A notation system employing letters in place of conventional notes. It was first used in the ninth edition of the Bay Psalm Book (1698), based on English psalm notation. Four letters representing the solfège syllables fa, sol, la, and mi on ledger lines were employed by Rev. John Tufts in ...
Roger L. Hall
A metre of five beats to the bar. Its irregularity has made it an oddity in Western music. It cannot be divided into equal half-bars, and the common division into alternate groups of two and three beats seems as psychologically disturbing as a succession of five unaccented beats. Regular two-bar phrases (as in the Tchaikovsky example mentioned below) tend to mitigate this effect. Quintuple time has been used in a demonstration of technical skill (Tye, Correa de Arauxo, Reicha) or for atmospheric effect (Rachmaninoff, Holst), and it occurs momentarily to suggest unease or unusual excitement (Handel, Wagner). Its common occurrence in folk music (especially east European) was responsible for its more frequent appearance in the works of early 20th-century composers who drew on elements of folk music style. The decline of the use of regular metre has made the occurrence of bars of quintuple time unremarkable in later music.
Passages in five-beat groupings could be written from the 14th century to the 16th by using minor or reversed coloration, and examples of these first occur in ‘mannered’ notation of the post-Machaut period (see W. Apel: ...
Felicia M. Miyakawa
Music notation for the turntable. Emerging out of practices of Turntablism , turntablature indicates how a hip-hop DJ should execute scratches and other elements of a DJ routine. Prominent DJs A-Trak and Radar each created their own styles of turntablature. A third style known as the turntablist transcription method has been used as a pedagogical tool at the Scratch DJ Academy in New York and in the hip-hop magazine ...
(It.: ‘movement of attacco’, i.e. of the opening)
In Italian opera of the 19th century, the first, fast movement of a closed number following the recitative or scena (slow cantabile sections are never so qualified). It is most commonly applied to duets, whether in two movements or the more usual three. In finales that lack an initial chorus the ‘cinetic’ movement that precedes the ...
(It.: ‘middle movement’)
In Italian opera of the 19th century, a fast transitional passage that separates a cantabile from a cabaletta or a pezzo concertato from a stretta. It is generally free in form and varies in length according to the dramatic situation, its prime function being to effect the required change of mood. In an aria this may involve the entrance and departure of a secondary character, e.g. Foresto in the case of Ezio’s ‘Dagli immortali vertici’ (Attila, Verdi, 1846), whose news of an ambush causes the Roman general to break out in exultation. In the duet ‘Il pallor funesto orrendo’ (Lucia di Lammermoor, Donizetti, 1835) the tempo di mezzo consists mainly of a flourish of offstage horns announcing the arrival of Arturo, whose marriage to Lucia will save her brother from financial ruin. The tempo di mezzo of a central finale is often very complex and may contain a reprise of ...
revised by Charles Edward McGuire
A form of musical notation and the system of sight-singing which depends on it invented by Sarah Anna Glover and prominently disseminated, by John Curwen and John Spencer Curwen beginning in the middle of the nineteenth century. Tonic Sol-fa had its origin in Guidonian solmization, depending like that system upon aural perception of relative pitch (see Solmization). The notation represents solfège syllables with individual letters (e.g. doh = d, ray = r, me = m, etc.) and rhythm via a combination of spacing and punctuation marks. It is a system based on movable doh, which distinguished it from contemporary fixed-doh systems, including those of John Hullah and Joseph Mainzer. Tonic Sol-fa quickly gained acceptance in Great Britain and internationally in the nineteenth century and remains in use today, particularly in former British mission stations. Glover and John Curwen originally promoted the notation as an aid to children and beginning singers. Its rise was rapid: by the 1860s, singers of all abilities used Tonic Sol-fa; by the 1880s, hundreds of thousands of British singers had been trained in the method. It became the notation of choice for contemporary moral philanthropic movements, such as temperance and missionary organizations, and some of its exponents thought it to be superior to staff notation. Consequently misunderstood by many professional musicians, the system passed through a period of disfavour and neglect in Great Britain, while remaining in use either in its original form or in adapted forms throughout the world. It is now seen to offer distinct advantages when employed in the early stages of learning to read from notes. In the West, it is most frequently encountered in the modified form adapted by Zoltán Kodály for use in Hungarian schools (...
A preposition found particularly in 16th- and 17th-century editions of polyphonic music where works are described as being a due (a 2), a tre (a 3), a dieci (a 10), etc., meaning in two, three or ten voices respectively. Many prints had it with an accent (à 2, etc.), but in modern Italian à is a variant form of ha (‘he has’) so is perhaps better avoided in this context wherever possible. It is the current French form, however, and is found particularly in French orchestral scores, à 2 (à deux) meaning the same as the Italian A due. As one of the commonest words in the Italian language, a occurs in many compound tempo and expression marks and has different meanings that may be found in any Italian dictionary. It appears before a vowel as ad and contracts with the definite article as ...
As used in the notation of music, abbreviations fall into two main categories: modifications of normal note shapes, signs etc.; and verbal instructions that replace fully written-out music. Abbreviations are far more common in manuscript than in printed music.
Modified note shapes and other non-verbal signs usually represent repetitions of passages of music, varying in length from a single note to a large part of a movement. Other abbreviations of this type avoid such clumsy features of notation as leger lines. See ex.1, ex.2, ex.3, ex.4, ex.5, ex.6, ex.7, ex.8, ex.9, ex.10, ex.11.
Abbreviated verbal instructions are sometimes used in a score when instruments play in unison in orchestral music: the lines belonging to one instrument may be left blank in the score, the notes being replaced by an instruction such as col violini (‘with the violins’) or col basso (‘with the bass’). This often occurs when, for instance, first and second violins play in unison, the seconds having ...