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David Charlton

Member of Berton family

(b Paris, 1817; d Algiers, Feb 28, 1857). French tenor, son of Henri Berton. After studying at the Paris Conservatoire, he began his career at the Opéra-Comique and the Théâtre de la Renaissance. Lack of success prompted him to seek work elsewhere in France and in ...

Article

Leonard Burkat

revised by Pamela Fox

The earliest choral singing in Boston was the first settlers’ congregational psalm singing, which continued through later times of controversy over the relative virtues of the old style and the cultivated new style promoted in the singing schools. Church and community choirs were formed throughout New England from the 1750s. The work of George K. Jackson, who in 1812 organized a concert of Handel’s music, was instrumental in broadening the musical repertory of Boston’s churches.

The Handel and Haydn Society was formed for the purpose of ‘cultivating and improving a correct taste in the performance of sacred music, and also to introduce into more general practice the works of Handel, Haydn, and other eminent composers’. It gave its first concert on 25 December 1815 and served as the prototype for similar organizations in other cities. At Christmas 1818 the society gave its first performance of the complete Messiah; on 16 February 1819...

Article

Charles Hamm

revised by Kimberly Greene

(b London, England, March 20, 1774; d London, England, Feb 17, 1856). English tenor and composer. He made his debut as a boy soprano at Covent Garden in 1787. He sang in Europe after his voice broke, returning to England at the turn of the century, where he established a reputation as one of the country’s leading tenors. He traveled to the United States in the autumn of 1840 and, at the age of 68, “surpassed all expectations” with the “pathos, sublimity, power, and wonderful execution” of his voice. He appeared first in concert, with a selection of tenor and baritone airs from opera and oratorio mixed with popular ballads. His American operatic debut, at the Park Theatre in New York, was in Stephen Storace’s The Siege of Belgrade, and he went on to re-create many of his famous roles, in Charles Horn’s The Devil’s Bridge, Thomas Dibdin’s The Cabinet, and Weber’s Der Freischütz. At one point he astonished audiences and critics by appearing in seven demanding roles in less than two weeks....

Article

John Koegel

[Francisco Rafael ]

(b San Antonio, TX, May 16, 1883; d New York, NY, Dec 12, 1943). American operatic tenor and recitalist of Mexican and German heritage. He was the most prominent Mexican American opera singer of his day, although perhaps to advance his career he used the Italian-sounding first name “Rafaelo,” and press reports sometimes identified him as Spanish instead of Mexican American or Mexican. Díaz attended the German-English School and the West Texas Military Academy (now Texas Military Institute) in San Antonio. He studied piano with Amalia Hander, a local music teacher, and at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin. After vocal studies with Vincenzo Sabatini in Milan, he returned to the United States and in 1911 began appearing in small roles with the Boston Grand Opera Company, quickly moving up to more prominent assignments. He accompanied the soprano Luisa Tetrazzini on a tour in 1913 and made his Metropolitan Opera debut in Massenet’s ...

Article

(b Ottawa, ON, Sept 20, 1885; d New York, NY, Dec 26, 1958). American mezzo-soprano. She began her vocal training with Frank Buels in Ottawa at the age of 13, then continued her studies in Europe with, among others, Auguste-Jean Dubulle, Jacques Bouhy, William Shakespeare, Carlo Carignani, and Anna Schoen-René. After her professional debut as a contralto at the Ottawa Basilica (1902), she toured with Emma Albani in Britain and Canada (1906) and made her stage debut as Micaëla in Pavia (1909). In 1910, after her contracts with Covent Garden to sing Yniold (in Pelléas et Mélisande) and Mallika (in Léo Delibes’s Lakmé) had not led to performances, she left London to join her future husband, a plantation manager, in Java, and began to study the traditional songs of Southeast Asia.

After concert tours in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand, Gauthier settled in New York, where from ...

