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Jody Diamond

(b Bay Shore, NY, April 7, 1946). American composer, performer, instrument builder and ethnomusicologist. She received the BA from Sarah Lawrence College, and the MA and PhD from Wesleyan University, where she studied Indonesian and Indian music. She has performed with the ensembles of Philip Glass, Jon Gibson, Alvin Lucier, Philip Corner and Daniel Goode. In 1976 she co-founded, with Corner and Goode, the Gamelan Son of Lion, New York, a new music collective and repertory ensemble under her direction. In addition, she has built several Javanese-style iron gamelans, including the instruments used by the Gamelan Son of Lion and Gamelan Encantada, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Benary’s compositional output has been primarily in the areas of ensemble and chamber music, and music for the theatre. She has described herself as a ‘part-time minimalist who also likes to write melody’. Many of her works integrate world music forms, structures and instruments with traditional Western materials. Her works for gamelan ensemble, which number more than 30, have been performed internationally. ...


Mohd. Anis Md Nor

(b Mlilir, Mediun, East Java, 1920). Javanese gamelan and kethoprak (folk theatre) performer, dalang (shadow puppeteer) and gamelan maker , active in Malaysia. He came to Malaysia at the age of 22 during World War II. After the Japanese surrender in 1945, Margono was interned by the British and transferred to a Dutch army camp in Sungei Besi with other Javanese war detainees; here he was made to perform kethoprak (Javanese folk theatre), wayang wong (dance drama) and Javanese gamelan. He escaped from the detention camp and took refuge in Batu Pahat, Johor. Here Margono became well known for his ability as a dalang (shadow puppeteer) of wayang kulit purwa (Javanese shadow play) (particularly for his skills in sabetan, puppet manipulation), as a kethoprak performer, and as a gamelan musician. He made his first set of gamelan instruments from iron plates and steel drums in 1954 for a ludruk...



Margaret J. Kartomi

revised by Gini Gorlinski

Gong chime of the Pakpak people of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Its five to nine small bossed gongs are placed horizontally in a wooden trough, somewhat like the bonang of Central Java. Unlike the bonang, which is played by a single musician, the botul may be played by as many as three men. It is the leading melodic instrument in an ensemble that also includes three suspended gongs, cilat-cilat (cymbals), and an optional pair of gendang (cylindrical drums). It may also be included in the larger gendering ensemble, which is dominated by a set of five to nine drums. By the late 20th century, the botul was seldom encountered and only in a few areas of the Pakpak region. It is not known nowadays in Boang and Simsim but is found in the Kelasan, Pegagan, and Kepas districts.

L. Moore: ‘An Introduction to the Music of the Pakpak Dairi of North Sumatra’, ...


Guy Bourligueux

[Mosen Cañas ]

(b Graus, July 26, 1762; d Philippines, 1832). Spanish organ builder. He was a missionary, and on 30 January 1787 took holy orders as an Augustinian friar under the name of Diego de la Virgen del Carmen; he became organist at his monastery in Barcelona. He then travelled to Cadiz, Acapulco, and the Philippines, where he arrived on 26 June 1792. He built an organ at S Nicolas in Manila, and another, with pipes mostly of bamboo, at S José de Las Piñas (1816–21), where he also oversaw construction of the church. Cera also built a piano, the first in the Philippines, which was offered to the Queen of Spain. He was awarded a gold medal by Charles III for his activities in the Philippines, including a dissertation on dyeing fabrics and the introduction of machines for carding wool.

In the Las Piñas ‘bamboo organ’, only the horizontal trumpet pipes in the façade (added in ...


Alyson E. Jones

(b Aley, Lebanon, 1941). American musician and nāy [end-blown reed flute] maker of Lebanese birth. After studying nāy at the Lebanese Conservatory with Naim Bitar, he moved to Beirut and toured throughout the Middle East with Lebanon’s most popular folk troupe. He first came to the United States in 1970 as a member of Lebanese singer Samira Tawfik’s music ensemble. Dlaikan then worked as a musician in New York until he eventually settled in Detroit, home to one of the largest Arab American communities in the United States.

Dlaikan has been lauded as a highly skilled performer of the nāy and other Arab reed instruments such as the mijwiz [double clarinet]. As a leading member of Arab music ensembles in Detroit, he frequently performs at the Detroit Institute of Arts and at Arab weddings and celebrations. Dlaikan has often been invited to introduce new audiences to traditional Arab music, including engagements at the Library of Congress in ...


