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Francesco Bussi

Member of Andreoli family

(b Mirandola, Jan 8, 1840; d Reggio nell’Emilia, Jan 22, 1908). Italian pianist, composer and conductor, son of Evangelista Andreoli (i). The most celebrated member of the family, he studied with his father and with Angeleri at the Milan Conservatory (1852–8), where he received a piano diploma. In December 1858 he made his début as a concert artist in the Teatro di S Radegonda in Milan. He made successful tours of Italy and gave concerts in England, France, Germany and Austria with such artists as Piatti, Bazzini, Bottesini, Alard, Borghi Mamo, Joachim and Sivori. From 1871 he taught the piano at the Milan Conservatory. He founded the Società dei Concerti Sinfonici Popolari (1877), which he and his younger brother Guglielmo Andreoli (ii) directed for ten years, giving 96 concerts altogether. He became insane in 1891 and four years later was committed to an asylum in Reggio nell’Emilia, where he died. A bust of him, with an epigraph by Boito, was placed in the Milan Conservatory in ...

Article

Francesco Bussi

Member of Andreoli family

(b Mirandola, Jan 9, 1862; d Modena, April 26, 1932). Italian pianist, violinist, conductor and composer, son of Evangelista Andreoli (i). He received his first musical instruction from his father, and from 1876 studied the organ with Polibio Fumagalli, the violin with G. Rampazzini and composition with Bazzini at the Milan Conservatory. He taught harmony, counterpoint and (from 1900) the piano at the conservatory, where his pupils included Victor De Sabata and Franco Vittadini. From 1878 to 1886 he took an active part in the Società dei Concerti Sinfonici Popolari and directed the concerts of the Società del Quartetto; he was a member of the Campanari Quartet for three years. His works include a Fantasia sinfonica and two overtures for orchestra, a requiem, a string quartet, short piano pieces, and songs. He also published Manuale d’armonia (with Edgardo Codazzi, Milan, 1898) and prepared editions of piano music of Beethoven, Chopin, Heller, Mendelssohn, Moscheles, Raff and Weber....

Article

Nicholas Temperley

Member of Bache family

(b Birmingham, June 19, 1842; d London, March 26, 1888). English pianist and conductor, brother of Francis Edward Bache. Like his elder brother he attended his father’s school and studied with Stimpson. In August 1858 he too went to Leipzig, but after a short stay at Milan and Florence he arrived at Rome in the summer of 1862, where for three years he received regular lessons from Liszt; this experience gave his life a different direction. In 1865 he returned to London, and soon began his lifelong crusade to establish his master’s reputation there: he played a two-piano arrangement of Les préludes with Edward Dannreuther on 4 July 1865. In the summer of 1867 he and Dannreuther formed a small association for the promotion of the music of Wagner and Liszt in England, dubbing themselves ‘The Working Men’s Society’, with Karl Klindworth as a kind of elder statesman. The society advocated all music of the new German school, and Bache played his part in defending Wagner and others in the critical battles that were taking place in ...

Article

Adriano Mazzoletti

(b Genoa, Italy, May 15, 1902; d Sanremo, Italy, 1994). Italian violinist, pianist, bandleader, arranger, and composer. In Genoa he studied violin and composition and played banjo for a brief period in an orchestra. He was the leader and an arranger for the group Blue Star (to 1931...

Article

Barry Kernfeld

[Benoit, Jean-Louis]

(b Philadelphia, May 18, 1926; d nr Paris, Feb 10, 1997). American organist and leader. His father was from Martinique. A child prodigy, he grew up in Baltimore, where he was taught by his grandmother; his grandfather was a Baptist minister, and Bennett directed their church choir from the age of 12. After military service (1943–6), during which time he played tuba and thereby developed his ability to invent bass lines, he began his jazz career in Baltimore (1947), leading a piano trio modeled after that of Nat “King” Cole. In 1949, under the influence of Wild Bill Davis, he began to play organ, an instrument he used professionally from 1951. By 1956 he was performing in a style much closer to that of Jimmy Smith rather than Davis, and from 1957 to 1959 he toured the Midwest and the East Coast with his own hard-bop organ trio. The following year he moved to Paris, where he performed at the Blue Note with Jimmy Gourley or René Thomas in Kenny Clarke’s trio, accompanying numerous distinguished guest soloists (until ...

