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Article

Nicholas Temperley

(fl Castleton, Derbys., 1723–53). English psalmodist and ?composer. In 1723 he published the first edition of A Book of Psalmody in conjunction with John Barber. A second edition, by Robert Barber alone, followed in 1733, and a third, entitled David’s Harp Well Tuned, in 1753. He also published The Psalm Singer’s Choice Companion in 1727. A Book of Psalmody enjoyed a good deal of popularity in the north Midlands. It was similar to other parochial collections, and most of its contents were derivative. The second edition, however, had a remarkable feature: it included, as well as chants for the canticles, a complete musical setting of Morning Prayer, litany and ante-communion on cathedral lines, but for alto, tenor and bass only. Barber made it clear on the title-page that this was designed for ‘our Country Churches’. He thus brought to its logical conclusion the trend begun by Henry Playford, who published anthems for parish church use in ...

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W. Dean Sutcliffe

In the 18th century sectional binary form continued to appear in folk music and in chorales (for example in Bach’s chorale no.38, Straf mich nicht in deinem Zorn). It is most commonly found in arias, and may be understood retrospectively as a da capo form that unexpectedly fails to complete itself. This almost always occurs for dramatic reasons, as in Jonathan’s ‘No, no, cruel father, no!’ from Handel’s Saul, where a lamenting first section in B minor is succeeded by a G major Allegro. Both sections are harmonically closed, leaving the larger structure open; AB is clearly a more appropriate designation here. A more complex example is Iole’s aria ‘My father! ah! methinks I see’ from Handel’s Hercules. In the first section, beginning and ending in C minor, Iole relives the killing of her father by Hercules. The relative major is held in reserve for the second section, in which Iole bids her father rest in peace. Rather than finishing in E♭ major, though, the music clouds over into E♭ minor, implying that Iole’s remembrance of the violent death has invaded her thoughts. The close thus reverts to the mode of the first section and creates some sense of rounded shaping to the whole, if in the first instance for dramatic reasons; there are also some subtle thematic recollections from ...

Article

Erich Schwandt, Fredric Woodbridge Wilson, and Deane L. Root

(Fr.; It. burlesca; Ger. Burleske)

A humorous piece involving parody and grotesque exaggeration; the term may be traced to folk poetry and theatre and apparently derived from the late Latin burra (‘trifle’). As a literary term in the 17th century it referred to a grotesque imitation of the dignified or pathetic, and in the early 18th century it was used as a title for musical works in which serious and comic elements were juxtaposed or combined to achieve a grotesque effect. In England the word denotes a dramatic production which ridicules stage conventions, while in 19th- and 20th-century American usage its principal meaning is a variety show in which striptease is the chief attraction.

Burlesque: Instrumental music

Burlesque: English theatrical burlesque

Burlesque: American burlesque

ESMGG2 (‘Burleske’; M. Struck) [incl. list of instrumental works]NicollHT.F. Dillon Croker and S. Tucker, eds.: The Extravaganzas of J.R. Planché, Esq. (Somerset Herald, 1827–1871) (London, 1879)W. Davenport Adams...

Article

Erich Schwandt

J.G. Walther (1732) described burlesque music as ‘jocular’ and ‘amusing’ (‘schertzhafft’, ‘kurzweilig’) and referred to ‘burleske Ouvertüren’ as pieces in which ‘laughable melodies, made up of 5ths and octaves, appear along with serious melodies’. This probably referred to the comic effects achieved by composers of Italian opera buffa in the early 18th century, effects that doubtless helped to set a standard of musical humour for the ‘burlesca’ movements sometimes included in contemporary suites. The example in Bach’s Partita bwv827, which is called a minuet in Anna Magdalena’s Notebook (1725), has nothing particularly jocular about it, although it displays some striking harmonies, as well as a passage in parallel octaves. J.L. Krebs placed a ‘bourlesca’ between the saraband and the minuets of his Partita no.2 in B♭; the movement is not a dance, but rather a small-scale sonata form with a few melodic and harmonic surprises. François Couperin subtitled some of his harpsichord pieces ‘dans le goût burlesque’; two examples are ...

Article

Sergio Barcellona

(lit. ‘for the boat’)

In the first half of the 18th century this expression—associated with the term ‘canzone’, ‘aria’, ‘arietta’, or ‘canzonetta veneziana’—referred to strophic songs for solo voice and basso continuo songs in Venetian dialect, in AABB musical form. Initially this repertoire was used for ‘freschi’ (nocturnal gondola rides), which explains the origin of the term.

Lyrical texts, written by amateurs often belonging to the aristocracy and Venetian nobility, were mostly lover’s serenades, but also humorous or satirical songs related to the Carnival. Musical borrowings were quite common and heterogeneous, since they came from oral tradition or opera arias, as Benedetto Marcello satirized in Il Teatro alla moda (1720) and as it has recently been confirmed.

From the 1710s to the 1760s hundreds of anonymous songs ‘da battello’ were collected in manuscript anthologies and most of them were later published by John Walsh in the three volumes of Venetian Ballads (London, ...

