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Article

Andrew Lamb

(b Graslitz [now Kraslice], Bohemia, July 8, 1857; d Dresden, Sept 24, 1910). German composer and conductor. The son of a woodwind instrument maker, he attended the music school in Graslitz for three years and then (1874 to 1879) studied the clarinet with Julius Pisařowitz at the Prague Conservatory. In 1880 he became theatre conductor in Brno and was subsequently at various other German theatres before he went to the Carl Schultze-Theater in Hamburg in 1883. There he met the singer Anna Maria Eppich (1864–1919), whom he married in 1886 after the wide success of his first operetta Don Cesar; this work, which used the same story as Wallace’s Maritana, was performed throughout Germany and Austria and as far afield as the USA. In 1893 Dellinger became chief conductor at the Residenz-Theater in Dresden, where further operettas by him were produced with limited success. In later years he suffered from financial worries and consequent overwork, and in ...

Article

(b Vienna, Oct 20, 1853; d New York, Sept 13, 1914). American composer and conductor of Austrian birth. He received his musical education in his native city, where he reportedly studied with Jacques Offenbach. He emigrated to the USA in 1882, became conductor at the Thalia Theatre, New York, and began arranging other composers’ works. His own first published score was 1776, a three-act romantic comic opera in German (1884), but his first (and greatest) success was The Passing Show (1894), the earliest of the lavish topical American revues. Englander composed scores for about 55 shows, principally comic operas, writing as many as four a year during the period 1895 to 1904. More than 50 of his songs and a handful of piano pieces (mostly from the shows) were published. Although he was a prolific composer of well-crafted songs and dances, Englander’s thorough grounding in Viennese operetta prevented him from adapting, towards the end of his career, to the Tin Pan Alley and musical comedy styles. The most popular songs in some of his shows were in fact written by other men: for example, ‘Sweet Annie Moore’ (...

Article

Andrew Lamb

[Faster, Otto]

(b Hamburg, Feb 16, 1854; d Hamburg, Jan 11, 1931). German conductor and composer. The son of a journalist, he was educated in Hamburg and studied music with August Herzog (1870–72). He began a career in business, but from 1880 was active as conductor and composer of waltzes, polkas, and other dances and marches. His waltz ...

Article

J.G. Prod’homme

revised by Andrew Lamb

(b Buxières-les-Mines, April 5, 1862; d Paris, July 14, 1923). French composer and conductor. He was a pupil of Dubois and Franck at the Conservatoire, where he won a first prize in harmony and an organ prize. He made his début as a composer with a ballet-divertissement, Les sources du Nil, given in 1882 at the Folies Bergère (the first of several given there or at the Casino de Paris). His most important ballet is Phryné; he also composed several operettas, notably Les saltimbanques (Paris, 1899) and Hans, le joueur de flûte (Monte Carlo, 1906). Ganne conducted the orchestra for the balls at the Opéra, and was for many years musical director at the casino at Monte Carlo. He wrote more than 200 works, including songs, salon pieces and some excellent dance tunes such as the Valse des blondes and the mazurkas La czarine and La tzigane...

Article

(Romualdo)

(b Tudela, Feb 7, 1822; d Madrid, March 18, 1870). Spanish composer and conductor. Orphaned at an early age, he became a choirboy at Tudela Cathedral in 1830 and studied there with Rubla. In 1834 he was a pupil of Guelbenzu at Pamplona and in 1842 entered the Madrid Conservatory to study the piano with Pedro Albéniz y Basanta and composition with Ramón Carnicer. In 1845 the Italian company at the Teatro de la S Cruz in Madrid made him the director of its chorus. In 1846 he went to Paris as conductor of a ballet company, but in 1848 returned to Madrid as director of the Teatro Español, where his first zarzuela, La mensajera, had its première in December 1849. This began a series of successes for Gaztambide as a conductor of opera and zarzuela companies in Madrid. For several seasons he conducted operas at the Teatro Real, and he directed the first performance in Spanish of Meyerbeer’s ...

