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Article

Jennifer Spencer

(b Tobol′sk, 31 Dec/Jan 12, 1821; d St Petersburg, 22 May/June 3, 1898). Russian violinist and composer. He received his musical education from his father, the violinist Yakov Ivanovich Afanas′yev, an illegitimate son of the writer and poet Prince Ivan Dolgorukov. In 1836 he made his début as a violinist in Moscow, and two years later was appointed leader of the Bol′shoy Theatre Orchestra. He resigned in 1841 to become conductor of the serf orchestra maintained by the wealthy landowner I.D. Shepelyov at Vïksa, near St Petersburg. In 1846 he decided to pursue a career as a solo violinist and toured the major provincial cities of Russia, settling in St Petersburg in 1851. There he made occasional appearances as a soloist, and also led the orchestra of the Italian Opera, sometimes deputizing for the regular conductor. In 1853 he became a piano teacher at the Smol′nïy Institute and relinquished his orchestral post. He visited western Europe in ...

Article

John Koegel

(b Puerto Príncipe, Cuba, ?Nov 28, 1844; d Havana, ?Dec 31, 1918). Pianist, music teacher, arranger, conductor, composer, and lawyer of Cuban birth, naturalized American. Born into a prominent family in Puerto Príncipe, Cuba (present-day Camagüey), Agramonte strongly supported the movement for independence from Spain. He studied music and the law in Cuba, Spain, and France. After vocal studies with Enrico Delle Sedie (1822–1907) and François Delsarte (1811–71) at the Paris Conservatory, he immigrated to the United States, settling in New York in 1869, where he remained until after Cuban independence in 1898. He became a US citizen in 1886.

In the 1870s and 1880s, Agramonte taught music at the Academy of Mount Saint Vincent in the Bronx. In the 1890s he taught with Dudley Buck and William Mason at the Metropolitan College of Music and ran his own School of Opera and Oratorio at his home, teaching singers such as ...

Article

Francesco Bussi

Member of Andreoli family

(b Mirandola, Jan 8, 1840; d Reggio nell’Emilia, Jan 22, 1908). Italian pianist, composer and conductor, son of Evangelista Andreoli (i). The most celebrated member of the family, he studied with his father and with Angeleri at the Milan Conservatory (1852–8), where he received a piano diploma. In December 1858 he made his début as a concert artist in the Teatro di S Radegonda in Milan. He made successful tours of Italy and gave concerts in England, France, Germany and Austria with such artists as Piatti, Bazzini, Bottesini, Alard, Borghi Mamo, Joachim and Sivori. From 1871 he taught the piano at the Milan Conservatory. He founded the Società dei Concerti Sinfonici Popolari (1877), which he and his younger brother Guglielmo Andreoli (ii) directed for ten years, giving 96 concerts altogether. He became insane in 1891 and four years later was committed to an asylum in Reggio nell’Emilia, where he died. A bust of him, with an epigraph by Boito, was placed in the Milan Conservatory in ...

Article

Francesco Bussi

Member of Andreoli family

(b Mirandola, Jan 9, 1862; d Modena, April 26, 1932). Italian pianist, violinist, conductor and composer, son of Evangelista Andreoli (i). He received his first musical instruction from his father, and from 1876 studied the organ with Polibio Fumagalli, the violin with G. Rampazzini and composition with Bazzini at the Milan Conservatory. He taught harmony, counterpoint and (from 1900) the piano at the conservatory, where his pupils included Victor De Sabata and Franco Vittadini. From 1878 to 1886 he took an active part in the Società dei Concerti Sinfonici Popolari and directed the concerts of the Società del Quartetto; he was a member of the Campanari Quartet for three years. His works include a Fantasia sinfonica and two overtures for orchestra, a requiem, a string quartet, short piano pieces, and songs. He also published Manuale d’armonia (with Edgardo Codazzi, Milan, 1898) and prepared editions of piano music of Beethoven, Chopin, Heller, Mendelssohn, Moscheles, Raff and Weber....

