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(b Meadow, TN, Oct 24, 1867; d Birmingham, England, Oct 13, 1920). American revivalist and publisher. He attended Maryville College, Tennessee, and the Moody Bible Institute, Chicago; in 1893 he assisted Moody in his revival at the World’s Colombian Exposition in Chicago. From 1908 he toured with J. Wilbur Champman through the USA, Great Britain, Australia and missionary areas of East Asia. He was noted for his skill in inspiring a congregation to sing enthusiastically and in conducting large choirs. He published a number of revival songbooks and owned the copyrights of several popular gospel hymns, such as Charles H. Gabriel’s ...


Dorothy C. Pratt

(b Constantinople, 1881; d Chamonix, July 27, 1954). Armenian cellist. He studied with Grützmacher and while a student played chamber music with Brahms and Joachim. At the age of 17 he appeared as the soloist in Strauss's Don Quixote with the composer conducting and scored a triumph; he was then invited to play concertos with Nikisch and Mahler. In 1901 he settled in Paris, where Casals saw some of his fingerings and recognized that Alexanian shared his own, then revolutionary, ideas on technique and interpretation. Many years' collaboration followed, leading to the publication in 1922 of their joint treatise Traité théorique et pratique du violoncelle and in 1929 of Alexanian's analytical edition of the solo cello suites of Bach. Alexanian was professor of the Casals class at the Ecole Normale de Musique from 1921 to 1937, when he left for the USA. His classes in Paris, Baltimore and New York attracted artists and students from all over the world, and his influence extended far beyond his own pupils (among them Maurice Eisenberg and Antonio Janigro) to such cellists as Feuermann, Cassadó, Piatigorsky and Fournier. He was also a conductor of distinction....


Dennis Libby

revised by Emanuele Senici

(b Rome, June 29, 1801; d Rome, June 12, 1863). Italian musicologist and composer. Ordained a Roman priest in 1823, his life was entirely directed towards the deliverance of liturgical music from what he saw as the debased theatrical style of contemporary composers and the neglect and incompetence of singers and organists in regard to Gregorian chant and Renaissance music. He contributed most importantly to this goal through his editions, particularly the Raccolta di musica sacra (Rome, 1841–6), the seven volumes of which provided the first large modern collection of Palestrina's music. Palestrina was Alfieri's ideal for new church music, which, according to his Ristabilimento, should be grave, succinct and suited in expression to the words, which were to be presented clearly and with few repetitions. His own compositions, many of them published at Rome, exemplified these principles.

Alfieri was also a pioneer in Italy in the historical study of Gregorian chant, which he sought to restore to its original purity, although along lines that now appear somewhat arbitrary and subjective. His early ...


Jocelyne Aubé

(b Barcelona, March 27, 1862; d Barcelona, March 31, 1908). Spanish composer, folklorist and music critic. He studied composition with Antonio Nicolau and Anselmo Barba and piano with C.G. Vidiella in Barcelona and was music critic for various journals there, including La renaixensa, L'avenç and, from 1905 to 1908, El poble català. He published his Collecció de 6 melodies per a cant i piano and five Cansons per cant i piano (both Barcelona, 1887), which are settings of poems by Angel Guimerá, Francisco Matheu y Fornells, Apeles Mestres and Jacinto Verdaguer. He illustrated the latter volume himself, and some of his work was displayed at an exhibition of the Sociedad de Acuarelistas in Barcelona. A distinguished folklorist as well as a sensitive composer and skilful melodist, he collected Catalan folksongs and published arrangements of 23 of these in Cansons populars catalanas (Barcelona, 1891). He used native rhythms and melodies in his songs and piano pieces (among them ...


(b Paris, Nov 30, 1813; d Paris, March 29, 1888). French pianist and composer. His real name was Morhange. He was one of the leading piano virtuosos of the 19th century and one of its most unusual composers, remarkable in both technique and imagination, yet largely ignored by his own and succeeding generations.

Of Jewish parentage, Alkan was the eldest of five brothers, all of whom, with an elder sister as well, became musicians under the assumed name Alkan; Napoléon Alkan, the third brother (1826–1910), taught solfège at the Paris Conservatoire for over 50 years. Valentin Alkan’s career at the Conservatoire started brilliantly with a premier prix for solfège at the age of seven. When Alkan was nine Cherubini observed that he was ‘astonishing for his age’ and described his ability on the piano as ‘extraordinary’. He won a premier prix for piano in 1824, for harmony in ...