Article

James L. Jackman, Kay Lipton, and Mary Hunter

Member of Guglielmi family

(b Massa, Aug 16, 1782; d ?Naples, after 1830). Italian tenor, son of Pietro Alessandro Guglielmi. According to Piovano he studied solfège with Ferdinando Mazzanti, voice with Piccinni’s nephew, and the violin with Capanna. After his début in 1805 at the Teatro Argentina, Rome, he sang, mostly in comic opera, at Parma, Naples, Florence, Bologna, and Venice. He then went to Amsterdam and in 1809 to Paris for two years. By 1812 he had returned to Naples, to sing leading roles; he sang there again in 1819–20 and 1825. In 1820–21 he sang in Malta. His last stage appearance was probably in Parma in 1827 in an opera by Mercadante. After retiring from the stage he was held in considerable esteem as a teacher; among his pupils were Giulia Grisi and Enrico Tamberlik. Reports about his teaching ability circulated into the early 1830s and his singing method was published in Toulouse in ...

Article

Diane Kolin

(b London, 1785; d London, Aug 2, 1845). English music theorist, translator, and instructor in musical composition, the pianoforte, the organ, and singing. The son of a dealer in old books, his interests in linguistics and music led him to learn foreign languages and translate music theory books. A self-taught multi-instrumentalist, he edited primers in sacred and secular harmony as well as the piano, the organ, singing, and choral singing. His books, issued mostly by the London music publisher Robert Cocks, were often completed, reedited, and reprinted over half a century, even after his death (his method for the pianoforte reached its 13th edition in 1849).

Hamilton was best known for his Dictionary of Two Thousand Italian, French, German, English, and Other Musical Terms (1842), which was expanded and republished several times. His translation of Czerny’s four-volume Piano Forte School Opus 500 method opened English-speaking students to German treatises on tempo and metronome markings, performance practice, and musical examples by Thalberg, Döhler, Henselt, Chopin, Taubert, Willmers, Liszt, Beethoven, and Handel. His collaboration with Czerny also resulted in the publication of ...

Article

Gerald Bordman

(b New York, NY, March 30, 1858; d Kansas City, MO, Sept 23, 1935). American bass and comedian. He was expected to follow his family tradition and become a lawyer, but after his father’s death he abandoned his studies and used his inheritance to form his own acting company. The company failed, partly because, being exceptionally tall, Hopper towered comically above the rest of his troupe. He then studied singing (he had a fine bass voice), and struck huge success in 1884 when John McCaull cast him in John Philip Sousa’s Désirée. He solidified his reputation in The Begum (1887) and The Lady or the Tiger? (1888). He then played leading roles in several shows opposite the diminutive Della Fox, where the disparity in their height was deliberately exploited for its comic effect; productions included Castles in the Air (1890), Wang (...

Article

William Brooks

(b Dublin, Ireland, Jan 19, 1846; d Rochester, NY, March 19, 1916). Tenor of Irish birth. After studying with Henry Phillips in England he moved to Italy. He made his New York debut in 1871 with the Parepa-Rosa English Opera Company, and in the mid-1870s moved permanently to the United States as a singer of opera, light opera, and oratorio. He was a founding member of the Boston Ideal Opera Company (1887). During the next ten years he became one of the most popular tenors in the country, celebrated for a number of Gilbert and Sullivan roles and for the title role in De Koven’s Robin Hood. He retired in 1896 and taught in New York, then lived briefly in California before settling in Rochester about 1912. Karl possessed a light, lyric voice and considerable personal charm; his integrity and prestige contributed significantly to the popularization of light opera in the United States....

Article

T Herman Keahey, Brigitte Höft, Paul Corneilson, Robert Münster, and Roland Würtz

German family of musicians.

Lebrun [Brün, Le], Ludwig August (b Mannheim, bap. May 2, 1752; d Berlin, Dec 12/15/16, 1790)

Lebrun [née Danzi], Franziska [Francesca] (Dorothea) (b Mannheim, March 24, 1756; d Berlin, May 14, 1791)

Lebrun [Dülken], Sophie (b London, June 20, 1781; d Munich, July 23, 1863)

Lebrun [Stentzsch], Rosine (b Munich, April 29, 1783; d Munich, June 5, 1855)

BrookB; BurneyGN; BurneyH; FétisB; FlorimoN; GerberL; GerberNL; LipowskyBL; MGG1 (R. Münster); SchillingE; WalterG Musikalische Real-Zeitung (Dec 30, 1789; Jan 13, 27, 1790; April 28, 1790)Musikalische Korrespondenz der Teutschen Filarmonischen Gesellschaft (Jan 6, 1791; Feb 16, 1791)C.F.D. Schubart: Ideen zu einer Ästhetik der Tonkunst (Vienna, 1806/R)W.T. Parke: Musical Memoirs (London, 1830)C.F. Pohl: Mozart und Haydn in London (Vienna, 1867/R), ii, 372F. Grandaur: Chronik des königlichen Hof- und Nationaltheaters in München...