Article

Rainer E. Lotz

(b São Paulo, 1892; d Rio de Janeiro, 1979). Brazilian bandleader, violinist, and saxophonist. He studied music in Rio de Janeiro (1917–19) and directed his own dance orchestra, gradually changing its repertory from Latin American music to jazz. He recorded prolifically on the Odeon label (1919–24) and although he did not perform as a soloist he became one of the pioneers of jazz in Brazil. While touring Europe (1924–34) he played for a time with the dancer and bandleader Grégor Kélékian. He made several recordings for Grammophon in Berlin (including Everything is hotsy totsy now, 20338, and Big Bad Bill, 20340, both 1926), some of which show to advantage the hot trumpet playing of Mickey Diamond and the blue blowing on kazoo of Sydney Sterling. (R. E. Lotz: “Eduardo Andreozzi: the Jazz Pioneer from Brazil,” Sv, no.122 (1985–6), 62 [incl. discography])...

Article

Doris Evans McGinty

(b Philadelphia, c1808; d New York State, after 1871). American composer, horn player and conductor. One of the earliest black American composers, he worked in New York, as teacher and performer, and Philadelphia, where he played with the Walnut Street Theater Orchestra (1826) and was a member of the Frank Johnson band (1830s), with which he toured England. He conducted the first performance of instrumental music in the African Methodist Episcopal Church (1848) and was described by Bishop Alexander Payne as ‘the most learned musician of the race’. His best-known compositions are an anthem, Sing unto God, and John Tyler’s Lamentation, commissioned by the Utica (New York) Glee Club, probably with reference to the presidential election campaign of 1844.

SouthernB J. Trotter: Music and Some Highly Musical People (Boston, 1881/R) D.A. Payne: Recollections of Seventy Years (Nashville, TN, 1888) E. Southern...

Article

Edward H. Tarr

(Laurent)

(b Lyons, Feb 28, 1825; d Paris, April 9, 1889). French cornet player and conductor. He studied the trumpet with Dauverné at the Paris Conservatoire from 1841 to 1845. He acquired renown for conducting salon orchestras, an activity that he took up in 1856, and later conducted at the Opéra. In 1857 he became professor of saxhorn at the Ecole Militaire, and in 1869, after an unsuccessful attempt seven years earlier, established a cornet class at the Conservatoire. He and Cerclier, who taught the trumpet, both succeeded Dauverné, thus originating a separation of the trumpet class into sections for cornet and for trumpet, a practice that has continued. In the summer seasons from 1873 to 1875 and in 1876, he conducted a French orchestra in St Petersburg and Pavlovsk, respectively, the reason for which he resigned his Conservatoire post in 1874. When the position became vacant again in ...

Article

Frank J. Cipolla

(b Lochside, Scotland, 1828; d New York, May 23, 1883). American bandmaster and cornetist of Scottish origin. He joined the 26th Regiment of the British Army, known as the Cameronians, at 13; he served in India and China, returned to Britain, then went to Canada with a military band. He reportedly deserted his regiment to assume the leadership of a band in Troy, New York, where he remained for six months before accepting a similar position in Worcester, Massachusetts. Three years later, in 1860, he joined the Gilmore Band, which in 1861 became attached to the 24th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment; he served with the band during the Civil War. Arbuckle was an outstanding cornet soloist, who was admired for his beautiful, cantabile style of playing. He was a soloist at the National Peace Jubilee of 1869 and the World Peace Jubilee of 1872, both of which were organized by Gilmore. In ...