Article

Ned Quist

revised by Linda L. Giedl

[Schlossberg, Artur ]

(b Hamm, Germany, Sept 27, 1909; d Aurora, CO, May 28, 2002). Composer, musicologist, conductor, and pianist of German birth; naturalized American. Born Artur Schlossberg, he grew up in an orthodox Jewish family. After the Schlossbergs moved to Mannheim in 1919, he was introduced to German organ and choral literature by Arno Landmann, first Kantor (1911–43) of Christuskirche, and received piano instruction from Landmann’s wife. With Mannheim’s proximity to Strasbourg and Alsace-Lorraine, Schlossberg became fluent in French. Shortly after entering the University of Heidelberg in 1928, he applied for musicological studies with medievalist Heinrich Besseler. At the end of three years of intensive work, he submitted his doctoral dissertation (Die italienische Sonate für mehrere Instrumente im 17ten Jahrhundert, diss., U. of Heidelberg, 1932). Later that year he was engaged as a coach and conducting assistant to Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt at the Darmstadt Opera.

Beaten with guns by Adolf Hitler’s Stormtroopers in early ...

Article

Sergio Martinotti

revised by Christopher Fifield

Member of Bott family

(b Kassel, March 9, 1826; d New York, April 28, 1895). German violinist, pianist, conductor and composer, son of Anton Bott. He received his first music lessons from his father, then (1840–42) studied the violin and composition with Spohr and theory with Moritz Hauptmann. His first public performance as a violinist and pianist at the age of ten was followed by four tours between 1838 and 1846. At 15, through Spohr’s influence, he received (for four years) the first stipend given by the Frankfurt Mozartstiftung. In 1846 he joined the orchestra of the Kassel Kapelle, becoming leader in 1849 and second Kapellmeister to Spohr in 1852. He left Kassel in summer 1856, and in autumn 1857 became Kapellmeister at Meiningen. He greatly improved the orchestra, which had both Spohr and Liszt as occasional guest conductors, and in 1861 organized the first music festival there. In ...

Article

Philip Brett, Heather Wiebe, Jennifer Doctor, Judith LeGrove, and Paul Banks

(b Lowestoft,Nov 22, 1913; d Aldeburgh, Dec 4, 1976). English composer, conductor and pianist. He and his contemporary Michael Tippett are among several pairs of composers who dominated English art music in the 20th century. Of their music, Britten’s early on achieved, and has maintained, wider international circulation. An exceedingly practical and resourceful musician, Britten worked with increasing determination to recreate the role of leading national composer held during much of his own life by Vaughan Williams, from whom he consciously distanced himself. Notable among his musical and professional achievements are the revival of English opera, initiated by the success of Peter Grimes in 1945; the building of institutions to ensure the continuing viability of musical drama; and outreach to a wider audience, particularly children, in an effort to increase national musical literacy and awareness. Equally important in this was his remaining accessible as a composer, rejecting the isolationism of the postwar avant garde and developing a distinctive tonal language that allowed amateurs and professionals alike to love his work and to enjoy performing and listening to it. Above all, he imbued his works with his own personal concerns, some of them hidden, principally those having to do with his love of men and boys, some more public, like his fiercely held pacifist beliefs, in ways that allowed people to sense the passion and conviction behind them even if unaware of their full implication. He also performed a fascinating, as well as problematic, assimilation of (or rapprochement with) Asian cultures, attempting an unusual integration of various non-Western musical traditions with his own increasingly linear style....

Article

Christopher Fifield

revised by R. Allen Lott

(b Dresden, Germany, Jan 8, 1830; d Cairo, Egypt, Feb 12, 1894). German conductor, pianist, and composer. He studied piano with Friedrich Wieck, Max Eberwein, and Louis Plaidy before briefly pursuing a law degree to appease his parents. Under Wagner’s influence he began an operatic conducting career, then in 1851 began studying piano with Liszt, becoming one of his most important pupils. After teaching in Berlin (1855–64) and undertaking concert tours as a pianist, Bülow was appointed Hofkapellmeister in Munich, where he gave the premieres of Tristan und Isolde (1865) and Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (1868). In 1869 Bülow resigned from Munich, unable to cope when his wife—Liszt’s daughter Cosima, whom he had married in 1857—left him for Wagner. He began to undertake concert tours from 1872, making the first of several visits to England in 1873 and the United States in ...

Image

Julius Burger circa 1960s

Photo by permission of the Julius Burger Estate held at the Exil. Arte Center for Banned Music at the MDW (Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Wien)

Article

Ryan Hugh Ross

(b Vienna, March 11, 1897; d New York, June 12, 1995) Austrian-born composer, conductor, pianist, and repetiteur.

