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Owen Wright

[ibn Ghaybī al-Marāghi]

(b Maragh; d Herat, 1435). Timurid composer, performer and theorist. He first rose to prominence in the service of the Jalā’irid rulers of Iraq and Azerbaijan, al-Ḥusayn (1374–82) and Aḥmad (1382–1410). After the conquest of Baghdad by Tīmūr (1393), most of his career was spent in Samarkand and, especially, Herat, at the courts of Tīmūr and of his successors al-Khalīl (1404–9) and Shāh Rukh (1409–47).

‘Abd al-Qādir was one of the most important and influential theorists of the Systematist school. His most substantial surviving works are the Jāmi‘ al-al ḥān (‘Compendium of melodies’), largely completed in 1405 and revised in 1413, and the slighter Maqāṣid al-al ḥān (‘Purports of melodies’), which covers essentially the same ground and probably dates from 1418. Written in Persian, which was by then the language of culture, these works proved particularly influential among later 15th-century theorists; but although both thoughtful and highly competent, on the theoretical side they may be regarded as, essentially, restatements and amplifications of the theory elaborated by ...


Christian Poché

(b al-A‘zamiyya, June 1921). Iraqi ethnomusicologist and sanṭūr player. The focus of his studies has been on the maqām. He became interested in this in the 1930s after hearing the singing of the masters Muḥammad al-Qundarjī (d 1945) and ‘Abbās aL-Shaykhalī (1881–1967) and in 1937 began learning the maqām himself. In about 1949 he started lessons on the san ṭūr with Sha‘ūbī Ibrāhīm Khalīl (b 1925) and founded a chamber ensemble, al-shalghīal-baghdādī, in 1950. He has widely researched the maqām, making it publicly known with his writings and by touring widely with his chamber ensemble. He is also an expert on manuscripts and has published annotations of treatises by classical authors.

Mukhtārāt al-Abūdhiyya al-‘Iraqiyya [Selections of Iraqi Abūdhiyya] (Baghdad, 1949) al-Maqām al-‘Irāqī [Al-Maqām Al-Iraqi: studies in the classical music of Iraq] (Baghdad, 1961, 2/1983) al-Abūdhiyya [The Abūdhiyya] (Baghdad, 1962) Ḥall Rum ūz Kit...


Félix Raugel

revised by Malcolm Turner and Jean Gribenski


(b Libourne, Gironde, Aug 22, 1876; d Paris, Feb 19, 1962). French violinist and musicologist. He began violin lessons with Garcin at the Paris Conservatoire in 1888 but left in 1890 to follow his parents to Turkey. On his return to Paris about 1900 he studied at the Ecole Niedermeyer with Lefèvre (harmony, counterpoint and fugue) and at the Schola Cantorum under Gastoué (plainchant) and d'Indy (composition). In 1909 he founded, with Félix Raugel, the Société Haendel, which by 1914 had brought to the notice of the Parisian public some 150 neglected works mainly by 18th-century composers; over half were first performances. As a violin teacher at the Schola Cantorum (1911–34), he revived the neglected music of the 18th-century French violin school and violin concertos by Vivaldi and Tartini. He founded the Confrérie Liturgique in 1912, became organist at St François-Xavier in Paris in 1920 and from ...


Dorothea Baumann

[Guignard Kyokusai]

(b Aarau, Sept 7, 1951). Swiss musicologist and chikuzenbiwa player. After completing a diploma in piano at the Zürich Conservatory (1975), he studied musicology, Japanese and ethnomusicology at the University of Zürich, where he took the doctorate in 1983 with a dissertation supervised by Kurt von Fischer on Chopin's Walzer. He then went to Japan to study chikuzenbiwa (the biwa lute and its musical tradition) with Yamazaki Kyokusui. He became professor of musicology and ethnomusicology at the Osaka Gakuin University in 1988 and was a guest professor at Duke University, North Carolina, 1991–2. He was named shihan (‘master’) of the chikuzenbiwa in 1996, receiving a special award that same year at the National Biwa Competition. In 1999 he was appointed professor for musicology at the Doshisha Women's College of Liberal Arts, Kyoto. Widely acknowledged as a chikuzen master, he performs regularly in Japan, England, the USA, Australia and Switzerland, gives concert lectures, and organizes the annual ‘Biwa Plus’ concert series in which biwa-type instruments are brought together with other Japanese, Chinese, Korean and Western lutes....