Graham Lack

(b Karlsruhe, Feb 26, 1954). German composer, instrument builder and performer. He studied saxophone with Ariel Kalma in Paris, Indian classical music with Kamalesh Maitra in Berlin and India and the ney with Ali Reza Asgharia. Durand began constructing wind instruments, mostly built from PVC and plexiglass, in the early 1980s and performs his own music on these, as well as saxophone and ney. He is also active in collaborating with and organizing international music festivals and artist exchanges in the fields of both traditional and avant-garde music in Berlin and elsewhere. Recent collaborations include The Beatless Sax Oldrones, a saxophone quartet specializing in just intonation, and The Armchair Traveller, a group with Sebastian Hilken (cello and percussion), Hella von Plotz (glass harp) and Silvia Ocougne (acoustic guitars). He founded the group The Thirteenth Tribe, and continues to contribute music to theatre, dance, film and radio productions. In ...


Maribel Meisel

revised by Edward L. Kottick

(b Cologne, Germany, Dec 10, 1919; d Barton, VT, May 25, 2002). Keyboard instrument maker of German birth. In 1938 he moved to Israel, where he trained as a cabinetmaker (1939–42) and graduated from the Jerusalem Conservatory of Music (1942). He was a bandsman for the British army (1942–5) and then became a flutist in the Israel PO (1946–52). He immigrated to the United States in 1952 and for a short time was a piano technician for the Baldwin company and concert tuner for Claudio Arrau. From 1952 to 1954 Herz was associated with the harpsichord makers Frank Hubbard and William Dowd, and then set up his own workshop in Harvard, Massachusetts. In 1964, as Eric Herz Harpsichords, Inc., the business moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts. For a brief period during the 1960s Herz was a consultant for the Cannon Guild, an ill-fated attempt at commercial harpsichord production....


(Jap.: Hoshino Musical Instruments)

Japanese manufacturer of musical instruments. Matsujiro Hoshino founded the company in 1908 as a book and sheet music store (Hoshino Shoten) that from 1929, as Hoshino Gakki Ten, also sold guitars by Salvador Ibáñez imported from Spain. Under direction of Hoshino’s son Yoshitaro Hoshino, the company began manufacturing Ibanez-brand guitars in 1935, after Ibáñez’s workshop had been destroyed in the Spanish Civil War and the brand sold to Hoshino. In turn, the Japanese factory was destroyed in 1945, and in 1955 the Hoshino company moved to Nagoya. From that time most of their products were exported, including, from 1957, a line of newly-designed Ibanez guitars. Under Yoshitaro’s son, Junpei Hoshino, the company opened the Tama Seisakusho factory in 1962 to produce amplifiers and electric and acoustic guitars, including copies of classic American guitars that eventually led to lawsuits. Star-brand drums were added to the Tama product line in 1965, and from ...


Ivor Benyon

revised by Laura Prichard

[Tsing-Barh ]

(b Shanghai, China, Oct 17, 1925). Classical harmonica virtuoso, instrument designer, and manufacturer of Chinese birth. After immigrating to the United States in 1953 he worked for Hohner for many years, designing the first Hohner products made in the United States. These included the Professional 2012 and 2016 CBH (replacing internal metal slides with Delrin plastic resin; trademarked with his initials) and the Chordomonica series (multi-chord instruments with two slides which allow the player to produce melody and accompanying harmony). He founded his own brand in 1983 (Huang Harmonicas, Farmingdale, NY).

Huang plays the instrument “upside-down,” with the bass on the right, as his first Hohner instrument had the top and bottom plates installed in reverse; however, he is right-handed, so his personal instruments retain the slide button on the right end. He holds dual degrees in music and engineering from the Shanghai Conservatory and St. John’s University, Shanghai (...




Cyril Ehrlich

revised by Edwin M. Good

Japanese firm of instrument makers. Founded in 1927 and incorporated in 1951, Kawai was at the end of the 20th century the second largest producer of pianos in Japan, the world’s largest producer of that instrument. Manufacture of instruments gave way to military supplies during World War II but was resumed in 1948, and by 1963 an American branch was opened. Annual production rose from approximately 2000 instruments during the early 1950s to about 30,000 by the late 1960s; in 1990 total production reached 2 million. The headquarters are in Hamamatsu, with factories in Ryuyo and Maisaka. The firm has a piano assembly plant in Lincolnton, North Carolina, and a finishing plant in Greer, South Carolina; the Lowrey Organ Co. is a wholly-owned subsidiary. Kawai’s pianos have achieved a high reputation, the concert grand having been used in several international competitions. The company makes several excellent models of smaller grands, and a fine upright. In ...



