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Sara Velez

revised by Tim Brooks


US-based organization, founded in 1966 to promote the preservation and study of historical recordings in all areas of music and the spoken word. ARSC is unusual among scholarly organizations in that it brings together private collectors and scholars interested in using historical sound materials with professional archivists and libraries charged with preserving those materials. Its membership is drawn about equally from the user and holder groups, represents 23 countries, and numbers approximately 1000. The association has local chapters and holds an annual national conference that provides a forum for presentations and panel discussions in all aspects of recorded sound research. ARSC also publishes a biannual journal which includes major research articles, technical developments, discographies, record and book reviews, and bibliographies; a newsletter which contains information about member activities, meetings and events; and a membership directory, which lists all ARSC members, their collecting interests and research projects. Among its major projects have been ...



Jonas Westover

Originally called the “Gramophone Awards,” the Grammy Awards serves to honor achievement in the recording industry across a wide range of artistic and technical categories. The National academy of recording arts and sciences bestows these honors on an annual basis, and the televised production, broadcast internationally, is one of the music industry’s most prestigious occasions.

The award was first discussed in the late 1950s as part of the Hollywood Walk of Fame project, when organizers realized that there was no music equivalent for the major honors in film (Oscars) and television (Emmys). The initial broadcast show occurred on 4 May 1959 as part of the NBC anthology series Sunday Showcase, as musicians were presented with statues of Thomas Edison’s invention, the gramophone (a practice that continues to the present). NARAS seeks to recognize figures involved with different aspects of the recording process—from star performers to certain figures behind the scenes—relying on peer involvement to assign and designate awards. NARAS periodically makes changes by adding, merging, or deleting award categories; for the ...


(IAML; Fr. Association Internationale des Bibliothèques, Archives et Centres de Documentation Musicaux, AIBM; Ger. Internationale Vereinigung der Musikbibliotheken, Musikarchive und Musikdokumentationszentren, IVMB)

An organization formed after World War II to promote international cooperation and standardization in such matters as cataloguing, standards of service, personnel training and the exchange of materials between libraries. The body was founded in Paris in 1951, after preparatory meetings in Florence (1949) and Lüneburg (1950), as the Association Internationale des Bibliothèques Musicales. In 1980 its name was changed to embrace the broader interests of music archives and documentation centres, though the acronyms have remained the same. By 1998 IAML had about 2000 individual and institutional members in 45 countries throughout the world.

The association operates through a network of Professional Branches (divided by type of library, such as archives, broadcasting, music teaching institutions, public, research), Subject Commissions (grouped by type of activity, including audio-visual materials, cataloguing, bibliography, service and training) and Working Groups for specific projects. They all meet at IAML's annual conferences (or, every third year, a congress with general assembly). Two earlier groups, the Commission on Phonothèques and the Music Information Centres branch, split off to form their own associations: the International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA), and the International Association of Music Information Centres (IAMIC)....



It was founded in 1954 by musicologist Hugh Tracey at Roodepoort, near Johannesburg, South Africa, on the basis of the archive of recordings of traditional and popular African music which he had made since 1929 in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), South Africa and elsewhere in southern Africa. His research was sponsored from 1947 by Eric Gallo with marketing rights, and about 1000 records were issued from 1929 to 1952 under the Regal (Columbia), Gallotone, Trek, Troubadour and HMV labels. Three recordings from this period became well-known: Mbube (Wimoweh), by Solomon Linda, which was popularized by Pete Seeger and the Weavers; Skokiaan, by the Bulawayo Cold Storage Band; and Masanga, a song with guitar by Jean Bosco Mwenda from the Belgian Congo (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo).

In the early 1950s a series of recordings made in central, eastern and southern Africa from 1948 to 1970 was issued by Decca. It was continued by Gallo as the Music of Africa, extending to 25 records. From ...


Jerome F. Weber

American mail-order record label . It was founded in New York in 1962 by Dr Michael Naida after he left Westminster. After a small initial group of pseudonymous issues licensed from the Telemann Society and Philips, MHS began to issue large numbers of recordings licensed from Erato. Eventually the label issued most of the Erato catalogue, including discs previously issued on several US retail labels. MHS also drew on such catalogues as Library of Recorded Masterpieces, Hispavox, Somerset, Amadeo, Expériences Anonymes, Boston, Angelicum, Muza, Arcophon, Lyrichord, Da Camera, Supraphon, Pelca, Iramac, Unicorn, Christophorus, Valois and Harmonia Mundi. From the first year the firm also made a smaller number of its own recordings in New York. Frederick Renz recorded with the New York Ensemble for Early Music, notably making the first complete recording of the St Nicholas plays from Fleury. Robert Craft recorded a systematic programme of Stravinsky’s music with the Orchestra of St Luke’s and the Philharmonia. Julius Rudel, too, conducted the Orchestra of St Luke’s, and Marilyn Mason and Ann Labounsky recorded on the organ. In ...