Eliyahu Schleifer

(b Budapest, March 5, 1932). Israeli composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist. As a young boy, he survived the Nazi invasion and miraculously escaped deportation. In 1949 he entered the composition department of the Franz Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest, where he studied the piano with György Kósa and Erno Szégedi, composition with Endre Szervánszky and Ferenc Szabó, and ethnomusicology with Zoltán Kodály. As a Kodály disciple, he spent two years among the Hungarian gypsies, collecting songs and stories. This resulted in his Gypsy Cantata on poems of Miklos Randoti, which won first prize at the Warsaw International Youth Festival (1955).

Following the failure of the Hungarian uprising, Hajdu escaped to France, where he studied with Milhaud and Messiaen at the Paris Conservatoire. At the same time he wrote music for films and conducted youth choirs. From 1959 to 1961 he taught the piano and composition at the Tunis Conservatory and was active in ethnomusicological research there. This period is represented in his ...


Lionel Salter

(b Oranienburg, Berlin, Nov 16, 1897; d Vienna, Oct 16, 1986). German harpsichordist, musicologist and authority on Japanese music. After studying the piano and musicology (under Kurt Sachs and others), she made her début as pianist in Berlin in 1924 (when she gave the first performance of Hindemith’s 1922 Suite), and the following year was awarded the City of Frankfurt Kulturpreis. Attracted by the harpsichord, she studied with Günther Ramin (1928–9) and Landowska (1929–35), making her concert début on this instrument in Berlin in 1931. She had already formed an ensemble for early music; in 1934 she won acclaim for the first complete performance in Berlin of Bach’s Goldberg Variations. She became a professor at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik, but in 1940 was dismissed after refusing to join the Nazi party and fled to Tokyo, where she lived until 1949; in 1945...


Alina Pahlevanian

[Oganyan, Aleksandr]

(b Soganlug, Georgia, 1889; d Tbilisi, May 31, 1932). Armenian k‘emanch‘a player, teacher, theorist and composer. He began to play the k‘emanch‘a at the age of seven and joined a sazander ensemble in which he played the tiplipito and the duduk as well as the k‘emanch‘a. He became a soloist in the composer Anton Mailian's Eastern Orchestra in Baku in 1905 and often appeared with the instrumental ashugh group Haziri in Tbilisi. In the same year he toured the Transcaucasian region, Central Asia and Iran with two mugam performers, the singer D. Karyagdogli and the t‘a player K. Pirimov. During the period 1906–12 recordings of his performances of classical mugam and Armenian dance music were released by the companies Kontzert-Rekord, Patye and Sport-Rekord. He studied the k‘emanch‘a with Oganez Oganezov, an authority on the Persian mugam, and took the pseudonym Oganezashvili (‘son of Oganez’) in his honour; Oganezashvili added a fourth string to the ...


Robyn Holmes, Peter Campbell, and Judith Crispin


Robyn Holmes and Peter Campbell, revised by Judith Crispin

(b Tianjin, China, Sept 10, 1934). Australian composer, pianist, and musicologist. Born to Russian-Chinese parents, he emigrated to Australia with his family in 1951. He studied the piano at the NSW Conservatorium of Music, Sydney, where his teachers included Winifred Burston (1952–8), and in San Francisco with Egon Petri (1959–61). On his return to Australia, he taught at the Queensland Conservatorium (1961–5) and lectured on contemporary composition at the University of Queensland. In 1965 he assumed the position of Head of Keyboard at the newly founded Canberra School of Music (now part of the Australian National University), where he became Head of Composition and Head of Academic Studies in 1978, and Professor Emeritus and Distinguished Visiting Fellow in 2005.

Sitsky first came to prominence as a composer at the inaugural Australian Composers’ Seminar (Hobart, Tasmania, ...


