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Elizabeth A. Clendinning

An amusement park is a commercially-operated, outdoor venue that offers games, rides, and other types of entertainment, including music. The amusement park concept originated in the pleasure gardens of 17th-century Europe, which were originally large landscaped outdoor spaces primary devoted to games with a few refreshment stands. Dances and social and instrumental concerts became commonly integrated into these pleasure gardens in the 18th century. (See Pleasure garden.) Another important part of early amusement park soundscapes was the mechanical organ, which was used by street performers as early as the 18th century and was frequently built into carousel rides by the end of the 19th century. Over the course of the 19th century, the popularity of amusement parks skyrocketed, especially in the United States, where large tracts of land were available for development. Bandstands and pavilions devoted explicitly to musical performances were common in the 19th century, in part influenced by the popular World’s Fairs, which were industrial and cultural expositions that featured specific stages devoted to performers from around the world. A change came with the ...


Sara Velez

revised by Megan E. Hill

International festival of orchestral and chamber music, solo recitals, and staged works, established in 1963 in Aptos, California. It was founded by Lou Harrison, the bassoonist Robert Hughes, and Ted Toews, an instructor at Cabrillo College. Held for two weeks in August in the Santa Cruz Civic Auditorium and at various other locations, such as the Mission San Juan Bautista, the festival is noted for its innovative programming and emphasis on the works of living composers: it has staged at least 120 world premieres and over 60 US premieres. The first music director, Gerhard Samuel, was succeeded by Richard Williams in 1969, Carlos Chávez in 1970, Dennis Russell Davies in 1974, John Adams in 1991, and Marin Alsop in 1992. The directors have stressed making the artists accessible to their audiences through workshops and “Meet the Composer” sessions, open rehearsals, and a composer-in-residence program, in which John Adams, William Bolcom, John Cage, Elliott Carter, Carlos Chávez, Aaron Copland, John Corigliano, Michael Daugherty, Philip Glass, Osvaldo Golijov, Lou Harrison, Jennifer Higdon, Keith Jarrett, Aaron Jay Kernis, Libby Larsen, Tania León, Pauline Oliveros, Arvo Pärt, Christopher Rouse, Joseph Schwantner, Virgil Thomson, and Joan Tower have participated. The festival orchestra consists of about 65 musicians from leading orchestras in the United States and Canada....



Marco Kasel

Music has been a major part of entertainment at sea since the height of the “golden age” of ocean liners in the 1930s. Initially, cruise liners at the start of the 20th century were built to transport passengers from one port to another, mostly across the transatlantic from Europe to New York City, and more often than not, transported immigrants who weren’t expected for a return trip. On the other hand, 21st-century cruise ships are built for vacationing purposes, which means passengers expect to be entertained throughout their voyage.

Since cruise line companies of yesteryear were preoccupied with speed and safety, guests were expected to entertain themselves with reading, swimming, shuffle board games, or playing music on their own. Eventually, musical ensembles were hired to entertain higher-tier passengers on luxury liners. Bunny Rowe and his Orchestra performed for first and second class passengers only on the RMS Queen Mary, which first sailed in ...


Romanian music festival. Held in Bucharest every other year in August and September, it lasts for over three weeks. It was established in 1958, three years after George Enescu’s death, and in his honour. The decision was also politically motivated, as the communist regime of the time was eager to prove its ability as a non-capitalist cultural power. Since then, it has changed on many levels and has become not only the grandest classical music festival in Romania and Eastern Europe, but has gained a growing renown within Europe’s important festival scene.

The festival was organized every three years (and occasionally every two or four years) until 2001, at which point it became a biannual event. Up to 2013 there have been 21 festivals, organized in 1958, 1961, 1964, 1967, 1970, 1973, 1976, 1979, 1981, 1985, 1988, 1991, 1995, 1998, 2001, 2003 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2013. The George Enescu International Competition has accompanied the festival ever since its foundation, in the first decades comprising sections for violin, piano, and sometimes voice. But the competition has fewer iterations, being interrupted for a period due to financial reasons, that have affected the festival during ...


[Saptamâna Internaţională a Muzicii Noi; SIMN]

Romanian contemporary music festival. It has been held the last week of every May in Bucharest since 1991. The festival was founded at the initiative of the Union of Romanian Composers and Musicologists and of Ştefan Niculescu (1927–2008), one of the most important Romanian composers of the past generation. It was the first international festival organized in Romania that was entirely dedicated to contemporary music.