English musical society . Its foundation in November 1888 (reported in the Musical Times, March 1889) marked an important stage in the revival in England of plainsong as music for use in the Anglican Church. Its declared aims were to form a centre for the dissemination of information, to publish facsimiles and translations of foreign works, and to form a catalogue of all plainsong and measured music in England dating from before the Reformation. H.B. Briggs was honorary secretary until 1901; Anselm Hughes became secretary in 1926, and was until his death in 1974 a leading figure in the society. More recently, the chair has been held by Derek Turner, Frank Llewelyn Harrison, John Stevens, Christopher Page and John Harper.

The society maintained a choir for several decades, but has laid chief stress on the scientific study of plainsong and medieval music. Its numerous publications have been its chief claim to importance. By ...


Teresa Chylińska

[PWM; Polish Music Publications]

In 1928 a group of Polish musicologists and musicians led by Adolf Chybiński, Teodor Zalewski, Tadeusz Ochlewski and Kazimierz Sikorski organized the Towarzystwo Wydawnicze Muzyki Polskiej (TWMP; Polish Music Publishing Society), Warsaw, to publish authentic editions of Polish music. The catalogue includes music in all genres from the 15th century to the 20th. In 1934 TWMP began publishing the periodical Muzyka polska; the principal scholarly series is Wydawnictwo Dawnej Muzyki Polskiej, which includes early music by Szarzyński, Mielczewski, Pękiel, Gorczycki and Zieleński as well as 19th- and 20th-century music up to World War II. In April 1945 TWMP transferred its assets to PWM, organized by Tadeusz Ochlewski and based in Kraków; Mieczysław Tomaszewski succeeded Ochlewski on the latter's retirement in 1965. Until the end of the 1980s PWM-Edition was the only music publishing house in Poland and produced a wide range of music and music literature. It is particularly important for its publications of early and avant-garde Polish music and critical editions of Chopin, Moniuszko, Wieniawski and Szymanowski, as well as its publications for children....


Watkins Shaw

revised by Margaret Laurie

English music publishing society. It was founded in February 1876 for the purpose, as the original prospectus states, ‘of doing justice to the memory of Henry Purcell; firstly, by the publication of his works … and secondly, by meeting for the study and performance of his various compositions’. The idea of performances was abandoned at an early stage, and the society assumed the form simply of a body of subscribers to its publications, all of which from the start have been produced by Novello.

In 1887, by which time only two volumes had appeared, the society was reorganized with W.H. Cummings as editor and W.B. Squire as honorary secretary. Squire continued in office until 1922, by which time 20 more volumes had appeared. He was succeeded by Gerald M. Cooper and in 1923–8 four more were published. Publication of the main series was then suspended, but in 1937 Cooper began issuing, at his own expense, the Purcell Society Popular Edition in a format for practical performance....


Music studio and composer’s collective. It was established in San Francisco in 1961 by Ramon Sender and Pauline Oliveros, and was soon joined by Morton Subotnick. Its first location was on Jones Street, but after the building accidentally burned down, the center relocated to a large building on Divisadero Street. It was not only the first electronic music studio on the West Coast but also became a hub of artistic activities and technological research. In addition to offering light shows designed by Anthony Martin, it hosted many composers, poets and artists, and programmed various concerts: the Sonics series, regular programming featuring avant-garde music from the Americas, Asia, and Europe, the three Tudorfest festivals, and other events. This is where in 1964 Terry Riley’s In C was first performed and in 1965 Steve Reich first played his It’s gonna rain. The center was the site of a number of technological developments with Bill Maginnis, also a composer, and, in ...


Timothy M. Crain

Performing rights organization. It represents songwriters and publishers and their right to be compensated for having their music performed in public. With headquarters in Nashville and offices in New York, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Miami, and London, it is the smallest of the main Performing rights societies in the United States. Unlike the not-for-profit organizations ASCAP and BMI, which distribute all income from performance royalties to their composer and publisher affiliates (minus an administrative fee), SESAC retains a certain amount of the performance royalties from its members. Moreover, membership in SESAC is selective and only granted through an application process. Once admitted, musicians and publishers are paid royalties based upon how much their music is played through monitoring by computer database information and broadcast logs.

SESAC was founded in 1930 by Paul Heinecke, a German immigrant to the United States. Heinecke lead the company until his death in 1972. The original name of the company was the Society of European Stage Authors and Composers, although it has subsequently gone simply by SESAC. The society originally strove to support under-represented European stage authors and composers with their American performance royalties. With an established base repertoire of European concert traditions, it turned its attention to American music traditions in the 1930s, including gospel and Christian music genres and eventually moved into mainstream popular musics during the 1940s, 50s, and 60s. Since the 1960s the company has represented an ever-growing range of writers and genres, including notables such as Bob Dylan and Neil Diamond. In ...