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Article

Andrew Hughes

revised by Randall Rosenfeld and Peter Loewen

(b Suffolk ?before 1200; d Saxony, ?1272). English Franciscan theologian. He has been falsely identified with Bartholomeus de Glanvilla (fl late 13th century). He studied at Oxford under the guidance of Robert Grosseteste and later at Paris, where, according to Salimbene, he lectured on the entire bible, suggesting he had attained the status of baccalaureus biblicus; he joined the Franciscans around 1224. He taught as a lector at the Franciscan studium in Magdeburg (1231–49), and was subsequently elected minister provincial in Austria (1249), then Bohemia (c1256); he became bishop of Łuków (1257) and was appointed papal legate. In 1262 he was elected minister provincial in Saxony.

Bartholomew might have begun work on De proprietatibus rerum in Paris, but he completed it in Magdeburg some time between 1230 and 1240, and certainly no later than 1247. 240 complete and fragmentary manuscript copies survive. 11 editions appeared between 1472 and 1492, with several others published in the 16th and early 17th centuries; the editio princeps was published in Cologne (see ...

Article

Mary Berry

revised by Peter Loewen

(b nr Ilchester, c1214; d Oxford, c1292). English theologian and philosopher, the most immediate successor to the science of Robert Grosseteste and Adam Marsh. Bacon studied in Oxford between 1228 and 1236, then in Paris. Some time between 1245 and 1256 he entered the order of friars minor. In 1247 he gave up his official teaching in Paris, returning some three years later to Oxford. His expertise appears to have concentrated in the quadrivium in general, and geometry in particular. Later critics tended to romanticize his conflict with superiors of his order, turning him into a kind of hero of experimental science and empirical observation.

In a letter dated June 22, 1266, pope Clement IV requested a copy of Bacon's philosophical writings. Bacon’s communication about the project had begun with Raymond de Laon, clerk to Guy le Gros de Foulques, Archbishop of Narbonne and Cardinal-Bishop of St. Sabina before Guy became pope Clement IV. Although the friars had been prohibited since 1260 from publishing new works without the approbation of their superiors, Bacon responded by composing a ...

Article

[Giovanni di Fidanza]

(b c1217; d July 14, 1274). Italian composer, theologian, and minister general of the Order of Friars Minor. According to his 15th-century biographer Mariano of Florence, Bonaventure was born the son of a physician (Giovanni) in the village of Bagnoregio. He entered the faculty of Arts at the University of Paris in 1234, and might have joined the Franciscans there as early as 1238. Under the tutelage of the first four regents master of the Franciscan School, he discovered the writings of Augustine, Anselm of Canterbury, Hugh of St. Victor, and Aristotle, which were essential to his formation as a scholar.

Bonaventure was given license to dispute and preach in the convent as a bachelarius formatus (1252–3) and then as a doctor (1254–7) before being named regent master on August 12, 1257; but that year (February 2, 1257), he was elected minister general of the order, which brought him to Assisi in February of ...

Article

Paul C. Echols

revised by David Music

(b Northampton, MA, May 14, 1752; d New Haven, CT, Jan 11, 1817). American poet and author of hymn texts. He graduated from Yale College in 1769, becoming a tutor there two years later. He served as a chaplain in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War and wrote the texts of several patriotic songs, one of which (“Columbia, Columbia, to Glory Arise,” 1787) became widely popular. From 1783 to 1795 he was pastor of the Congregational Church in Greenfield Hill, Connecticut, where he rose to eminence as a preacher, educator, and poet. He was elected president of Yale College in 1795. In 1798, at the request of both Congregational and Presbyterian governing bodies in Connecticut, he undertook a revised edition of Isaac Watts’s Psalms and Hymns to replace one by Joel Barlow (1785) that had previously been compiled for the Congregationalists. Issued at Hartford in ...

Article

Laura Otilia Vasiliu

(b Reuseni, Suceava county, Romania, May 2, 1944). Romanian composer, musicologist, and teacher . Rooted in the folklore of Bukovina and in Byzantine liturgical music, furthering the musical environment of his predecessors Ciprian Porumbescu and George Enescu, his works stand at the crossroads of tradition and modernity, having become established through their authentic expression and mastery of form. His personality has been influential in the musical life of Iaşi and the George Enescu University of Arts, which he served as a professor, dean, and rector.

He studied at the George Enescu Conservatory in Iaşi. He graduated in pedagogy and composition under Vasile Spătărelu. He attended composition classes led by Ştefan Niculescu, Aurel Stroe, and Anatol Vieru at the Vacanţele muzicale de la Piatra Neamt (‘Musical Holidays of Piatra Neamţ’, 1972–80), and then he studied with Roman Vlad at the Santa Cecilia Academy in Rome (1980). Up until ...

Article

Katy Romanou

(b Constantinople, 1862; d Athens, Greece, Aug 18, 1938). Greek musicologist, and pioneer historian of Greek Orthodox music. He graduated from the prestigious Megalē tou Genous Scholē in Constantinople in 1881, and was employed thereafter as a legal employee of the Patriarchate, reaching the highest rank (Megas prōtekdikos) in 1903.

