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Article

Terence J. O’Grady

revised by Bryan Proksch

(b Los Angeles, CA, March 31, 1935). American trumpeter, composer, bandleader, and record company executive. He studied trumpet as a child and left college to play in the army for a two-year period. After three years of producing records on his own, he launched A&M Records with Jerry Moss in 1962. A&M’s first issue was also Alpert’s first recording as a trumpeter and bandleader, The Lonely Bull (A&M, 1962). The title track included sounds from the bullring in Tijuana, Mexico, so Alpert dubbed his band the Tijuana Brass. His music exploited a distinctive combination of Mexican mariachi-style brass with jazz rhythms, which was dubbed Ameriachi. A string of hits including “Mexican Shuffle” (A&M, 1964) and “Tijuana Taxi” (A&M, 1965) followed. In 1966 Alpert had five recordings simultaneously listed on the Billboard Top 20. His cover of “This guy’s in love with you” reached no.1 in ...

Article

(b Welwyn Garden City, England, April 17, 1930; d Marlborough, Wiltshire, England, March 2, 2021). English trombonist and bandleader. He began studying violin while evacuated to Royston, England, in 1943 during World War II, starting a sizeable collection of jazz and blues records at the same time. In 1946, in London, he took up the trombone. He formed his first amateur band in 1948. In 1951, while studying to become an actuary, he led this band, which included Dickie Hawdon, on its first issued recordings, modeled on King Oliver’s 1920s work. Barber’s early bands often included Alexis Korner, who shared his interest in the blues. In September 1951 he abandoned accountancy to study trombone and double bass at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama in London.

In 1952 he formed his first professional band, with Pat Halcox, Monty Sunshine, and Lonnie Donegan, to play jazz in the New Orleans revival style. Ken Colyer replaced Halcox and assumed titular leadership of the group. After touring to Denmark and recording there and in the UK, the band split from Colyer in ...

Article

Bo Marschner

Member of Barth family

(b Copenhagen, Feb 24, 1787; d Middelfart, Fyn, July 17, 1861). Danish oboist and composer of German descent, son of Christian Samuel Barth. He was a pupil of his father, and at the age of 15, a year after his début as an oboist, he joined the royal orchestra in Copenhagen. In 1804 a scholarship enabled him to go to Berlin, where he gave concerts with great success. On his return to Copenhagen Barth, then 18 years old, was appointed principal oboist, and on frequent concert tours in Europe soon won international fame as one of the greatest artists on his instrument. In Denmark his oboe technique had lasting influence (his most important pupil was the court oboist Christian Schiemann), but in his own time he also won renown as a composer. Of his published works special mention may be made of the five oboe concertos, the ...

Article

Bo Marschner

(Carl August)

Member of Barth family

(b Kassel, Oct 21, 1774; d Copenhagen, Dec 22, 1804). German, later Danish, oboist and composer, son of Christian Samuel Barth. Though not as eminent a player as his father and his brother Christian Frederik, he was skilful enough to be admitted to the royal orchestra by ...

Article

Charles Beare

revised by Duane Rosengard

Member of Bergonzi family

(b Cremona, Feb 8, 1790; d Cremona, Sept 30, 1839). Italian horn player and composer, son of Nicola Bergonzi. He designed mechanical improvements to the corno di caccia which were recognized by the Royal Institute of Milan in 1824. Benedetto was apparently the source of some of the historical anecdotes on the great Cremonese violin makers published by Fétis in the 19th century....

Article

Eliot Gattegno

(b New York, NY, Oct 14, 1967). American composer and clarinetist. A native of New York City, Bermel as a youth studied clarinet with Ben Armato. He studied composition with Michael Tenzer at Yale University (BA 1989) and with William Bolcom and william hugh Albright at the University of Michigan (DMA 1998). Later he worked with Louis Andriessen as a Fulbright Fellow in Amsterdam and Henri Dutilleux at the Tanglewood Music Center. He has also studied ethnomusicology and orchestration with André Hajdu in Jerusalem; Lobi xylophone (gyil) in Ghana; Thracian folk style with Nikola Iliev in Bulgaria; and caxixi in Brazil with Julio Góes.