The achievements of Augsburg’s music scribes, engravers, printers and publishers are among the finest in southern Germany. Outstanding music calligraphers, including Leonhard Wagner, wrote splendid manuscripts at the abbey of St Ulrich and St Afra during the 15th and 16th centuries, and at approximately the same time early German music printing culminated in the magnificent choral incunabula of Ratdolt. Music printing with movable type was introduced to Germany by Oeglin, who printed the earliest odes of the German Humanists; Johann Miller, Sigmund Grimm and Marx Wirsung similarly served the Humanist movement. In the mid-16th century Melchior Kriesstein and Philipp Ulhart printed anthologies edited by Salminger. The first large retail stock of printed music in southern Germany was established in Augsburg (with affiliated branches in Vienna and Tübingen) by Georg Willer, who published his first catalogue for the Frankfurt Fair of 1564. The printing houses established by Valentin Schönig and Johannes Praetorius were continued after the Thirty Years War by Andreas Erfurt, J.J. Schönig, J.C. Wagner, Jakob Koppmayer and Andreas Maschenbauer. The booksellers Goebel, Kroniger, Schlüter and Happach and printers Simon Utzschneider, J.M. Labhart, August Sturm and J.K. Bencard further contributed to Augsburg’s active trade in music selling. In the 18th century the Lotter firm assumed a leading role in music publishing as did the music engravers J.F. and J.C. Leopold and the publishers Matthäus Rieger and J.K. Gombart. In ...


John H. Baron

(b Bennington, VT, 1826; d New Orleans, Oct 28, 1888). American music publisher. He worked as a music teacher in Huntsville, Alabama (1845–52), and Jackson, Louisiana (1852–5). In 1858 he joined E.D. Patton’s music shop in Vicksburg, Mississippi, which he bought out the following year with his younger brother Henry (1831–1909). They moved to New Orleans in 1860, where they operated publishing firms and music shops jointly, separately and often with others. From 1861 to 1866 Henry also ran a shop in Augusta, Georgia. Armand was imprisoned briefly in 1862 by the Union Army for his espousal of the Southern cause; he issued more Confederate music than any other publisher in New Orleans, including one of the earliest editions of Dixie (1861), and The Bonnie Blue Flag (1861) and Maryland! My Maryland! (1862). He frequently arranged or composed music under the pseudonym A. Noir. Blackmar was in San Francisco between ...


Donald W. Krummel

(b England, 1775; d Philadelphia, Feb 20, 1871). American music engraver and publisher. He emigrated to the USA before 1793 and in 1794 began teaching the flute and clarinet. In 1802 he acquired the piano manufactory of John I. Hawkins in Philadelphia, and soon after began to publish and to operate a circulating music library. His production included many American compositions (c1808) and political songs (c1813); an early piracy of Thomas Moore’s Irish Melodies (1808–c1825); a serial, Musical Miscellany (from 1815); and the first American edition of Messiah (c1830), along with other major vocal works by Handel. Most numerous among his output, however, were songs of the Philadelphia theatre, based on London publications. Blake also issued typeset opera librettos and engraved tunebooks. He remained active throughout the 1830s, in later years issuing minstrel music and excerpts from Italian opera. At the height of his career (...



Leonard Burkat

revised by Pamela Fox

The first music known to have been printed and published in North America appeared in the ninth edition of the Bay Psalm Book (Boston, 1698), in which 13 tunes are printed from woodblocks. The next appeared in two instruction books, one by John Tufts (1721 or earlier), the other by Thomas Walter (also 1721), which was probably the first North American music printed from engraved metal plates. Two collections by Josiah Flagg (1764 and 1766) and at least part of William Billings’s The New-England Psalm-Singer (1770) were engraved by Paul Revere. The first American set of type for printing music was cast in Boston by William (or possibly John) Norman, first used in the Boston Magazine in 1783.

Between 1798 and 1804 P.A. von Hagen (father and son) issued about 100 publications. Graupner was Boston’s principal music publisher for about 25 years, beginning in ...