In 1890 he published his Symbolai eis tēn historian tēs par’ hēmin ekklēsiastikēs mousikēs (‘Contributions to the History of our Church Music’), and in 1904 the Historikē episkopēsis tēs byzantinēs ekklēsiastikēs mousikēs (‘Historical Survey of Byzantine Ecclesiastical Music’). These are the first studies on Greek music history, after Chrysanthos of Madytos’s essay in his 1832 edition Theoretikon Mega tēs Mousikēs. Papadopoulos begins his Symbolai with ancient Greek music, while his Historical survey concentrates on more recent times, giving much information on contemporary persons and institutions. Both books are essentially a series of biographies grouped in periods defined by chapters on notation, theory, forms, music education, and the practice of chanting. They were based on a rich multilingual bibliography and many forgotten manuscripts that Papadopoulos studied during an eight-month research trip in libraries of Constantinople, Chios, Samos, Smyrna, Mutilene, and Cydonia, and in monasteries of Mounts Athos, Patmos, and Lesvos....

Article

Peter Loewen

[Johannes de PeschamPeccanusPischanoPisanoPithyano]

(b Patcham, Sussex, c1230; d Mortlake, Surrey, Dec 8, 1292). English composer, Franciscan scholar, provincial minister, and archbishop of Canterbury. Pecham joined the Order of Friars Minor in Oxford c1250 after studying at the Cluniac Priory at Lewes. He studied the liberal arts at Oxford, and theology in Paris. From 1269 to 1271, Pecham fulfilled the offices of Franciscan lector and regent master of theology at the University of Paris, and then served in the same capacity at the University of Oxford between c1272 and 1276. He became provincial minister of the Franciscans in England in 1276, and in 1277 was appointed lecturer in theology for the papal curia (lector sacri palatii). Pecham was appointed archbishop of Canterbury on January 25, 1279, and he continued in this position until his death. Pecham’s body was buried in Canterbury Cathedral, though his heart was preserved in the Franciscan church in London....

Article

Margaret Cayward

[Miguel José ]

(b Petra, Majorca, Spain, Nov 24, 1713; d Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Alta California [now in Carmel, CA], Aug 28, 1784). Spanish Franciscan friar and founder of the Alta California missions. Baptized Miguel José, upon joining the Franciscan order at age 17 he took the name of Junípero, after a companion of St. Francis. In 1742 Serra obtained a doctorate in theology at the Lullian University in Palma de Mallorca, where he was a professor of theology. Known as a forceful and zealous preacher with a resonant voice, in 1749 Serra sailed for New Spain to become a missionary. He served in the missions in the Sierra Gorda from 1750 to 1758, and the missions he administered there prospered. In order to better serve the indigenous population he served there, he learned the Otomí language. In 1758 Serra was recalled to the San Fernando College in Mexico City, where he remained until ...

Article

(b Shoah, Ethiopia, 1949). Ethiopian singer, church musician, and liturgical scholar, naturalized American. Seyoum began studying music at the age of eight and attended various religious schools in his homeland. As he grew older, he began to learn new types of performance, including the Bethlehem style of singing, Christian chant, and sacred dance. At 17 years of age, he was already named a quanygeta, or “leader of the right hand side,” an important position among Ethiopian church musicians (also called dabrata). He quickly rose from deacon to marigeta, the leader of the musicians. He spent ten years in Greece learning more about liturgical practices and then came to the United States in 1982. Seyoum settled in Alexandria, Virgina, and joined the Debre Selam Kidist Mariam Church in Washington, DC. He became a leader there, and his remarkable musical skills have led to the preservation of many traditional elements of the Ethiopian Christian tradition in America. To codify and disseminate these practices, Seyoum released a six-CD set of liturgical materials. He has memorized the entirety of the Ethiopian Psalter (Dawit) and has intimate knowledge of other sacred books, such as the Ethiopian Hymnary. Seyoum is an expert of instrumental church practices, including those that are tied to the extremely complicated notational system from Ethiopia that includes more than 600 symbols. He is also the only living master of the prayer staff and its movements (an art called ...

Article

(b Memphis, TN, Sept 10, 1949). American musicologist of Greek descent, specializing in Greek, mainly Byzantine, music. She studied at the University of Memphis (BM, 1971), and the Ohio State University (MA, 1975; PhD in musicology, 1979). She taught at Texas Christian University, the Ohio State University, and the University of Missouri in Saint Louis, where she has been full professor (since 1989), director of the Center for the Humanities (since 1997), and Curator’s Professor (since 2007).

She is fluent in Greek and proficient in both Byzantine and Western music and history. Her research on Greek music extends beyond Greek sources, resulting in conclusions that challenge entrenched views, as is the case with her article ‘The Application of “Chant sur le Livre” to Byzantine Chant’ (2003).

She has done pioneering work on medieval women’s creativity and especially the 9th-century poet-composer Kassia, the work and life of whom she has been studying for 20 years; forthcoming are an anthology of Kassia’s complete works, and a monograph, ...

Article

Esther R. Crookshank

(b Southampton, England, July 17, 1674; Stoke Newington, London, Nov 25, 1748). English hymn writer, clergyman, scholar, and author. Watts wrote hymns from age 20 for his Southampton congregation and from 1702 served as pastor in London. After giving up public ministry for health reasons in 1712, he exerted great influence on Puritan leaders in the American colonies through extensive correspondence and his published collections, which contained nearly 700 hymns and psalm paraphrases.

With The Psalms of David Imitated in the Language of the New Testament (1719) he undertook large-scale reform of Dissenting (non-Anglican) worship by writing new “Christianized” versifications of the Psalms; he believed the Psalter required revision to fit it for New Testament worship. His reform succeeded far beyond his expectations for many reasons, including the strong appeal of his vigorous, singable lyrics to Puritan ministers and worshippers in colonial New England, where they took deep root. Called the “liberator of English hymnody,” Watts produced psalm paraphrases and hymns that broke the grip of strict metrical psalmody in use for over a century in Protestant Britain and North America. Dozens of American compilers produced ...