In 1998 Bermel premiered his own clarinet concerto, Voices, in Carnegie Hall with the American Composers Orchestra under Tan Dun. He has since performed it with the Los Angeles Philharmonic as well as in London and Beijing. He was the founding clarinetist of Music from Copland House, the resident ensemble at Copland’s New York home, which has been restored as a creative center for American music. He also performs with Brooklyn-based band Peace by Piece, for which he serves as bandleader, singer, and songwriter. The group has released two albums, Peace by Piece (...

Article

Guido Salvetti

revised by T. Herman Keahey

Member of Besozzi family

(b Parma or Piacenza, July 22, 1702: d Turin, July 26, 1793). Italian oboist and composer, son of Cristoforo Besozzi. He played in the Guardia Irlandese from 1714 to 1728, after which he served Duke Farnese as virtuoso d’oboe until 1731. For the rest of his life he served the King of Sardinia, Carlo Emanuele III, as virtuoso d’oboe in the court chapel at Turin. In 1735 he and his brother Paolo Girolamo were favourably received in Paris at the Concert Spirituel, but they soon returned to Turin. Burney heard the brothers play duets at their home in Turin on 13 July 1770. In spite of their advanced years, Burney judged their performances to be remarkable. In 1776 Alessandro was named primo virtuoso di camera, dire Hore generale della musica istrumentale e suonatore di Hautbois.

Alessandro’s known output includes several concertos, only one of which was printed during his lifetime, and hundreds of works for chamber groups. The style of the concertos is characteristic of the late Baroque. The harmonic language lacks the simple directness developed by Vivaldi and others. There is a predominance of a sequentially generated counterpoint, but the texture frequently features contrasting sections consisting only of solo and bass. The chamber music, much of which was printed, is often jointly attributed to Alessandro and his brother Paolo Girolamo....

Article

Guido Salvetti

revised by T. Herman Keahey

Member of Besozzi family

(b Parma, 1714; d Turin, 1781). Italian oboist and composer, son of Giuseppe Besozzi. He was in the service of the Duke of Parma from 1727 to 1731, in the Guardia Irlandese, and in 1734 he performed at Naples. In 1738 he joined the royal chapel in Dresden, becoming first oboist in the following year. In ...

Article

Guido Salvetti

revised by T. Herman Keahey

Member of Besozzi family

(b Naples, 1738; d March 22, 1791). Italian oboist and composer, son of Antonio Besozzi. His father Carlo was undoubtedly his teacher. He must have displayed phenomenal ability for in 1755 he became a regular member of the Dresden court orchestra, a position which he retained throughout his life. His tours of Europe with his father included visits to Paris (1757) and Stuttgart (1758–9). He was judged favourably by Burney and by Leopold Mozart, who heard him play in Salzburg in 1778. Schubert heard Carlo in Augsburg and referred to him as the monarch of oboists and a great, ‘but somewhat unusual’, theorist.

Even though none of Carlo’s music was printed during his lifetime, 23 concertos, 26 sonatas and a divertimento have survived. The concertos were clearly written for Carlo to play himself, and while conceived to display his skill, they rarely indulge in virtuoso display ...

Article

Howard Rye

[Chabania, Jacinto]

(b Gary, IN, Jan 23, 1904/1906/1908; d c 1961). American saxophonist, clarinetist, arranger, and singer. Various sources give alternative birth years: 1904 appears on a 1929 passenger list; he gave his age as 20 upon marrying in 1926; 1908 appears on his 1940 draft registration, which he signed as Jacinto Chabania. Blake is the name of his adoptive parents. His birth father was Cuban and his birth mother was reportedly born in France. Blake studied violin, then alto saxophone and clarinet. After playing briefly with Charlie Turner’s Arcadians he took ship for Europe with Sam Wooding (1928), with whom he recorded in Barcelona and Paris (1929). He then moved to New York, played with Chick Webb, toured with Zack Whyte’s Chocolate Beau Brummels, and performed and recorded with Don Redman (late 1933 – spring 1934). In April 1934, calling himself Jacinto Blake, he moved to France to work with Willie Lewis, remaining in Europe until May 1935. He worked with Claude Hopkins, both in New York and on tour (mid-...