Jehoash Hirshberg


(b Romny, Ukraine, Feb 7, 1891; d Tel-Aviv, 1981). Israeli cellist, composer and scholar. His father was a klezmer musician. Stutschewsky studied the cello at the Leipzig Conservatory (1909–12). After returning to Russia, he was soon smuggled to the border to avoid forced conscription. A difficult period as an impoverished cellist in Paris and Jena followed. In 1914 he moved to Zürich where he met Joel Engel and became active performing Jewish music. He settled in 1924 in Vienna, where he became for a time the cellist in the celebrated Kolisch Quartet, which gave first performances of works by Schoenberg, Berg and Webern. He published articles in Jewish periodicals, mostly Die Stimme, corresponded with colleagues in Jerusalem and was involved with the founding of the World Centre for Jewish Music in 1937. A dedicated pedagogue, he also wrote a treatise on cello playing.

In 1938, immediately after the Nazi Anschluss, Stutschewsky and his wife Julia, a soprano, emigrated to Palestine. He was appointed inspector for Jewish music by the general council that ran the Jewish autonomy under British mandate. Despite the dismal economic situation, he organized concerts of Jewish folk and art music in Tel-Aviv, which he funded himself. He also presented lecture-recitals throughout the country, using his travels to collect and transcribe Hassidic tunes. He founded a string quartet with Kaminsky, leader of the Palestine Orchestra, and performed piano trios with Taube....


Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Aleksandropol [now Gyumri], 19/Aug 31, 1856; d Yerevan, Feb 17, 1951). Armenian composer, ethnomusicologist and pianist. Blind from the age of nine, he was educated at the Vienna Institute for the Blind under W. Schenner (1873–80), where he studied the piano and compositional theory. After his return to Aleksandropol, a town rich in folk culture, he embarked on a career as a composer and ethnomusicologist. He completed his studies in 1893 at the St Petersburg Conservatory under Rimsky-Korsakov and Solov′yov, and then returned to Armenia to collect Armenian, Azerbaijani, Georgian, Kurdish and Persian folksongs. In 1914 he visited St Petersburg, Vienna, Berlin and other cities, lecturing and playing his own compositions. He organized a school for the blind in Aleksandropol in 1922 and taught music there. He was made a People’s Artist of Armenia in 1933; his works were published in Yerevan and St Petersburg....


Matthew Harp Allen

(b Madras [now Chennai], India, Aug 13, 1927; d Hartford, CT, Sept 10, 2002). flutist, vocalist, and ethnomusicologist of Indian birth. Born into a family of musicians and dancers, he received his musical training from his mother T. Jayammal and from flutist T.N. Swaminatha Pillai, an MA in economics from Annamalai University (1951), and a PhD in ethnomusicology from Wesleyan University (1975).

He first came to the United States as a Fulbright scholar at UCLA (1958–60), was reader and head of the department of Indian music at the University of Madras (1961–6), and returned to the United States, where he studied ethnomusicology at Wesleyan University (1967–1970), taught at the California Institute of the Arts (1970–5), and then worked in the faculty of Wesleyan University (1975–2002).

He was honored in India with the Kalaimamani Award by the government of Tamil Nadu (...


Stephen Jones

[Guo Jiguang]

(b Xinmin county, Liaoning, Dec 31, 1920; d Beijing, April 4, 1998). Chinese zheng plucked zither player and scholar. While studying classical Chinese literature in Beijing, he took lessons on the zheng from Lou Shuhua; later he also studied briefly with Liang Tsai-ping. Turning professional on the eve of the Chinese revolution, from 1950 until 1964 he was based at music academies in north-eastern China, also spending periods at the Shanghai and Xi′an conservatories and making many recordings. Having been appointed in 1964 to the Chinese Conservatory of Music in Beijing, he was based there from the end of the Cultural Revolution.

Cao Zheng's zheng playing mainly represented the Henan style, though also borrowing from Shandong and southern styles. An influential music educator, he was author of teaching materials and wide-ranging articles. Despite his base in the conservatory system, Cao Zheng's outlook firmly reflected his training in the Chinese classics. He was also a keen maker and researcher of the ancient ...