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Article

Elizabeth Keitel

revised by Marc Signorile

Member of Aubert family

(b Paris, Dec 15, 1732; d c1810). French writer, dramatist and abbé, son of Jacques Aubert. He may have composed some of the music to his own plays (Jephté ou le voeu, 1765; and La mort d’Abel, 1765), but he is remembered more for his essays on music, the most famous being his reply to J.-J. Rousseau’s controversial ...

Article

Christoph Wolff and Ulrich Leisinger

Member of Bach family

(46) (b Weimar, March 8, 1714; d Hamburg, Dec 14, 1788). Composer and church musician, the second surviving son of (7) Johann Sebastian Bach (24) and his first wife, Maria Barbara. He was the most important composer in Protestant Germany during the second half of the 18th century, and enjoyed unqualified admiration and recognition particularly as a teacher and keyboard composer.

He was baptized on 10 March 1714, with Telemann as one of his godfathers. In 1717 he moved with the family to Cöthen, where his father had been appointed Kapellmeister. His mother died in 1720, and in spring 1723 the family moved to Leipzig, where Emanuel began attending the Thomasschule as a day-boy on 14 June 1723. J.S. Bach said later that one of his reasons for accepting the post of Kantor at the Thomasschule was that his sons’ intellectual development suggested that they would benefit from a university education. Emanuel Bach received his musical training from his father, who gave him keyboard and organ lessons. There may once have been some kind of ...

Article

I.M. Yampol′sky

revised by Rosamund Bartlett

With the reforms of Peter the Great secular music came to have a much more prominent place in Russian life. The founding of St Petersburg, to which the court moved, also had an effect on the musical culture of Moscow, which changed radically during the 18th century. At the beginning of the century Russian music was represented by its rich heritage of folksong, by ecclesiastical chants and by the simplest domestic genres; by the end of the century Russian opera was taking shape, symphonic and chamber music were being written by Russian composers, and early examples of the Russian song were beginning to appear. The musical needs of Russian society were growing, its tastes were changing and the circle of educated music lovers was expanding. In spite of the fact that St Petersburg drew great artistic forces to the court, Moscow formed its own professional musical circles. Of particular importance were the serf musicians, who performed as soloists and in the many large serf orchestras....

Article

Nicholas Temperley, Philip Olleson, Stanley C. Pelkey, and Peter Horton

English family. The relationship of the musical Wesleys to the great 18th-century religious leaders of the same name is difficult to describe. Despite the statements of many writers, there is no evidence to connect this family with that of Garret Wesley Mornington.

Wesley, John (b Epworth, Lincs., June 17, 1703...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

Member of Wesley family

(b Epworth, Lincs., Dec 18, 1707; d London, March 29, 1788). English clergyman and hymn writer, 18th child and youngest son of Samuel and Susanna Wesley. He was educated at Westminster and Oxford and ordained an Anglican clergyman. In 1749 he settled in Bristol, then moved to St Marylebone, London, in 1771. Although remaining more consistently Anglican, he supported and followed his brother John Wesley in all his work. His particular contribution to Methodism was in the writing of hymns. He is said to have written over 8000, and they include some of the greatest in the English language; hundreds are still in use today. They were innovative in their use of the first person, expression of intense personal feeling, and vivid depiction of the suffering of Christ.

As his hymns show, Wesley was profoundly affected by music. His son Samuel recalled that he was ‘fond of the Old Masters Palestrina, Corelli, Geminiani, Handel, and among the English chamber composers Croft, Blow, Boyce, Greene’. As an itinerant preacher he made constant use of singing in varying circumstances: Carlton Young has assembled more than 100 references to singing in Wesley’s journal (...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

Member of Wesley family

(b Epworth, Lincs., June 17, 1703; d London, March 2, 1791). English clergyman, one of the founders of Methodism; his views on music were of great importance in English and American musical history.

He was the 15th child of Samuel Wesley (1662–1735), an Anglican clergyman with nonconformist forebears, and Susanna née Annesley (1669–1742), a woman of remarkable learning. He was educated at home by his mother and then at Charterhouse and Oxford, and was ordained a clergyman of the Church of England. The Methodist movement began in the religious group he founded at Oxford in 1729. During his missionary voyage to Georgia in 1735–8 and subsequently in London he was much influenced by the Moravians, and his first Collection of Psalms and Hymns (Charlestown, 1737) contained five translations of German hymns. In 1739 he secured the Foundery at Moorfields, which was to remain the headquarters of the London society, and in ...