Article

Catherine Gas-Ghidina

(b Beauce, c1680; d c1760). French composer and music teacher. David studied music and composition with Nicolas Bernier between 1694 and 1698. From 1701 to 1706, he was chief of music for Philip V of Spain, and moved to Lyon in 1710, where he earned an excellent reputation. He also served as “maître de musique” for the Prince of Monaco (1715–17), and was director at the Académie des Beaux-Arts at Lyon (1717–26). In this city he wrote most of his works, directed the music for ordinary events and visits by dignitaries, and instituted in 1737 the Concert Spirituel. The same year, David wrote Méthode Nouvelle […], a tutor for music and singing that is unique evidence of his work as a composer and music director still known in 1760. David evolved as a musician in the cosmopolitan cities of Paris and Lyon, mixing with the cities’ illustrious musicians and befriending Jean-Jacques Rousseau, even advising the latter on his first opera ...

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Ernest H. Sanders, Leeman L. Perkins, Patrick Macey, Christoph Wolff, Jerome Roche, Graham Dixon, James R. Anthony, and Malcolm Boyd

In 

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Leeman L. Perkins and Patrick Macey

In 

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Ernest H. Sanders, Leeman L. Perkins, Patrick Macey, Christoph Wolff, Jerome Roche, Graham Dixon, James R. Anthony, and Malcolm Boyd

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Nicholas Temperley

(bap. Aldersgate, London, Feb 26, 1724; d London, April 15, 1764). English amateur musician. ‘In his younger days he was a great beau’, said Hawkins, who is the chief source of information about Immyns. ‘He had been guilty of some indiscretions, which proved an effectual bar to success in his profession, and reduced him to the necessity of becoming a clerk to an attorney in the city’. He cultivated music assiduously, playing the flute, viola da gamba and harpsichord, and had a ‘cracked counter-tenor voice’. As a member of the Academy of Ancient Music, and as a student and copyist to Pepusch, he became familiar with much old music, which he preferred to that of his own day. In 1741 he founded the Madrigal Society, which began as a small group of mechanics and tradesmen experienced in psalmody, meeting at a tavern in Fleet Street. Immyns was ‘both their president and instructor’, and in preparation for the meetings he copied out some 200 madrigals and canons: his MS survives at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. The music was confined to madrigals and other old music, by such composers as Ruffo, Lassus, Marenzio, Vecchi and Gesualdo; the English madrigalists were also explored. Immyns copied seven Palestrina motets for the society's use. From these modest beginnings sprang what is now the oldest musical association in existence....

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Malcolm Boyd

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Barbara Owen

(b Boston, 1708; d Boston, May 8, 1767). American organ builder, music engraver, craftsman and musician. In 1739 he led the singing in the Brattle Street Church, Boston, and was paid for singing in King's Chapel in 1754–6. He was active as an ornamental painter and japanner, and as an engraver of maps, certificates, trade cards, music etc.; he is also regarded as Boston's first professional organ builder. He is recorded as having tuned and repaired some of the imported English organs in Boston, which presumably served as his only textbook in the craft of organ building. In 1744 Johnston made repairs to a small English organ in Christ Church (Old North Church), Boston, and he later tuned the three-manual Richard Bridge organ imported by King's Chapel in 1756, which appears to have been the model for the two-manual organ he built for Christ Church in 1759. Other organs he is known to have built were for St Peter's Church, Salem, Massachusetts (...

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Nicholas Temperley

(b Wareham, Dorset, 1698–9; d Poole, Dorset, bur. Sept 26, 1768). English psalmodist. He was a glover by trade, and bought several properties at Poole, thus becoming one of its 60-odd burgesses. He was parish clerk of St James's, Poole, for nearly 40 years, and trained the choirs in several Dorset churches. He was a difficult personality, to judge from lines written by Henry Price (a land-waiter in Poole Quay) and quoted in Grove's Dictionary (5th edn) and also by Frost and Daniel.

Knapp compiled two collections of parish church music, both of which became widely popular: A Sett of New Psalm-Tunes and Anthems (eight edns, 1738–70) and New Church Melody (five edns, c1752–64). They contain didactic introductions, psalm tunes, hymns and parochial anthems, in four parts with the tenor leading. As well as music taken from earlier collections, they contain a good deal of Knapp's own composition. One of his psalm tunes, ‘Wareham’, is a classic of its period and is still well known; another, ‘Spetisbury’, survived at least until the second supplement to ...

Article

Motet  

Catherine A. Bradley, Christoph Wolff, Graham Dixon, James R. Anthony, Malcolm Boyd, Jerome Roche, Leeman L. Perkins, and Ernest H. Sanders

revised by Peter M. Lefferts and Patrick Macey

One of the most important forms of polyphonic music from about 1220 to 1750. No single set of characteristics serves to define it generally, except in particular historical or regional contexts. It originated as a liturgical trope but soon developed into the pre-eminent form of secular art music during the late Middle Ages. The medieval motet was a polyphonic composition in which the fundamental voice (tenor) was usually arranged in a pattern of reiterated rhythmic configurations, while the upper voice or voices (up to three), nearly always with different Latin or French texts, generally moved at a faster rate. In the first half of the 15th century the motet’s liturgical ties were restored, and it continued to evolve by adapting a number of forms and styles borrowed in part from the chanson, tenor mass, and, later, the madrigal. In the 16th century the motet achieved its classical synthesis in the context of the Franco-Flemish style of Josquin and his successors. Important vernacular subspecies developed later, particularly in England (...

Article

Bruce Gustafson

(Fr: ‘pleasantry’, ‘simplicity’)

A term documented by 19th-century German lexicographers for a light harpsichord piece in the first half of the 18th century. It was not common as a title, much less as a genre with specific characteristics. In France, the word was not understood to be a musical term, and there are no known French harpsichord pieces that use it in a title....