It constitutes an important meeting point between artists—composers, performers, and musicologists—from Romania and abroad, undertaking a multicultural dialogue, starting from the newest influences in the musical world. This diversity is also encouraged by the festival’s management, as the Union of Romanian Composers and Musicologists organizes a competition every year, after which they select the artistic director of the future festival, usually a composer. The festival has had the following artistic directors: Ştefan Niculescu (1991, also its founder), Liviu Dănceanu (1992, 1993...


Sarah Suhadolnik

Jazz division of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York. In 1987 Lincoln Center launched Classical Jazz, its first concert series devoted solely to jazz. In 1996 JALC became an autonomous jazz division with wynton Marsalis at the helm. Marsalis has continued to work as the artistic director of JALC and the music director of the Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra. This ensemble maintains an extensive repertoire of classic jazz works while continuing to commission and premiere new pieces. It tours extensively, frequently collaborating with guest artists, and participates in JALC programs, such as the annual Essentially Ellington High School Jazz Band Competition & Festival. JALC also maintains a busy schedule of concerts by visiting artists, lectures, and jazz education initiatives....



Bulgarian music festival. The festival began as an initiative of the Ruse Philharmonic Orchestra, the conductor Sasha Popov, and the conductor and composer Iliya Temkov, for the purpose of fostering friendship and cultural cooperation between Bulgaria and the German Democratic Republic. The first concert, given on 10 March 1961, opened with the première of the September 1923 Overture by V. Kazandzhiev. The partnership between the Ruse Philharmonic Orchestra and the musical ensembles of East Berlin Radio grew steadily over the next few years. In 1964–5 the festival was dedicated to new Bulgarian symphonic works, and in 1965 it expanded to include chamber music and other instrumentation. After 1976 the festival has been held in the second half of March. At present the festival is funded by the Municipality of Ruse and other sponsors. Since 1992 the International Music Academy takes place during the festival; the teachers, in various disciplines, have included Vanya Milanova, Mincho Minchev, John Kenny, Robert Cohen, Yuri Bashmet, Patrick Gallois, Erwin Ortner, Markus Stockhausen, Anatol Vieru, Wolfgang Schultz, Sir Neville Marriner, the Arditi String Quartet, Andreas Hermann, Emmanuel Séjourné, and Paul Badura-Skoda....



Timothy M. Crain

NPR, formerly known as National Public Radio, is a privately and publicly funded nonprofit membership media group. Its primary focus involves the production, syndication, and distribution of news and cultural programming to US public radio stations. Individual NPR stations, however, may broadcast programming from various sources that have no formal affiliation with NPR. NPR also manages the Public Radio Satellite System, which distributes NPR programs and other programming from independent producers and networks.

In 1967 congressional passage of the Public Broadcasting Act established the Corporation for Public Broadcasting to provide federal financial support of local radio and television stations, nationally produced programming, and interrelated services. As a result, National Public Radio (NPR) was created in February 1970 to replace the National Educational Radio Network. NPR aired its first broadcast in April 1971 and soon launched national program services. Until 1977 NPR was primarily a production and distribution organization. When it merged with the Association of Public Radio Stations, however, it began to provide affiliated stations with training, promotion, and management, and to lobby Congress for funding. In ...


Susan Feder

revised by Michael Mauskapf

[Pop, Promenade]

Orchestral programs modeled after European promenade concerts of the 19th century, in which light classical music was played while the audience was served refreshments. The development of pops concerts in America reflected an emerging emphasis on the audience and an explicitly articulated division between so-called serious and light classical music propagated by conductor Theodore Thomas and others. Such concerts were traditionally structured in three parts, in which lively pieces—overtures, marches, and galops—were played in the outer sections while the middle section typically included waltzes and occasionally more serious works; encores were a regular feature. These concerts often took place in outdoor venues during the summer season, and featured audience promenades during the intermissions. Initially, works by European composers such as Rossini, Grieg, Liszt, and J. Strauss dominated the programs of pops concerts, but excerpts from musicals and operettas by De Koven and Herbert, among others, soon became a significant component. In general these concerts were understood as a vehicle to reach new audiences and broaden the appeal of orchestras and orchestral music....


Laura B. Schnitker

A type of radio station operating on a college or university campus that is run by students. Although such stations did not achieve prominent status in the music industry until the late 1970s, when they became stages for up-and-coming artists, college radio is one of the older types of broadcasting in the United States.