Hugh Davies

Japanese firm of electronic instrument manufacturers. It was founded in Tokyo in 1963 by Tsutomu Katoh and the accordion player Tadashi Osanai as Keio Geijutsu Kenkyujo. From 1968 the firm became known as Keio Electronic Laboratories; although they used the brand-name Korg (‘Katoh-Osanai organ’) on the products, this became the company's official name only in the mid-1980s. Keio began by constructing rhythm units for Yamaha's Electone electronic organs, then produced its own separate units, the Doncamatic rhythm machine followed by the MiniPops series. Korg soon became one of the most successful Japanese manufacturers of electronic instruments, and produced the first Japanese synthesizer in 1968. In 1986 Yamaha bought a 40% stake in Korg.

The range of Korg instruments has included monophonic and polyphonic synthesizers (such as the Polysix), synthesizer modules, electronic organs and pianos (many digital models), string synthesizers, home keyboards, electronic percussion units, guitar synthesizers, samplers, electronic tuners and a vocoder. Its most successful product has been the M1 work station (...


Henry Johnson

(b Sannomiya, Kobe, Japan, April 7, 1894; d Kariya, Aichi prefecture, Japan, June 25, 1956).Japanese musician and developer of new koto-type instruments. He was part of a modernist movement that incorporated many ideas from Western music, including instrument innovations. Miyagi, blind by the age of eight, learned a number of instruments, including koto, shamisen, kokyū, and shakuhachi. He also learned the organ and violin. As a koto performer he was given the title kengyō (master) in 1912 and dai-kengyō (grand master) in 1916. In 1925 Miyagi appeared as a koto performer on the first test radio broadcast in Japan. From 1930 he taught at Tokyo College of Music (now Tokyo University of Fine Arts and Music), becoming professor in 1937. In 1950 he received the first NHK (Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai: Japan Broadcasting Corporation) Broadcast Cultural Award. He made only one overseas visit: in 1953 he recorded one of his compositions for the BBC, and represented Japan at the International Folk Dance Music Festival in Biarritz and Pamplona....


Nancy Toff

Japanese maker of flutes and piccolos. The firm was established in 1969 by Masashi Miyazawa and is located in Asaka. In the 1970s the flute design was modified, in consultation with P.L. West of West Music, Coralville, Iowa (the firm's distributor in the USA), to suit the American market. Among the firm's innovations are the development of new alloys, such as the PCM-Silver alloy (...


Nancy Toff

Japanese firm of flute and piccolo manufacturers. It was founded in 1923 by Koichi Muramatsu (b Tokyo, 12 April 1898; d 6 June 1960), then a member of a military band, who made the first Western-style flute in Japan in that year. About 1936 he collaborated with Baron Okura on a Boehm system vertical flute, named Okraulos, much like a mechanized shakuhachi. The factory closed during World War II but reopened, producing 10,000 flutes by 1957. In the mid-1970s Muramatsu entered the US market, making alterations in the flutes' scale and headjoint design as a result.

The firm manufactures both student-level and professional-grade flutes with a variety of options, including gold-bonded flutes and winged lip plates. Under the direction of Osamu Muramatsu (b 6 Jan 1942), son of the founder, it has a factory in Tokorozawa City, near Tokyo, employing about 60 craftsmen. By the 1980s it was turning out some 2,000 flutes a year, with worldwide distribution....


James Blades

revised by James Holland

Manufacturers of gongs and cymbals . The firm originated in 1909 in St Petersburg, but in 1917 the family moved to Estonia. Owing to the prevailing political situation Michael Paiste lived for a time in China, later in New York, but at the age of 17, he returned to Estonia where he became involved in the manufacture of cymbals. His experiences in the East induced him to add the craft of gong making to the Paiste organization. In 1939 the firm moved to Gdynia, Poland, and in 1945 to Schacht-Audorf, Schleswig-Holstein. The factory in Rendsburg was opened in 1951, and in 1957 a second factory was built in Nottwil, Switzerland; Robert and Thomas Paiste, the owners, are the sons of Michael Paiste.