Article

Alfred Loewenberg

revised by Andrew Lamb

(b Danzig [Gdańsk], Feb 7, 1823; d Baden, nr Vienna, June 15, 1895). German conductor, librettist and composer. He was the son of Friedrich Genée (b Königsberg, 1796; d Berlin, 1859), conductor at a theatre in Danzig, and, although first intended for the medical profession, took up music, studying with A. Stahlknecht in Berlin. Between 1847 and 1867 he was successively Kapellmeister at theatres at Reval (now Tallinn), Riga, Cologne, Düsseldorf, Danzig, Mainz, Schwerin and Prague. In 1868 he became conductor at the Theater an der Wien, Vienna, and in the following years was increasingly involved with not just the musical but also the literary side of the works produced there. At first concerned with adapting foreign works for production, he became much in demand as a clever writer of operetta librettos. This side of his activities developed particularly through his association with Johann Strauss (ii) who, being unfamiliar with writing for the theatre, used Genée not just as a lyricist but for the detailed working out of his melodic ideas. Thus Genée’s handwriting is to be found extensively in the autograph score of ...

Article

(b Seville, Oct 10, 1854; d Madrid, Feb 19, 1923). Spanish composer and conductor. He studied music first with his father and then the violin with Salvador Viniegra. At the age of 12 he joined the orchestra of the Teatro Principal in Seville as a first violinist and at 17 became director of the Opera. Receiving a scholarship from the Diputación of Cádiz, he went to the Paris Conservatoire, where he studied with Alard, Savart and Thomas, winning first prizes in harmony and counterpoint in 1877. After travelling in Italy, he became director of the Teatro Apolo in Madrid in 1885, then of the Teatro de la Zarzuela, where he gave the first performance in Spain of Bizet’s Carmen. He was also director of the Unión Artístico-Musical and the Madrid Concert Society, where he introduced works from the Classical German repertory and modern French and Russian compositions. He wrote orchestral and instrumental music, but his chief interest was the zarzuela, especially the ...

Article

Hervé  

Andrew Lamb

[Ronger, Florimond]

(b Houdain, June 30, 1825; d Paris, Nov 3, 1892). French composer, singer and conductor. On his father's death in 1835, his mother took him to Paris. He found employment at the church of St Roch, where he learnt the rudiments of singing, organ and harmony; he then briefly studied harmony with Elwart at the Conservatoire and later composition with Auber. From 1839 to 1845 he was organist at the Bicêtre asylum and began a music class for the patients, writing songs, choruses and other entertainments for them. For eight years from 1845 he was organist at St Eustache.

For his theatrical career he took the name Hervé, gradually gaining recognition through his Don Quichotte et Sancho Pança (1848) and engagements at the Théâtre de l’Odéon and Théâtre du Palais-Royal, where he appeared as author, composer, conductor, actor, tenor buffo singer and producer, as required. His five-act ...

Article

Romeo Ghircoiaşiu

(b ?1845; d Bucharest, Sept 28, 1902). Romanian composer and conductor. He studied in Galaţi with Alois Riedl and in Iaşi with Emil Lehr, and became director of the military bands of Galaţi and Bucharest. He composed fanfares, marches, waltzes and potpourris of folk melodies, and in 1889 was awarded a composition prize at the International Exhibition in Paris. His piano and vocal pieces became popular at the soirées of the day, and his fanfare Valurile Dunării (‘The Danube waves’), also arranged for piano, has become widely known.

Article

Andrew Lamb

(Albrecht Pál) [Keler, Adalbert Paul von]

(b Bártfa, Hungary [now Bardejov, Slovakia], Feb 13, 1820; d Wiesbaden, Nov 20, 1882). Hungarian conductor and composer. As a patriotic Hungarian he used the Hungarian form of his name with surname first. He was at first a law student and then for four years a farmer before he took up music seriously, teaching himself theory from the writings of Albrechtsberger. After a spell as theatre violinist in Eperjes (Prešov), he moved to Vienna in 1845, taking a place as first violin in the orchestra of the Theater an der Wien and studying further with Simon Sechter. In 1854 he took over Gungl's orchestra in Berlin for a time and in 1855 that of August Lanner in Vienna on the latter's death; in 1856 he became bandmaster of the 10th Austrian Infantry Regiment. In 1860 he started an orchestra in Budapest, but this failed and from 1863 to 1870...