Article

(b Novgorod, 30 June/July 12, 1861; d nr Terioki, Finland [now Zelenogorsk, Russia], Feb 25, 1906). Russian composer, pianist and conductor. His father, a doctor, was a keen cellist, and his mother an excellent pianist who gave him his first music lessons. By the age of nine he had already composed some songs and piano pieces. When the family moved to St Petersburg, Arensky took lessons with Zikke before entering the St Petersburg Conservatory (1879), where he studied composition with Rimsky-Korsakov and counterpoint and fugue with Johannsen. He graduated with a gold medal in 1882. Even before this Rimsky-Korsakov had been sufficiently impressed by Arensky’s talent to entrust him with a share in preparing the vocal score of The Snow Maiden. After graduating Arensky went straight to the Moscow Conservatory as a professor of harmony and counterpoint; among his pupils were to be Rachmaninoff, Skryabin and Glière. The move to Moscow brought him into close contact with Tchaikovsky, who gave him much practical encouragement, and Taneyev. From ...

Article

Robert Layton

(Bernhard Vilhelm)

(b Stockholm, Sept 10, 1866; d Saltsjöbaden, March 1, 1914). Swedish violinist, composer and conductor, brother of Valborg Aulin. He studied from 1877 to 1883 with J. Lindberg (violin) and C. Nordqvist (theory) at the Swedish Royal Academy of Music and in Berlin from 1884 to 1886 with E. Sauret (violin) and P. Scharwenka (composition). He was active as an orchestral musician in the early years of his career and served as leader of the Swedish Hovkapell from 1889 to 1902. In 1887 he founded the Aulin Quartet, which made annual tours of Sweden and other northern European countries until it was disbanded in 1912; it specialized not only in the Classical repertory, particularly Beethoven, but in a wide-ranging representation of the works of Scandinavian composers, above all Berwald, Grieg, E. Sjögren and W. Stenhammar. From 1890 Aulin worked closely with Stenhammar, who also took part in most of the Aulin Quartet’s tours as pianist. His circle of friends also included Grieg and Sjögren....

Article

Nicholas Temperley

Member of Bache family

(b Birmingham, June 19, 1842; d London, March 26, 1888). English pianist and conductor, brother of Francis Edward Bache. Like his elder brother he attended his father’s school and studied with Stimpson. In August 1858 he too went to Leipzig, but after a short stay at Milan and Florence he arrived at Rome in the summer of 1862, where for three years he received regular lessons from Liszt; this experience gave his life a different direction. In 1865 he returned to London, and soon began his lifelong crusade to establish his master’s reputation there: he played a two-piano arrangement of Les préludes with Edward Dannreuther on 4 July 1865. In the summer of 1867 he and Dannreuther formed a small association for the promotion of the music of Wagner and Liszt in England, dubbing themselves ‘The Working Men’s Society’, with Karl Klindworth as a kind of elder statesman. The society advocated all music of the new German school, and Bache played his part in defending Wagner and others in the critical battles that were taking place in ...

Article

Jonas Westover

(b England, c1820s, d Brooklyn, NY, Dec 10, 1888). Composer, conductor, arranger, and violinist, active in the United States. The date and specific location of his birth remain unknown, but Baker’s youth was spent in England. By age seven he showed enough promise on the violin to merit the attention of Princess Augusta, who secured him a place at the Royal Academy of Music in London. There he studied violin under the tutelage of Francois Cramer and Paolo Spagnoletti. Baker also learned piano, composition, and harmony with Thomas Attwood, with whom Baker claimed to have studied many of Mozart’s manuscripts. As a violinist, Baker made his début at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden on 4 June 1832, while his conducting career began in 1840 with a concert at the Queen’s Concert Rooms, London. Shortly afterwards, he performed as concertmaster and violin soloist with the orchestra of Philippe Musard. Baker would reprise these two roles under the direction of Louis Jullien, for whom he also arranged several pieces of music. During this period, Baker had begun to compose, and Jullien himself published some of his earliest works. Though the start date of Baker’s contract with Jullien is not clear, he was still working with the conductor on his tour to the United States in the spring of ...