Article

Gwilym Beechey

revised by Linda Troost

English family of musicians.

Linley, Thomas (i) (b Badminton, Gloucs., Jan 17, 1733; d London, Nov 19, 1795)

Linley, Elizabeth Ann (b Bath, Sept 7, 1754; d Bristol, June 28, 1792)

Linley, Thomas (ii) (b Bath, May 7, 1756; d Grimsthorpe, Lincs., Aug 5, 1778)

Linley, Mary [Polly] (b Bath, Jan 4, 1758; d Clifton, Bristol, July 27, 1787)

Linley, Ozias Thurston (b Bath, bap. Aug 22, 1765; d London, March 6, 1831)

Linley, William (b Bath, Jan 27, 1771; d London, May 6, 1835)

BDA; FiskeETM; SainsburyD A Monody (after the manner of Milton’s Lycidas) on the Death of Mr Linley (London, 1778)M. Cooke: A Short Account of the Late Mr. Thomas Linley, Junior (MS, 1812, GB-Lbl )J. Watkins: Memoirs of the Public and Private Life of the Right Honourable Richard Brinsley Sheridan...

Article

Biancamaria Brumana

(b Florence, 16 July 1804; d Paris, 20 Aug 1863). Italian composer and singing teacher. He settled in Paris about 1830, the year when Antonio Pacini published a collection of six romances dedicated to Maria Malibran. Known as the ‘Bellini of the romance’, Masini wrote over 400 works in this genre intended for the high Parisian society of the July Monarchy. His works were often collected in luxurious albums offered as a gift on the first day of the year. Among Masini’s favourite poets to set to music are Émile Barateau, Amable Tastu, and Laure Jourdain; only a single Masini romance is based on a text by Victor Hugo (Le papillon et la fleur). The success of his romances (published mainly by Latte, Meissonier, and Colombier) was enhanced by the collaboration with famous illustrators such as Jules David and Achille Devéria. The latter provided lithographic illustrations for the editions’ frontispieces, conceived in harmony with the texts and musical settings. Masini’s melodies are elegant, transparent, and light-hearted. They give voice to a Romanticism tinged with melancholy and delicate hues (as one can appreciate in ...

Article

[Constantia](Caecilia Josepha Johanna Aloisia)

Member of Mozart family

(b Zell, Wiesental, Jan 5, 1762; d Salzburg, March 6, 1842). Soprano, wife of (3) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and later of his biographer Georg Nikolaus Nissen. She was the third of four daughters of the bass, prompter and copyist Fridolin Weber, and thereby related to the composer Carl Maria von Weber (see Weber family). She first met Mozart in 1777–8 in Mannheim; he fell in love with her elder sister Aloisia, who rejected him. Constanze moved with her family to Vienna in September 1779; from 2 May 1781 Mozart lodged with her mother, and on 4 August 1782 married Constanze in the Stephansdom. There were six children, of whom two, (5) Carl Thomas and (6) Franz Xaver Wolfgang, survived to maturity. During a visit to Salzburg, she sang one of the soprano parts in a performance at the abbey of St Peter of the Kyrie and Gloria of her husband’s Mass in C minor ...

Article

Robert J. Pascall

(Christian)

Member of Stockhausen family

(b Paris, July 22, 1826; d Frankfurt, Sept 22, 1906). German baritone, conductor, and teacher of Alsatian descent, son of Franz Stockhausen and Margarethe Stockhausen. He showed his musical gifts early and during his school years learnt singing and musical rudiments from his parents and the piano from Karl Kienzl, also having lessons on the organ, violin, and, later, the cello. In 1843 he visited Paris, where he was a pupil of Cramer for a short while. From 1844 he made Paris the centre of his musical education, spending some time at the Conservatoire (from 1845) but learning harmony from Matthäus Nagiller and singing from Manuel García outside the institution.

Stockhausen’s early concert successes were in Switzerland and England, beginning in 1848 with a performance of Elijah at Basle. In 1849 he followed García to London, and while in England he appeared before Queen Victoria. He sang again in Switzerland in the first half of ...