Article

Paul Christiansen

(b Sasmuk [now Zásmuky, Czech Republic], Aug 1, 1848; d Kolín, April 30, 1912). Czech composer and bandmaster. He had five brothers and his father was a clarinettist. He studied the violin in Zásmuky and Kolín and later in Prague. In 1869 he returned to Zásmuky to teach and also began playing in and composing for local bands. In 1873, however, his preoccupation with writing music to accompany physical exercises for the newly-introduced patriotic Sokol movement, in a genre of Gebrauchsmusik popular at the time, resulted in his dismissal from his school position. Soon thereafter he became the bandmaster in Kolín, and over time gathered together a core group of musicians able to perform works for various ensembles, such as wind band and dance orchestra. As Kmoch’s reputation grew, he took the band on tour in Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, to Kraków (1884), Budapest (1886...

Article

Paul Christiansen

(b Netěchovice, nr České Budějovice, Nov 4, 1823; d Netěchovice, March 19, 1893). Czech conductor, bandmaster and composer , father of Karel Komzák. He spent his youth in Koloděje, Weittertschlag and Český Krumlov, then studied at the Prague Organ School (1839–40) before completing a teacher’s course at the College of St Jindřich in Prague (1841–2), during which time he was supported by Tomášek. He became a teacher and organist in Koloděje (1842–7), and later a clerk and organist at an institute for the mentally insane in Prague and organist at the church of St Kateřina (1847–66). At the same time he directed a rifle corps band (1847–65). Komzák achieved his greatest fame through the orchestra which he founded and conducted in Prague (1854–65), and in which Dvořák played viola. After playing for the Prague Provisional Theatre from ...

Article

Andrew Lamb

(b Schönfeld [now Krásno], July 3, 1802; d Karlsbad [now Karlovy Vary], Aug 19, 1881). Bohemian violinist, conductor and composer. He was the son of a weaver, who in 1800 moved from Kampern in Prussian Silesia to Schönfeld and in 1802 to Petschau (now Bečov nad Teplou). He studied with Karl Veit and at the age of 14 joined a travelling orchestra in Petschau. In 1820 he obtained a position as violinist in the spa orchestra at Marienbad (now Mariánské Lázně), taking other jobs during the winter months. He played in Munich (1823–4), where he took further violin lessons, and undertook a concert tour of southern Germany, visiting Regensburg, Augsburg, Ulm, Stuttgart, Würzburg and Nuremberg. In 1825 he founded his own orchestra, visiting Vienna in the winter of 1825–6 and Warsaw in 1829–30. In 1835 he became conductor of the spa orchestra at Karlsbad, where he rapidly built up a reputation for himself and his orchestra. His dance compositions began to have widespread popularity, particularly the ...

Article

Guy Bourligueux

(Domingo)

(b Badajoz, Feb 7, 1825; d Madrid, March 12, 1877). Spanish composer and conductor. He studied singing and the piano with his father and taught himself the horn, the oboe and other instruments. He had no formal harmony or counterpoint lessons, but arranged some of the works of Haydn and Mozart for the flute, oboe, clarinet and cornet. In 1844 he went to Madrid, where he became the protégé of the Madrid writer Ramón de Mesonero Romanos (1803–82) and the friend of Baltasar Saldoni, who, as director of the Teatro Español, gave the premières of some of his symphonic works. He became known as a pianist, and for the next two or three years wrote songs and fantasias and other music for the piano, which he included in his concerts. His greatest success with the public came, however, from his zarzuelas. His first, La venta del puerto, o Juanillo el contrabandista...

Article

Andrew Lamb

(b London, July 25, 1855; d London, Jan 22, 1895). English composer, conductor and pianist. A member of a family of theatre musicians, he began his career as a pianist at the Middlesex Music Hall in London; he was later the musical director at the New Royalty, Globe, Her Majesty’s and other theatres in London and New York. He wrote numerous parlour pieces for the piano and comic songs, and as a composer of comic operas he was one of the most accomplished contemporaries of Sullivan. Solomon’s melodies are usually in an English ballad or a march style with repeated melodic phrases and simple rhythms. His comic operas, many of which echo Sullivan’s, were all performed in London and include Billee Taylor (Imperial, 30 October 1880), Claude Duval (Olympic, 24 August 1881), The Vicar of Bray (Globe, 22 July 1882), Polly (Novelty, 4 October 1882...