Article

Stuart Campbell

( b Nizhniy Novgorod, Dec 21, 1836/Jan 2, 1837; d St Petersburg, 16/May 29, 1910). Russian composer, conductor, teacher and pianist .

Balakirev was the son of a minor government official. His musical education began with his mother’s piano tuition and proceeded to a course of summer lessons in Moscow with Aleksandr Dubuque. At that time the leading musical figure and patron in Nizhniy Novgorod (and author of books on Mozart and Beethoven) was Aleksandr Ulïbïshev, and it was through his household pianist and musical organizer Karl Eisrich that Balakirev’s induction to music, embracing the crucial discoveries of Chopin and Glinka, continued. Eisrich and Ulïbïshev provided Balakirev with further opportunities to play, read and listen to music, and to rehearse other musicians in orchestral and choral works, including, when he was 14, Mozart’s Requiem. His first surviving compositions date from the age of 15. Balakirev’s formal education began at the Gymnasium in Nizhniy Novgorod and continued after his mother’s death in ...

Article

Elżbieta Dziębowska

(b Warsaw, April 16, 1858; d Warsaw, Sept 1, 1929). Polish violinist, conductor and teacher. He was a pupil of Apolinary Kątski at the Warsaw Music Institute (c 1871) and then studied the violin at the Moscow Conservatory with Ferdinand Laub and Jan Hřímalý; on completing his studies in 1876 he was awarded a gold medal. From 1877 he played frequently in Poland and also in England, France, Germany, Denmark, Austria, Sweden, Norway and Russia. He taught the violin and the viola at the Warsaw Music Institute (1886–1918), where he also directed the chamber music class and conducted the student orchestra; he was a member of the governing Pedagogical Council (1888–1901) and later was appointed director (1910–18). He was leader of the Warsaw Opera House orchestra, and from 1886 was conductor there. In 1892 he established his own string quartet. Barcewicz was one of the finest Polish violinists. He won great recognition for his beautiful, deep, full tone, excellent technique and individuality of interpretation. He had a large repertory, comprising chiefly the works of Classical and Romantic composers....

Article

N. Lee Orr

(b Florence, Aug 2, 1854; d Atlanta, GA, Nov 17, 1935). American pianist, conductor and teacher. He was born into one of the leading musical families in 19th-century America, which included Adelina Patti, and made his début as a pianist on 7 April 1865 in New York. His family soon moved to Philadelphia, where he studied the piano with Carl Wolfsohn before embarking for the Cologne Conservatory in 1872. Barili settled in Atlanta in 1880 and became the city's first professional musician, introducing many standard works, including Beethoven sonatas and later Gounod's Messe solennelle de Sainte Cécile. In 1883 he planned the first Atlanta Music Festival, which included a chorus of 300 accompanied by Carl Sentz's orchestra from Philadelphia. During that one weekend Barili introduced symphonies by Schubert (no.8), Haydn and Beethoven, as well as a number of Mendelssohn and Verdi overtures. That same year he conducted the chorus for Theodore Thomas and his orchestra. Barili developed a reputation as one of the finest teachers in the South, and many of his pupils achieved successful musical careers. His pioneering work in Atlanta laid the foundation for many of the city's musical institutions....

Article

John L. Clark

(b New Orleans, LA, March 25, 1897; d New Orleans, Jan 28, 1983). American pianist, singer, and bandleader. The daughter of the Civil War veteran and Louisiana state senator W.B. Barrett, she learned piano by ear as a child and was playing professionally by her early teens. She never learned to read music and worked almost exclusively in New Orleans. During the 1920s Barrett played with many of the uptown New Orleans groups, including those led by Papa Celestin, Armand Piron, and John Robichaux. In the following decade she worked most often with Bebe Ridgley, with whom she developed a local following that subsequently brought her success at the Happy Landing from 1949 and the Paddock Lounge during the late 1950s. It was at this time that she became known as Sweet Emma the Bell Gal because of her habit of wearing garters with bells attached that created a tambourine-like effect as she played. In ...