Article

Member of van Boom family

(b Utrecht, April 17, 1783; d Utrecht, March 17, 1878). Dutch flautist and composer. The son of an artisan, he studied the flute with Louis Drouet and became solo flautist in the court of Louis Bonaparte at Utrecht from 1807. He later succeeded his teacher, and was also solo flautist of the Société Noble and the Collegium Musicum Ultrajectinum. He composed a Flute Concerto op.4, many variations and other virtuoso pieces for flute with piano, guitar or orchestral accompaniments, duets and trios for flute, waltzes for piano, all written in an early Romantic style, and some Dutch songs....

Article

Sergio Martinotti

revised by Christopher Fifield

Member of Bott family

(b Gross-Steinheim, nr Mainz, Dec 24, 1795; d Kassel, Dec 19, 1869). German oboist, violinist, and composer. He was the younger brother of Johann Joseph Bott, a musician in the Darmstadt Kapelle who wrote many dances and variations, mostly for guitar. Anton trained as a military musician and became a friend of Spohr, through him obtaining a position as oboist in a regimental band at Kassel. He was also an unpaid violinist in the Kassel Kapelle. From ...

Article

Jeffrey Holmes

[Randal Edward ]

(b Philadelphia, PA, Nov 27, 1945). American trumpeter, flugelhorn player, composer, arranger, and bandleader, brother of Michael Brecker. After graduating from Indiana University in 1966, he moved to New York, where he played with Clark Terry, Duke Pearson, and the Thad Jones–Mel Lewis Jazz Orchestra. A versatile musician, he worked with Blood, Sweat and Tears, performing on their debut album, played hard bop and soul jazz with the Horace Silver Quintet and Art Blakey’s Jazz Messengers, and helped form the fusion group Dreams, which included his brother Michael, Billy Cobham, and John Abercrombie. During the 1970s he worked with Silver, Larry Coryell, Stevie Wonder, the Plastic Ono Super Band, and Cobham. He and Michael also performed and recorded (six albums) as the Brecker Brothers, garnering much critical acclaim. He continued to lead his own group into the 1980s and also recorded and toured with virtuoso performers Jaco Pastorious and Stanley Clarke. A reunion of the Brecker Brothers in ...

Article

Niall O’Loughlin

revised by Robert Bigio

(b Dublin, Ireland, 1809; d London, England, May 7, 1864). Irish flutist, composer, flute designer, and manufacturer. He became professor of flute at the Royal Academy of Music in the 1840s, and was an enthusiastic player of Boehm’s 1832 conical flute as made by Rudall & Rose from 1843. He published the first English-language tutor for the instrument, followed by further editions. However, Clinton appears to have fallen out with Boehm after failing to persuade him to allow Clinton to produce Boehm’s newly invented (1847) cylindrical flute in London (Boehm sold the rights to Rudall & Rose instead). Clinton then denounced Boehm’s work, declaring his opposition to Boehm’s open-standing (fully vented) key system (the virtues of which he had previously extolled) as well as to Boehm’s cylindrical bore and his use of metal for the body.

In 1848 Clinton registered the first of his four patents for flutes, to which he gave the name Equisonant. These use a fingering system similar to that of the eight-keyed flute, on a conical bore but with a mechanism that allows the tone holes to be better placed. After ...

Article

(b Fort Worth, TX, March 9, 1930; d New York, NY, June 11, 2015). American jazz alto saxophonist and composer.

He began playing alto saxophone at the age of 14, and developed a style influenced predominantly by Charlie Parker. His early professional work with a variety of South-western rhythm and blues and carnival bands, however, seems to have been in a more traditional idiom. In 1948 he moved to New Orleans and worked mostly at non-musical jobs. By 1950 he had returned to Fort Worth, after which he went to Los Angeles with Pee Wee Crayton’s rhythm and blues band. Wherever he tried to introduce some of his more personal and innovative ideas, he met with hostility, both from audiences and from musicians. While working as a lift operator in Los Angeles, he studied (on his own) harmony and theory textbooks, and gradually evolved a radically new concept and style, seemingly from a combination of musical intuition, born of South-western country blues and folk forms, and his misreadings – or highly personal interpretations – of the theoretical texts....