Burger began formal music studies in 1916 at of the University of Vienna, attending lectures by Guido Adler and Egon Wellesz. The following year he enrolled at the Imperial Academy of Music and the Performing Arts where he studied composition with Franz Schreker. In 1919, he left Vienna to study composition with Engelbert Humperdinck in Berlin. Upon Schreker’s appointment as director of the Hochschule für Musik Berlin in 1920, Burger returned to his former tutor’s studio. While enrolled, Burger also studied conducting (1921–2) and was employed as accompanist to the tenor Leo Slezak until gaining his diploma in 1922.

Burger served as repetiteur for the Karlsruhe Opera in 1922–3, and in 1924–7 at the recommendation of Bruno Walter he assisted Artur Bodanzky at the Metropolitan Opera. He served as accompanist to Contralto ...

Article

Ryan Bruce

[John Arthur, Jr.]

(b Worcester, MA, June 15, 1922; d Queens, NY, Feb 11, 1999). American jazz pianist, composer, educator, and bandleader. He was technically proficient at playing rags, stomps, boogie-woogie, swing, bebop, and free jazz, but his performance career never conformed to any specific style or era. He is perhaps best known for his work with the Charles Mingus group (1962–5, 1970), with whom he recorded albums such as Mingus, Mingus, Mingus, Mingus, Mingus (1963, Imp.). He studied classical music from the age of five or six until he was 20 and began playing jazz on the trumpet when he was 16. As a jazz pianist, his early influences included Fats Waller, Art Tatum, Earl Hines, and Count Basie. After working with various groups in the 1950s, including three years with Earl Bostic around 1950, Byard recorded frequently from 1957 to 1962 with leaders such as Herb Pomeroy, Maynard Ferguson, Don Ellis, and Eric Dolphy. At this time he also recorded his first albums as a leader, ...

Article

Sorab Modi

[Carlone, Francis Nunzio ]

(b Providence, RI, March 25, 1903; d Mesa, AZ, March 7, 2001). American pianist, composer, arranger, and bandleader. At the age of seven he appeared as a piano soloist and in 1918 he led his first band. His graceful and relaxed piano improvisations established him with the public and earned him the nickname “the Golden Touch.” In 1933 he joined the band of Mal Hallett, which he left to join the Horace Heidt band in 1939. He formed his own big band in 1944 but abandoned it in the 1950s in favor of a smaller group. At the end of the decade Carle retired, but in 1972 he appeared briefly for a three-month tour with Freddy Martin in the show Big Band Cavalcade.

As a composer Carle has several hits to his credit, including “Sunrise Serenade,” “Carle Boogie,” “Lover’s Lullaby,” “Sunrise in Napoli,” and “Dreamy Lullaby” (co-written with Benny Benjamin and George Weiss). Carle’s arrangements were published in the collections ...

Article

Scott Yanow

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[Joseph Armand]

(b Miami, AZ, Aug 15, 1927; d Las Vegas, Dec 13, 2009). American pianist and leader. He grew up in Pittsburg, California, where he played professionally from the age of 15. After spending two periods at San Jose State College (during the interim, spring 1946 – April 1947, he performed with an army band) he formed his own trio to accompany the singer Treasure Ford; Ralph Peña was their bassist from 1947 to May 1949. They worked mainly on the West Coast and in Hawaii; his sidemen included Red Mitchell and Chico Hamilton. From 1951 into the 1960s Castro was in a relationship with the tobacco heiress Doris Duke. In 1953 she installed a recording studio in her Beverly Hills mansion, where Castro participated in and recorded hundreds of hours of jazz rehearsals and jam sessions from that year to 1960. These recordings involved leading jazz musicians who were based in, or came through, the Los Angeles area, including Stan Getz, Zoot Sims, Paul Chambers and Philly Joe Jones, Paul Bley, Dexter Gordon, and Billy Higgins....

Article

Joachim E. Berendt and W. Knauer

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(b Stuttgart, Germany, Dec 30, 1935; d Stuttgart, Jan 10, 2020). German pianist, composer, and bandleader. He took piano lessons from the age of five. After beginning his professional career in 1957, he briefly studied trumpet and composition at the Musikhochschule in Stuttgart. In the early 1960s he was a member of Joki Freund’s sextet, and in 1963 he formed his own trio, with Eberhard Weber and Fred Braceful; their album Dream Talk (1964) was one of the first European recordings of free jazz. He also wrote music for television shows and commercials and arrangements for Erwin Lehn’s orchestra. In 1969 he became the leader of the Radio Jazz Group Stuttgart, for which he also wrote compositions, and the following year he formed the jazz-rock group Et Cetera. In the mid-1970s, with Hans Koller, Dauner led the Free Sound & Super Brass Big Band, and in ...