Article

Gaynor G. Jones

revised by Christopher Fifield

(b Grosswanzleben, Saxony, June 5, 1850; d Magdeburg, Dec 25, 1923). German violinist, conductor and composer. He began his violin studies in 1856 with Franz Beck and continued with Joachim in Hanover (1863–7). A childhood accident forced him to bow left-handed. He had a series of appointments as leader of string quartets or orchestras in Münster at J.O. Grimm's invitation (1867), Krefeld (1882) and Marburg, where he was also music director of the university (1887–94). At Marburg he joined the close circle of friends around Brahms, of whom he wrote a two-volume biography. He moved to Hamburg in 1895 as Vernuth's successor to direct the Philharmonic Concerts as well as the Singakademie and, from 1908, the Hamburg Conservatory. Until 1913 he toured frequently with the Hamburg Lehrergesangverein. He appeared at St James's Hall in London on 4 June 1896, playing Beethoven's Kreutzer Sonata and in Brahms's Piano Trio op.87. He was awarded an honorary doctorate from Marburg University in ...

Article

Eric Blom

revised by Christopher Fifield

(b Vienna, March 6, 1852; d Vienna, March 12, 1913). Austrian violinist, conductor and composer. He studied at the Vienna Conservatory with Georg and Joseph Hellmesberger (violin), Dachs (piano) and Bruckner (theory). He later played the violin in the Vienna Hofoper orchestra and, from 1885 to his retirement in 1898, was director of the ballet at that theatre. He travelled throughout Europe as a conductor and visited America in 1881 to conduct his operetta Der Chevalier von San Marco in New York. His other operettas include Menelaus (1892), Fräulein Hexe (1898) and Der Polizeichef (1904), while he also wrote two comic operas, Alien Fata and Der Goldasoka. It was, however, as a composer of some 22 ballets that he made his reputation; many of them were produced in Vienna or Berlin, the best-known being Die Puppenfee (1888).

ES (W. Boetticher...

Article

J.H. Alexander

(b Cleveland, OH, Sept 12, 1856; d Cleveland, May 26, 1924). American conductor, composer and violinist. He studied at the Leipzig Conservatory from 1879 to 1882, and made his European début as a violinist at the Leipzig Gewandhaus in his own String Quartet in C minor. On his return to Cleveland he continued activity with the Schubert String Quartet, which he organized in 1877, and the Beck String Quartet, giving frequent concerts during the 1880s and 1890s. After 1878 he was active as a conductor. He directed the Detroit SO (1895–6) and local Cleveland orchestras during the early years of the 20th century, and appeared frequently with major orchestras in other cities. He conducted his own works with much success and numerous contemporary articles and reviews give him high praise. Only his Elegiac Song op.4 no.1 seems to have been published. Beck was active in the Music Teachers National Association and the Ohio Music Teachers' Association. An extensive collection of his manuscripts and memorabilia is in the Cleveland (Ohio) Public Library....

Article

Kara Gardner

(b Detroit, March 28, 1866; d Chicago, Dec 6, 1945). American violinist, conductor, musical director, teacher, and composer. Bendix was born to Jewish parents who had emigrated from Germany. His father William was a music teacher. Bendix began formal study at the Cincinnati College of Music where, at the age of twelve, he performed with the college orchestra, directed by Theodore Thomas. This began a long association between the two men, leading to Bendix’s appointment as first violinist and concertmaster of the Theodore Thomas Orchestra in 1886. In August 1893 Thomas resigned his position as music director of the Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition following a series of unsuccessful concerts. Bendix took Thomas’s place as conductor of the Exposition orchestra. This created tension between the two men, and Bendix left the Thomas orchestra in 1896. He went on to serve as conductor at the Manhattan Opera House and to conduct orchestras for world fairs in St. Louis (...