Article

Member of Stockhausen family

(b Gebweiler [now Guebwiller], March 29, 1803; d Colmar, Oct 6, 1877). Alsatian soprano, wife of Franz Stockhausen. She studied singing with Gioseffo Catrufo in Paris, and in 1825 gave concerts with her husband in Switzerland and then in Paris; she became an honorary member of the French royal chapel in ...

Article

Elizabeth Forbes

Member of Wagner family

(b Seelze, nr Hanover, Oct 13, 1826; dWürzburg, Oct 16, 1894). Soprano, adopted daughter of (1) Richard Wagner’s elder brother, Albert. Through the influence of her uncle, she made her début at Dresden in 1844 as Agathe. She created the role of Elisabeth in Tannhäuser (19 October 1845) and also sang in Auber’s Le maçon. After studying in Paris with the younger Manuel García (1846–8), she sang in Hamburg (1849) and was then engaged at the Hofoper, Berlin (1850–61), where she took over the part of Fidès in Le prophète from Pauline Viardot. In 1852 she was announced to sing at Covent Garden, but a lawsuit brought by Benjamin Lumley, manager of the rival opera company at Her Majesty’s Theatre, prevented her from appearing. She eventually made her London début in 1856 at Her Majesty’s as Rossini’s Tancred, Donizetti’s Lucretia Borgia and as Romeo in Bellini’s ...

Article

Patricia Lewy Gidwitz

(Louise Antonia)

Member of Weber family

(b Zell or Mannheim, 1759–61; d Salzburg, June 8, 1839). German soprano, daughter of Fridolin Weber (i) and sister-in-law of Mozart who married her younger sister Constanze in 1782. She studied with G.J. Vogler in Mannheim and was active primarily at the Burgtheater in Vienna during the 1780s in both German and Italian comic opera.

Aloysia’s long association with Mozart produced seven concert arias and a role in Der Schauspieldirektor as well as a series of letters by Mozart notable for his views on vocal performance and training. Their first encounter, during Mozart’s stay in Mannheim in 1777–8 (when he fell in love with her), resulted in the concert arias k294, k316/300b, and probably k538. She moved from Mannheim to Munich in 1778, where she made her début as Parthenia in Schweitzer’s Alceste. Engaged for the newly established National Singspiel in Vienna, she made her début on ...

Article

Thomas Bauman and Paul Corneilson

Member of Weber family

(b Zell im Wiesental, 1758; d Vienna, Dec 29, 1819). German soprano. She studied singing with G.J. Vogler at Mannheim, and met Mozart there in 1777. In 1778 she went with her family to Munich, and in 1779 moved to Vienna. Joseph II considered hiring her for his opera troupe in 1784, but according to Leopold Mozart, she was singing in Graz in 1785. On July 21, 1788 she married the court violinist Franz de Paula Hofer (1755–96) and joined Schikaneder’s company at the Theater auf der Wieden in January 1789. One of her first major roles was Titania in Paul Wranitzky’s Oberon, König der Elfen (1789). Mozart began a bravura aria, ‘Schon lacht der holde Frühling’ (k580), for a German version of Paisiello’s Il barbiere di Siviglia, but did not orchestrate it. The aria ‘Ohne Zwang aus eignem Triebe’ (k569, now lost) also might have been written for her. Her signature role was the Queen of Night in ...

Article

Roger C. Anderson

(b Brooklyn, NY, Aug 7, 1883; d Plattsburg, NY, Sept 13, 1953). American concert and radio baritone. His father, who emigrated from Denmark, and his mother were professional singers. He became the most popular and best known American-born baritone during the years immediately preceding World War I to the mid-1920s. He attended New York University, where he was a member of the Glee Club, and established a friendship with the future music critic Deems Taylor, graduating in 1905. He later studied with Percy Rector Stevens and French baritone Victor Maurel.

The concert stage and recital hall were the venues where he established and maintained his reputation and public acclaim, making numerous appearances at Carnegie Hall, and sometimes traveling to Europe. His repertoire included a wide range of popular songs and ballads, both American and European, opera arias, and sacred hymns. He was described as having excellent diction along with a voice pure in tone. He made a brief excursion into opera, debuting as Silvio in ...

Article