Marie Cornaz

(d Brussels, May 4, 1776). Flemish bookseller and music printer. He was the principal music seller in Brussels from 1745 to 1770. As the official printer for the Théâtre de la Monnaie he printed librettos for opéras-comiques and comédies mêlées d’ariettes performed there by composers such as Duni, Monsigny, and Philidor, some with a musical supplement. His publications were covered at first by a privilege of impression and sale (1757–66) which applied only to works that had not yet been staged at Brussels, and then by another (1767) which allowed Boucherie to print and sell all theatre works. Under this later privilege, he forged Parisian editions (such as Toinon et Toinette by Gossec, with the false address ‘Paris, Veuve Duchesne’). He was also involved in the production of two engraved editions of the works of C.-J. van Helmont. Boucherie was the Brussels distributor for Benoît Andrez of Liège, as well as of a large number of essentially Parisian editions of instrumental music, opera librettos, and music journals....


Anik Devriès

(d after 1807). French music publisher. He was an écuyer du Roi when he married Marie-Rose-Jeanne Le Menu in February 1775. In January 1778 Boyer’s wife went into partnership with her mother, Madame Le Menu, in their music publishing business under the name of ‘A la Clé d’Or’, in the rue du Roule in Paris. The firm had been founded by Christophe Le Menu in 1758. The partnership of the ‘Dames Lemenu et Boyer’ lasted until 1783. In May of that year, Boyer, who had bought his mother-in-law’s interest in the firm on 21 January 1779, invested in the business himself. He set up shop at 83 rue Neuve des Petits Champs (between May 1783 and December 1784), then in the rue de Richelieu (or rue de la Loi) in the former café de Foy (between January 1785 and August 1796), and after 1785 he used the name ‘A la Clé d’Or’ for his own establishment. The catalogues he issued under his own name feature both new works and works previously published by Madame Le Menu. From a comparison of the Venier and Boyer catalogues, it would seem that Boyer bought the firm of Jean Baptiste Venier in ...


J.H. Alexander

(b Lempster, NH, Feb 14, 1814; d Cleveland, OH, April 8, 1871). American music publisher. He moved to Cleveland in 1834 and with Henry J. Mould opened a music shop, Brainard and Mould, two years later. By 1845 the company was known as S. Brainard and in that year began to publish music; this business (known as S. Brainard & Sons from 1866) became one of the most important in the country. Brainard published popular music, mostly pieces for piano and songs for solo voice with piano accompaniment, but also a few sacred hymns and quartets. Also in 1845 Brainard bought Watson Hall (built 1840, known as Melodeon Hall, 1845–60, and then Brainard’s Hall until 1872), where many musical events took place. Brainard was a flautist who participated in and arranged works for musical organizations in Cleveland. The company opened branches in New York, Louisville and Chicago (where it was eventually based), and in ...


Alexander Weinmann

(fl c1790–1830). Austrian music publisher, nephew of Giovanni Cappi. Through his uncle’s influence he was engaged by the firm Artaria in Vienna in 1793. He was subsequently a partner of the new firm Giovanni Cappi (1801–5), and then of Artaria. On 30 July 1816 he was granted a licence for his own fine art business. His firm’s publications appeared with the plate sign ‘P: C:’; part of the catalogue later passed to the Mechetti firm. On 8 August 1818 he made over his premises to Daniel Sprenger and on 10 December 1818 he combined with Anton Diabelli to form the firm Cappi & Diabelli. On 27 September 1824 Pietro Cappi ended this partnership and, with his cousin Carlo Cappi, established the firm Cappi & Comp. but this only existed until 1 April 1826, when Pietro Cappi made over his deed of partnership to Joseph Czerný, and ceased his activity as a publisher....


David L. Crouse

revised by David W. Music

(b Tennessee, Oct 13, 1792; d Franklin, TN, Oct 18, 1859). American singing-school teacher and tunebook compiler. Nothing is known of his early activities or training, but by 1817 Carden was an established singing-school teacher in the Tennessee area. He taught a singing school in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1820, but probably returned to Tennessee shortly thereafter. In September 1822, Carden advertised a singing school in Nashville; he apparently continued to live in the Nashville area until 1850, when he moved to Williamson County (probably Franklin). His first tunebook, The Missouri Harmony, “published by the compiler” in St. Louis but printed in Cincinnati (1820, 2/1850/R 1975, 1994; modern revision, 2005), was the most popular fasola shape-note tunebook of the South and West until the Civil War, achieving at least 24 editions and reprints through 1857; however, Carden seems to have given up his interest in the book after the first edition, and subsequent issues were apparently the work of the Cincinnati printers. Carden procured shape-note music type and published two more tunebooks himself: ...