Article

Andrew Lamb

[padre]

(b Badajoz, Feb 27, 1846; d Madrid, March 17, 1910). Spanish composer and conductor. He began his musical studies in his native city, and as a boy he played the piccolo in a military band. He later studied at the Madrid Conservatory, where he won first prize for flute in 1867 and composition in 1870. In 1871 his Sinfonía Batilo was awarded a prize by the Sociedad Fomento de las Artes. He composed flute studies and in 1882, during an unsuccessful attempt to become a flute teacher at the Madrid Conservatory, wrote a pamphlet La flauta: su historia, su estudio (Madrid, 1886), which was later adopted by the conservatory as a text. In all he composed over 200 instrumental works, but his prime preoccupation was with the theatre. He was a theatre conductor throughout the 1870s and 80s and composed many zarzuelas, often in collaboration. Of these the best-known are those with Chueca, including ...

Article

Andrew Lamb

(b New Orleans, May 30, 1844; d Paris, Aug 20, 1908). French composer and conductor. He was one of two sons of the theatre conductor and composer Pierre Varney (1811–79), from whom he received his musical training. His early career was spent as conductor at the Théâtre de l'Athénée in Paris, for which he composed the one-act operetta Il signor Pulcinella (1876) and music for revues. After his father's death he became known as a prolific composer of opérettes, beginning with Les mousquetaires au couvent (1880). For two decades he produced about two opérettes a year, some of which were also produced abroad, and composed ballets for the major Paris music halls. In the last years of his life, however, he composed little due to a disease which obliged him to move to Bagnères-de-Bigorre in the Pyrenees; he was taken back to Paris the day before he died. Varney's music displays a lightness and gaiety which owe much to Offenbach, but only ...

Article

Andrew Lamb

(Félix Augustin Joseph)

(b Bapaume, May 28, 1844; d Pas-de-Calais, May 25, 1917). French composer, organist and conductor. After studying music with his father, an organist at Bapaume, he moved to Paris at the age of 12 to study at the Ecole Niedermeyer. In 1867 he published his Méthode d'orgue expressif ou harmonium (Paris), and in 1870 he became organist at St Symphonien, Versailles. While continuing with religious compositions, he turned to operetta, and in 1872 his La timbale d'argent ran for over 200 nights at the Bouffes-Parisiens, saving the theatre from bankruptcy and setting Vasseur on a career of composing light music. However, none of his later operettas, many of them comic treatments of historical subjects, had equal success. In 1879 he reopened the former Théâtre Taitbout as the Nouveau Théâtre-Lyrique, but his attempt at theatre management soon proved a disaster. In 1890 he became conductor at the Folies-Bergère, but in ...

Article

Walter Aaron Clark

(b Barcelona, Aug 10, 1836; d Barcelona, Oct 21, 1905). Spanish pianist, conductor and composer of Catalan descent. He studied with the organist and composer Vilanova at Barcelona, then continued his education in Paris with Herz (piano), and Bazin and Halévy (composition). After returning to Barcelona he gave concerts and wrote a history of music, Apuntes de historia musical, o Resumen de historia de la música (Barcelona, 1863). He was a pioneer in composing Catalan zarzuelas, and his first such work to be staged, L'ultim rey de Magnolia, to a libretto by Frederic Soler (pseud. Serafí Pitarra), was performed in Barcelona in December 1868. It was followed in June 1869 by another Catalan zarzuela to a libretto by Soler, Els pescadors de San Pol. Both were well received. He continued to compose for the stage and served as assistant conductor at a secondary theatre in Barcelona. He later became chorus master and finally conductor at the Teatro Principal. Eventually he confined himself to teaching and composition. Despite their settings, dialogue and costumes, his Catalan zarzuelas evince the influence of Italian opera so pervasive in Spain during that epoch. He was a gifted orchestrator and made effective use of colour to project dramatic situations....

Article

(b Strasbourg, Dec 9, 1837; d Paris, Feb 12, 1915). French composer, pianist and conductor. His father Louis (1801–84) and brother Léon (1832–84) were violinists and dance composers, and his Bavarian mother was a pianist. In 1842 the family moved to Paris, where his father's dance orchestra gained prominence in Society circles. Emile studied the piano with his mother and Joseph Heyberger, and in December 1853 he was formally admitted to the Conservatoire in Adolphe Laurent's piano class, where his fellow students included Massenet. For a time he earned a living testing pianos for the manufacturer Scholtus, besides giving piano lessons and playing at soirées. He was appointed court pianist to Napoléon III in 1865 and conductor of the state balls the following year, directing the music in the Tuileries, at Biarritz and at Compiègne. He took part in the war of 1870–71 as a volunteer and in ...