The firm produces cymbals of all types, tam-tams ranging from 51 to 200 cm in diameter, various types of gong, including a series of tuned (cupola) gongs covering a compass of over four octaves (...


(b Brzeźce, nr Warsaw, Poland, June 29, 1875; d Warsaw, Sept 18, 1951). Polish violin maker. After completing studies at the Academy of Metrology and Hydro-engineering in Vienna, he worked as a geologist in Poland and Siberia, and after World War I in Warsaw. Interested in violin making since boyhood, he taught himself and constructed his first original violin after long acoustic studies of old Italian and Polish examples. He created two main models, Antica, referring to Classical forms, and Polonia, referring to wavy Baroque forms based on a 16th-century violin by Martin Groblicz that had a carved woman’s figurehead instead of a scroll, and a characteristic flutey sound. Panufnik recommended the Antica model for ‘coloratura’ music, and Polonia for ‘dramatic’ music. He inlaid Latin mottoes on the violins’ backs and used engraved labels.

From 1914 Panufnik ran his own workshop in Warsaw, during the interwar years as ‘luthier–organologist’. By ...


Laurence Libin

(b Izmir, Turkey, Aug 18, 1911; d New York, NY, Oct 21, 1999). Armenian luthier. To escape pogroms his family fled in 1922 to Salonika where Papazian excelled in drawing, rug design, and academic subjects, took violin lessons, and worked in his brother’s furniture business. After World War II he emigrated to Argentina where he began making instruments, including guitars, for wholesale, by copying available models. In 1956 he settled in New York, joining an older brother who was a sculptor. Papazian soon opened a prolific independent workshop and developed his own Spanish-inspired guitar design by about 1960. He became a US citizen in 1983. Before retiring in 1981 Papazian completed about 900 guitars and some 40 lutes as well as archlutes, ‘uds, violins, and several violoncellos, generally employing a fragile red-orange varnish on high-quality Brazilian and European woods. His robust guitars, some owned by prominent players, are noted for their intricate marquetry which often incorporates his name around the soundhole....


Anne Beetem Acker

Chinese instrument manufacturer, based in Guangzhou. The government-owned firm was formed in 1956 from several piano-making facilities. In the 1950s they were producing four upright pianos per month for the Chinese market. In the mid-1980s the firm was granted import and export rights. By the 1990s, liberalized economic policies coupled with relatively inexpensive raw materials and very low labour costs allowed for rapid expansion.

Under the leadership of Tong Zhi Cheng beginning in 1992, the firm pursued a goal of becoming a world leader in piano sales. They invested in a climate-controlled, 93,000 m2 factory and CNC (computer numerically controlled) machinery from Germany. Foreign industry executives were hired as consultants. By the 2000s, the factory had expanded to 260,000 m2. With its own foundries, lumberyards, and sawmills, Pearl River produces nearly every part of each piano, using Chinese wood exclusively, including veneers. By 2010 the firm employed more than 4000 workers with a capacity of making 100,000 pianos per year....


Joyce Lindorff

(b Fermo, June 30, 1671; d Beijing, Dec 10, 1746). Italian composer, theorist and instrument maker . He was the first Lazarist missionary to settle in China, and contributed to the cultural exchange between China and the West during the late Ming and early Qing dynasties. He was educated in Rome and arrived in China in 1711 after an arduous nine-year journey. There he succeeded the Portuguese Jesuit Tomás Pereira as court musician to Emperor Kangxi. Pedrini remained in China until his death, working closely with the emperor and simultaneously fulfilling his religious life and missionary goals. Life in the Chinese court was politically complex, and Pedrini was deeply involved in intrigues between the emperor, the Jesuits and Rome during the Rites controversy. Despite earning Kangxi’s esteem, he was twice imprisoned by the emperor.

There were many harpsichords at the Chinese court, gifts from foreign visitors, and there is evidence that Pedrini himself built instruments in China. His musical abilities were highly regarded by the emperor, who declared Pedrini’s lack of the Chinese language to be unimportant, since ‘harpsichords are tuned with the hands, and not with the tongue’. Pedrini’s op.3 sonatas (MS, Beijing National Library; the title-page bears the anagrammatic name ‘Nepridi’) are his only known extant compositions; they are strongly influenced by (and include several quotations from) Corelli’s op.5 set, to which they pay homage in the style, number, structure and types of movements. Pedrini also completed the fifth volume of ...