Article

Kay Edwards

[Blue Butterfly ]

(b Madison, WI, June 4, 1959). American composer and flutist of Mohican descent (enrolled member of Stockbridge Band of Mohican Nation). He earned degrees in music composition from Northern Illinois University (BM 1981) and Arizona State University (MM 1990) and a separate degree in American Indian Religious Studies from Arizona State University (MA 1992). Davids merges his classical training in Western music with Native American elements that have been nurtured by many visits to Stockbridge Munsee Reservation, where his father was raised; in many of his pieces, native percussion can be heard alongside European instruments to create a colorful musical tapestry. Davids is also a concert flutist, famous for performing on his signature handmade quartz crystal flutes, as well as standard flute and native wooden flutes. He has written commissioned works for the National Symphony Orchestra’s 60th anniversary, Garrison Keillor’s Prairie Home Companion, Chanticleer, Zeitgeist, the Kronos Quartet, the Miró String Quartet, and the Joffrey Ballet. He has received awards from In-Vision, Meet the Composer, Bush Foundation, McKnight Foundation, and Jerome Foundation, among others. In ...

Article

(b US, 1949). American bassoonist and composer. He earned degrees at the University of Kansas (BM, MM) and the Eastman School of Music (DMA 1980), where he worked with Austin Ledwith and David Van Hoesen, respectively. He also studied composition with John Pozdro, Samuel Adler, and warren Benson ...

Article

Cathy Ragland

(b Sarita, TX, Oct 31, 1931; d Corpus Christi, TX, June 2, 2004). American accordionist, songwriter, and composer. He is one of the first Texas Mexican accordionists to achieve success as a full-time musician. At age six he learned harmonica from his mother, and after hearing early recordings by Narciso Martínez he turned to the accordion. By age 18 he had formed his own Conjunto, Tony de la Rosa y su Conjunto, and begun recording with San Antonio’s Rio Records. In 1950 he took over from Martínez as the house accordionist at Ideal Records in Alice, Texas. He accompanied many of the label’s top artists, was one of the first to travel the migrant circuit extensively across Texas and the Southwest, and made more than 100 recordings. He is best known for such polkas as “Atotonilco” and “Frijoles bailan” and for some important innovations to the conjunto style. Having also played in local honky tonk and Texas swing bands, he added drums and electric bass, which were the driving force behind the polka-inspired dance rhythms they played. These instruments provided a solid two-step rhythm for dancing and slowed down the pace enough for the accordion and ...

Article

Monica F. Ambalal

(b Salto Canavese, Piemonte, Italy, Aug 28, 1888; d New York, Nov 3, 1954). Italian accordionist, composer, and arranger, younger brother of accordionist Guido Deiro. Known as the ‘daddy of the accordion’, he arrived in Washington in 1907 to find work as a coal miner. He began performing in Seattle theatres before continuing on to play Vaudeville circuits with his brother where he played the piano accordion. In 1911 he signed a contract with Victor records and continued to record for them until the 1930s. His repertoire contains a number of American patriotic songs and standards, medleys, Italian folk songs, arrangements of popular Vaudeville tunes, and operatic works. After the decline of Vaudeville, he turned his interests to teaching and opened the Pietro Deiro Accordion School of Greenwich Village, and then established the American Music Publishing Company, for which he composed and arranged a large catalogue of accordion sheet music and popular manuals for accordion technique. In ...

Article

Barbara A. Petersen

revised by Greg A Steinke

(b Covington, KY, Sept 1, 1921). American composer and flute teacher. He attended Los Angeles City College and the University of Southern California (BA 1948, BM 1949, MM 1951, DMA 1953), where he studied composition with ernst Toch , gail Kubik , ernest Kanitz , and hanns Eisler . He also studied privately with peter jona Korn . His principal flute teachers were Ary Van Leeuwen, Archie Wade, Jules Furman, Frohman Foster, and William Hullinger; early in his career he played with the Corpus Christi (TX) and Muncie (IN) SOs and other ensembles. From 1953 to 1955, he taught at Del Mar College (Corpus Christi), and in 1957, after a year at Ball State University (Muncie), he joined the faculty of Mount St. Mary’s College in Los Angeles, becoming professor in 1966. He has received a MacDowell Colony Fellowship (1954) and two Huntington Hartford Foundation awards (1956, 1964). In ...