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Article

Distinctions within traditional Argentine music are based on both musical and non-musical historical criteria and arise according to whether the music is that of a pre-Hispanic indigenous group (for further discussion of the music of Amerindians in Argentina see Latin America, §I) or is Creole, that is of Spanish language and musical heritage, occasionally with some indigenous features. The main differences lie in the presence or absence of European influences in the music and texts of songs and the degree to which societies and groups themselves share the cultural institutions of the majority. The imposition on the indigenous population of the Spanish language and of Roman Catholicism and its religious calendar prepared the ground for the development of a rural Creole culture, creating the environment for Creole music traditions, which later absorbed other incoming population influences. At the same time, in terms of language and religious belief, some pre-Hispanic indigenous cultures survived into the 20th century. In the 20th century the musical map was inevitably altered, and significant changes occurred due to the migration of population from rural to urban areas, the partial adoption of Protestantism by some indigenous groups and the increased popularity of Creole music. The Amerindian–Creole dimensions of traditional music, instrumentaria and dance vary according to region....

Article

Max Peter Baumann

The Andean highlands of Bolivia occupy more than a quarter of the country’s entire area. By contrast with the more thinly populated lowlands of eastern Bolivia (Oriente) and the north-eastern Andean slope of the Yungas, the mountain plateaux and the high valleys are relatively densely inhabited. Bolivia’s population is about 10.9 million persons, of whom more than 28% speak a native language as first language. The three official languages are Spanish, spoken by 60.7%, Quechua by 22.2% and Amyara by 14.6%. While many indigenous groups and also mestizos (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) are bi- or even tri-lingual, smaller and dispersed groups who are living in the lowlands still speak some 30 different Amerindian languages.

Members of Amerindian societies constitute more than half of the population. Most live in small rural settlements on the altiplano and in the valleys of the cordilleras at 2500 to 4500 metres above sea level, for which reason they are sometimes called ‘highland Indians’. The Spanish term ‘indio’ (Indian), a denomination from outsiders, refers today primarily to the feeling of semantic, cultural and social solidarity among these groups. The indios speak at least one Indian language as their mother tongue and feel bound to traditional Andean cultural heritage. Following the land reform of ...

Article

John M. Schechter

Ecuadorian traditional music has a distinct regional character, yet with clear instances of musical borrowing. Within a single region there are related musical genres that, though given different names by different ethnic groups, are clearly musical cousins. Each of the three major cultural-ecological zones – the mountainous Highlands, the Oriente region to the east and the coastal region – may be defined by certain musical genres and dances, by characteristic musical instruments and by distinctive music rituals and festivals. At the same time, there are certain Roman Catholic festivals that are observed not only in different zones of Ecuador but in many other parts of predominantly Roman Catholic Latin America.

The highland inhabitants of the volcanic regions include Quechua-speaking Amerindians, Spanish-speaking mestizos and, in the Chota Valley, Spanish-speaking Afro-Ecuadorians. Certain musical genres are strongly regional: the dance-song sanjuanito, for example, is associated with Imbabura province, northern highland Ecuador, where it may be heard in Afro-Ecuadorian households in the Chota Valley, as well as in Iberian-Ecuadorian and Quechua homes. Other genres are more clearly products of a particular culture; examples include the ...

Article

Paula J. Bishop

(b Kohala, Hawaii, 1716; d Kauhola, Hawaii, 1784). Hawaiian poet and chanter. He served as a poet to several Hawaiian chiefs, including Kalani’opu’u, chief of the leeward side of the island of Hawaii. During a period of unrest and rivalry among island chiefs, Keaulomuku was able to travel among the warring factions because of his reputation as a gifted and important composer of chants. He was fluent in many forms of chant, including genealogical, war, praise, and love chants, but achieved much of his fame for his prophetic chants, particularly those involving the warrior Kamehameha. The chant “Haui Ka Lani,” probably composed in 1782, describes the civil war among the chiefs and islands and foretells of Kamehameha’s victory over the warring factions. In “Au’a ‘Ia,” composed shortly before his death in 1784, Keaulumoku predicts Kamehameha’s conquest and unification of the islands, but he also foretells of the early decline of the dynasty and the gradual extinction of the Hawaiian people....

Article

I.M. Yampol′sky

revised by Rosamund Bartlett

With the reforms of Peter the Great secular music came to have a much more prominent place in Russian life. The founding of St Petersburg, to which the court moved, also had an effect on the musical culture of Moscow, which changed radically during the 18th century. At the beginning of the century Russian music was represented by its rich heritage of folksong, by ecclesiastical chants and by the simplest domestic genres; by the end of the century Russian opera was taking shape, symphonic and chamber music were being written by Russian composers, and early examples of the Russian song were beginning to appear. The musical needs of Russian society were growing, its tastes were changing and the circle of educated music lovers was expanding. In spite of the fact that St Petersburg drew great artistic forces to the court, Moscow formed its own professional musical circles. Of particular importance were the serf musicians, who performed as soloists and in the many large serf orchestras....