The first educational station in the United States was probably WHA at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, which started broadcasting in 1917 as 9XM. After World War I, about 200 broadcasting licenses were granted to educational institutions, which primarily used them as experimental and technical training facilities. Those that later became known as college radio were the stations run mainly by and for students. By this definition, some credit Haverford University with having the first college station because its students built a station in 1923 and by 1926 were broadcasting with nearly 1000 watts.

The rise of national networks in commercial broadcasting, increased competition for frequencies, and the high cost of operations resulted in the loss of all but the most dedicated college stations; by ...


Gillian Turnbull

Radio that is owned by a private, nonprofit organization and publicly funded, usually by donations from citizens or a local community. Community radio differs from public radio, which is government-supported; college radio, which is university-supported; and commercial radio, which is privately owned. As noted by Howley, community radio should not be conflated with alternative media, which strives to overturn or alter prevailing media systems. Rather, community radio is participatory in nature, drawing involvement from the station’s stakeholders and listeners but maintaining the structures and practices common to public and commercial stations. It is assumed that there is a high degree of accountability to listeners, who predominantly run and fund the station. The often limited amount of advertising time allotted to community stations dictates the need for external fundraising through pledge drives, grants, and donations. Community radio can serve a specific geographical region or a particular demographic or special-interest group. Programming includes music that is not mainstream (for example, independent artists or more obscure genres) and local-interest news and shows. It purports to represent marginalized or social and ethnic groups that are underrepresented in commercially oriented media. In its programming, the aim of community radio is to provide analysis of current events and culture that is otherwise absent from the public and corporate arms of broadcasting....


Bulgarian music festival held annually from May to June. The first festival took place on 24 May 1970. Co-organizers of the festival are the Metropolitan Municipality, the Ministry of Culture, and the National Palace of Culture, with the active cooperation of various national and international cultural and media institutions, foreign embassies, and foundations. The main objective of the festival is to present to Bulgarian audiences high quality performances of the most significant music from Bulgaria and around the globe. Establishing its reputation as the most significant festival in Sofia, the Festival became in 1982 a member of the European Festivals Association for music, theatre, and ballet.

The festival is held in the concert halls throughout Sofia, including Bulgaria Hall, the halls of the National Palace of Culture, and the National Gallery of Art, among others. The festival brings together various activities, including concerts, opera and ballet performances, conferences (round tables) in musicology, photo exhibitions, presentations of new releases of books and CDs, showings of filmed operas, and masterclasses for young musicians and singers. Other events at the festival include the concert series Young Artist Podium, celebrations of anniversaries of Bulgarian and foreign composers, and first performances of important musical works....


The oldest music festival in Bulgaria and one of the oldest still in existence in Europe. It is held every year from June to July. It was adopted as a member at the European Festivals Association in 1978.

The first Varna public music celebrations were held from 23 July to 1 August 1926 on the initiative of the Varna Cultural Reading Community Centre, among others, with the support of the composers Dobri Hristov and Pancho Vladigerov and the conductor Georgi Atanasov. Between 1926 and 1931, and 1935 and 1939, the nascent festival, then known as the Summer Music Celebrations, was a week-long event. The performers, conductors, and composers featured on the first concert programme were all Bulgarian (including Dobri Hristov, Angel Bukureshtliev, and Emmanuel Manolov).

The idea for an established music summer festival first emerged in 1949, but was carried out in 1957 under the name Varna Summer Festival. In ...



John Shepard

revised by Jessica Payette

Artists’ colony and music festival. The colony, established according to specifications in the will of Spencer and Katrina Trask, hosted its first visiting artists in 1926. The Trasks amassed a fortune in the expansion of American railroads and devised plans for the future of their 400-acre estate near Saratoga Springs, New York, in 1899. The 55-room mansion houses up to 40 artists for visits spanning two to eight weeks and provides isolated studios to composers and choreographers. Elizabeth Ames (1885–1977), the executive director from Yaddo’s inception to 1969, extended invitations to numerous composers, including Aaron Copland, Roy Harris, and Virgil Thomson, before the formal application process commenced in the mid-1940s. Subsequent composers in residence have included Leonard Bernstein, Chou Wen-chung, David Del Tredici, Ned Rorem, and Michael Tilson Thomas. Copland campaigned for the establishment of an annual music festival; however, only nine Yaddo Music Festivals, all presented in the mansion’s 300-seat music room, were held sporadically from ...