W.H. Husk, Frank Kidson, and Peter Ward Jones

(b 1798; d London, April 7, 1887). English music publisher. He established his own firm in London in 1823. In 1868 he took his two sons Arthur and Stroud into partnership and retired in 1881, but at his death his grandson Robert M. Cocks became the proprietor and continued until his retirement in 1898 when a sale of stock took place; Augener purchased the goodwill and lease, and retained the name of the firm until 1904.

Cocks was much involved in concert management at the outset of his career and had a long association with the Hanover Square Rooms. He employed resident foreign musicians to compile and edit music. Some 16,000 works were published by the firm, including Bach’s keyboard works edited by Czerny, Beethoven’s quartets, and works by Czerny himself, Rode and Spohr, in addition to the waltzes of Johann Strauss and Lanner and contemporary English music. A number of methods and books on music included translations of important foreign treatises. A short-lived periodical, ...


Frances Barulich

Firm of music and book publishers. Concordia Publishing House was founded in St. Louis in 1869 by immigrant German Lutherans for the purpose of printing their hymnals and other church literature, and takes its name from the Lutheran Book of Concord (1580). Its catalog, which has included music since ...


Stefano Ajani

(b Naples, Dec 7, 1827; d Naples, March 30, 1879). Italian music publisher, lawyer, poet, writer and politician. He studied the piano with F. Festa, composition with Salvatore Pappalardo and also learnt some music from his father, Guglielmo Cottrau (b Paris, 9 Aug 1797; d Naples, 31 Oct 1847), a gifted amateur double bass player and director of the Girard firm. In 1846 Teodoro succeeded his father at Girard’s and in 1848 became joint owner, carrying on independently from 1855. He republished with greater success his father’s edition of Neapolitan songs, Passatempi musicali. Besides the anthology Cottrau’s much admired publications include L’ape musicale pianistica, collections of romanze, neopolitan songs, piano pieces particularly by Neopolitan composers and vocal scores of operas including Verdi’s Simon Boccanegra and Herold’s Le pré aux clercs, for which he provided a translation and promoted the Italian première at the Teatro Filarmonico, Naples (...


W.H. Husk

revised by David Johnson and Kenneth Elliott

(b Aberdeen, Oct 27, 1800; d Georgetown, British Guiana [now Guyana], July 28, 1843). Scottish musical scholar. The son of William Dauney of Falmouth, Jamaica, he was educated at Dulwich College, London, and at Edinburgh University. He was called to the Scottish Bar in 1823. About 1839 he left Scotland for British Guiana, where he became solicitor-general.

Dauney’s importance as a scholar rests on his book Ancient Scotish Melodies from a Manuscript of the Reign of James VI (Edinburgh, 1838/R), which consists of a partial transcript of the Skene Manuscript as well as a lengthy ‘Dissertation Illustrative of the History of the Music of Scotland’ and some historical documents, also transcribed. The manuscript, in mandore tablature, was compiled about 1625 by John Skene of Hallyards, Midlothian. It contains some 115 items of which over half are Scottish native airs, or folksongs, and the rest – Scottish, English, French, Dutch and Italian – comprise ballad tunes, dance tunes and partsong arrangements. In Dauney’s time it belonged to the Advocates’ Library in Edinburgh, now the National Library of Scotland (Adv.5.2.15). Dauney’s transcription was valuable in drawing attention to early, simple versions of such Scottish tunes as ...


Frank Kidson

revised by William C. Smith and Peter Ward Jones

(b 1800–01; d London, July 4, 1875). English music printer and publisher in London. He is first known as a general printer from about 1833. He began to publish both literary and musical works about 1844 and in 1847–8 he issued the two volumes of Davidson’s Universal Melodist, a collection of popular and standard songs of the period. At the same time he republished a collection of Dibdin’s songs, edited by George Hogarth, which had originally been printed by a different George Davidson and issued by How & Parsons in 1842. From 1850 Davidson had an enormous trade in the issue of cheap editions of popular music. He published much sheet music in the Musical Treasury series, and from 1854 he issued Davidson’s Musical Opera Books, a series of librettos with music of the principal airs. From 1860 to 1881 the business continued as the Music Publishing Co., though major sales of copyrights, plates and stock took place in ...