Durante: ‘Alcune considerazioni sui cantanti di teatro del primo settecento e la loro formazione’, Antonio Vivaldi: teatro musicale, cultura e società: Venice 1981, 427–82 E. Selfridge-Field: ‘Marcello, Sant’Angelo and Il teatro alla moda’, ...

Article

W. Dean Sutcliffe

In the 18th century sectional binary form continued to appear in folk music and in chorales (for example in Bach’s chorale no.38, Straf mich nicht in deinem Zorn). It is most commonly found in arias, and may be understood retrospectively as a da capo form that unexpectedly fails to complete itself. This almost always occurs for dramatic reasons, as in Jonathan’s ‘No, no, cruel father, no!’ from Handel’s Saul, where a lamenting first section in B minor is succeeded by a G major Allegro. Both sections are harmonically closed, leaving the larger structure open; AB is clearly a more appropriate designation here. A more complex example is Iole’s aria ‘My father! ah! methinks I see’ from Handel’s Hercules. In the first section, beginning and ending in C minor, Iole relives the killing of her father by Hercules. The relative major is held in reserve for the second section, in which Iole bids her father rest in peace. Rather than finishing in E♭ major, though, the music clouds over into E♭ minor, implying that Iole’s remembrance of the violent death has invaded her thoughts. The close thus reverts to the mode of the first section and creates some sense of rounded shaping to the whole, if in the first instance for dramatic reasons; there are also some subtle thematic recollections from ...

Article

( fl 1724–35). Italian librettist . He was a curious kind of literary adventurer: his output was small, his propensity to borrow tacitly from others great, and his lack of respect for the truth staggering. His first libretto was Amore e sdegno (original title Ottone amante), performed at the Venetian theatre of S Cassiano in 1726 with music by Luigi Tavelli – but this is merely a new version of Silvani’s La moglie nemica. His Il regno galante (Giovanni Reali) was given at S Moisè, Venice, in 1727. In 1730 Boccardi dedicated to the Elector of Bavaria the libretto of an Adelaide which he claimed (falsely) was to be performed at the Haymarket Theatre with music by Handel. His statements on the title-page that he was a member of the Roman Arcadia and a Fellow of the Royal Society of London were equally untrue, and one must view with suspicion his description of himself as a ‘patrizio Torinese’, particularly since other sources make Mazara in Sicily his birthplace. Continuing his deceptions, he dedicated to the Elector of Saxony a ...

Article

Max Peter Baumann

The Andean highlands of Bolivia occupy more than a quarter of the country’s entire area. By contrast with the more thinly populated lowlands of eastern Bolivia (Oriente) and the north-eastern Andean slope of the Yungas, the mountain plateaux and the high valleys are relatively densely inhabited. Bolivia’s population is about 10.9 million persons, of whom more than 28% speak a native language as first language. The three official languages are Spanish, spoken by 60.7%, Quechua by 22.2% and Amyara by 14.6%. While many indigenous groups and also mestizos (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) are bi- or even tri-lingual, smaller and dispersed groups who are living in the lowlands still speak some 30 different Amerindian languages.

Members of Amerindian societies constitute more than half of the population. Most live in small rural settlements on the altiplano and in the valleys of the cordilleras at 2500 to 4500 metres above sea level, for which reason they are sometimes called ‘highland Indians’. The Spanish term ‘indio’ (Indian), a denomination from outsiders, refers today primarily to the feeling of semantic, cultural and social solidarity among these groups. The indios speak at least one Indian language as their mother tongue and feel bound to traditional Andean cultural heritage. Following the land reform of ...