Article

Stanislav Tuksar

(b Dubravka near Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 16, 1934). Croatian musicologist, composer, organist, and choir conductor. He started his theological studies in Split and graduated in 1961 from the Catholic Theological Faculty in Zagreb, where he also attended courses in music at the Institute for Church Music. He gained the PhD in musicology in 1978 at the University of Cologne. From 1959 to 1961, and again from 1970 to 1975, he served in Dubrovnik as organist and choir conductor at the local cathedral. From 1965 until 1969 and from 1980 on he was regens chori at the Zagreb Cathedral. In 1969 he helped in resuming the publication of the oldest Croatian church music journal Sv. Cecilija in Zagreb, which had been interrupted in 1944. His most important scholarly contributions consist of several modern facsimile editions and commentaries on medieval neumatic codices and of musicological activities dealing mostly with Dubrovnik musical history. Among the facsimile editions the most interesting is ...

Article

Milena Bozhikova

(b Vidin, Bulgaria, Sept 12, 1951). Bulgarian composer, conductor, and piano improviser. He was educated at the High School of Music in Sofia (percussion class under Dobri Paliev, 1965–71), and at the State Musical Academy in Sofia (1973–9), majoring in composition under Tsvetan Tsvetanov and Parashkev Hadzhiev, and orchestral conducting under Konstantin Iliev. He made his name as an active jazz pianist and composer, forming his own jazz trio and participating in several international festivals (in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, Cuba, Romania, Germany, Portugal, and Yugoslavia). While a student he won the position of conductor at the State Musical Theatre (1977–86), bringing to the stage a number of classical operettas and contemporary musicals. His background also includes courses in conducting under Franco Ferrara (1980, Siena, Italy) and Edward Dawns (1981, Hilversum, Holland), and in composition with Anatol Vieru (...

Article

Joseph A. Bomberger

(b Potsdam, Germany, Dec 7, 1820; d Berlin, Oct 14, 1879). German pianist, composer, and conductor. Considered a prodigy by the age of six, Eckert, through the support of the poet F. Förster, studied with some of the best instructors in Berlin, including Rechenberg and Karl Wilhelm Greulich (piano), Bötticher and Hubert Ries (violin) and Karl Friedrich Rungenhagen (composition). By the age of ten he had written an opera, Das Fischermädchen. At 13 he wrote an oratorio, Ruth. He spent the early years of his adult life traveling with the aid of wealthy patrons, studying with various well-known musicians including Felix Mendelssohn. In 1851 he became accompanist at the Theatre des Italiens, Paris. A year later he was appointed conductor. That same year he made a trip to America with Henriette Sontag, a tour marred by public scandal and disputes with the impresario Bernard Ullman. In 1853 he was director of the Court Opera in Vienna. He succeeded Friedrich Wilhelm Kücken as director at Stuttgart from ...

Article

Dezsö Legány

Member of Erkel family

(b Gyula, county of Békés, Nov 7, 1810; d Budapest, June 15, 1893). Hungarian composer, conductor, and pianist.

Erkel’s ancestors lived in Pozsony (now Bratislava), where the name Erkel was recorded as early as the 16th century. His father and grandfather were both accomplished musicians; it was probably this that led to their move in 1806 to Gyula, where the grandfather became steward to the music-loving Count Ferenc Wenckheim and the father held the post of schoolmaster and conductor of the church choir. Erkel’s father married Klára Ruttkay, daughter of a farm bailiff also in Count Wenckheim’s service, and Ferenc was the second of their ten children. The head of the Gyula county administration, notary public, and deputy sheriff, Albert Rosty, had studied in Vienna and developed a love of chamber music, especially Beethoven’s. Chamber music evenings were frequently held at Rosty’s house, in which Erkel’s father and József Wagner, an outstanding cellist also in Count Wenckheim’s service, took part; the young Ferenc would often turn the pages for the performers. 20 years later his first compositions were published by József Wagner in Pest, and it was on Rosty’s recommendation that he was engaged by the Hungarian Theatre as an opera conductor....

Article

Dezsö Legány

Member of Erkel family

(b Pest, July 4, 1842; d Újpest, March 22, 1909). Hungarian composer, conductor, and pianist, son of Ferenc Erkel. From 1863 to 1889 he was third (later second) conductor of the National Theatre and of the Royal Hungarian Opera House, which opened in 1884...