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Gabriel Banciu and Cristina Şuteu

[Angi István]

(b Ojdula, 16 Oct 1933) Romanian music aesthetician and musicologist. He is considered the founder of musical aesthetics in Romania. Ştefan Angi studied at Cluj-Napoca Conservatory (1953–8) where his teachers included Márkos Albert (music theory), Jodál Gabor (harmony), Max Eisikovits (counterpoint), Jagamas János (forms), Földes László (aesthetics), Lakatos István and Benkő András (music history), Zsurka Péter (violin), Ana Voileanu-Nicoară (chamber music), Antonin Ciolan (orchestral ensemble), and Szenik Ilona (folklore). He then studied at Lomonosov Moscow State University (1963–5), with the philosopher Valentin Ferdinandovich Asmus, where he graduated with a dissertation on Music and Affectivity and took the PhD in Romania in 1966. In 1958 he joined the academic staff of Cluj-Napoca Conservatory and between 1976 and 1986 was the dean of the Theoretic Faculty. He was awarded the ‘Cultural Merit’ medal (1970) and the ‘Romanian Academy Award’ (1977). Angi is a permanent correspondent on serial radio broadcasts, has published more than 100 articles, and has attended 70 conferences – on musicology, philosophy, and aesthetics....


Cristina Şuteu

(b Sibiu, 4 Nov 1956) Romanian musicologist and music aesthetician. He studied at Cluj-Napoca Conservatory (1976–81) where he joined the academic staff (in 1996), earned a doctorate on music aesthetics (1999), was pro-rector (2008–12), and became president of the Senate in 2012.

Owing to his multiple interests Banciu has been recognized as a member of several professional music associations (starting in 2002), an evaluator on many national committees and music competitions (starting in 2006), a member of the board of directors at the Union of Romanian Composers and Musicologists (starting in 2014), the vice-president of the ‘Performing Arts Commission’ within the National Council for the Certification of University Titles, Diplomas, and Certificates (C.N.A.T.D.C.U., starting in 2016), a peer reviewer on journals (Musicology Papers, Musicology Today, Studia Musica), and an organizer of international conferences (The International Congress on Musical Signification in ...


Petr Macek

(b Šternberk, 22 April 1964). Czech musicologist. He studied musicology with Jiří Vysloužil, Jiří Fukač, and Miloš Štědroň at Brno University. Then he worked at the Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague where he taught and researched until 1999. Between 1991 and 2002 he also taught at the Palacký University, Olomouc. In 1998 he started working at the Masaryk University, Brno (head of the Institute of Musicology, 1999–2004; vice-rector 2004–11; rector starting in 2011).

Bek’s scholarly specializations include music sociology, history of music after 1750, and music analysis. He is a co-director of the online Český hudební slovník osob a institucí (‘Czech Music Dictionary of Persons and Institutions’), and co-ordinator of RIPM for the Czech Republic (2001–3). He also participates actively in the international musicological colloquia that form part of the international music festival, Moravian Autumn, each year in Brno.

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Marie-Barbara Le Gonidec

(b Grenoble, France, 29 Feb 1928). French ethnomusicologist and organologist. She holds a doctorate from the University of Paris X Nanterre and was assistant professor at the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle in Paris. In 1964 Dournon co-founded the Barthélémy Boganda National Museum in Bangui, Central African Republic, where she conducted research until 1967. In charge of the department of ethnomusicology at the Musée de l’Homme from 1967 to 1993, she administered a collection of nearly 8000 instruments; in 1985 she renovated its permanent exhibition hall dedicated to music. Her principal research dealt with organology and instrument classification, resulting in various exhibitions and programs. Her numerous publications include the catalogue of jew’s harps at the Musée de l’Homme (1978) and the Guide pour la collecte des instruments de musique traditionnels for UNESCO (1981), translated into English and Spanish. Dournon participated in or produced numerous recordings, such as one on the flutes of Rajasthan that won the Grand prix du disque of the Charles Cros Academy in ...


Amra Bosnić

(b Mostar, 1946). Bosnian and Herzegovinian musicologist. She gained the Masters in Pedagogical Sciences in the Faculty of Philosophy (1977), and the Doctorate in Pedagogical Sciences at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo (1984). She worked at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo from 1971 until her retirement in 2011. She was employed at various levels from teaching assistant to full professor at the Academy, teaching subjects including methods in music education, and pedagogy with the basics of psychology, and was appointed Dean of the Academy from 2003 until 2007. She was also engaged as a professor of Music Culture and Methods at the Pedagogical Academy in Sarajevo (1992–2009).

Ferović was actively involved in establishing and leading the most important music institutions in Sarajevo: the Musicological Society of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Institute of Musicology (2007–9) at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo, the Sarajevo vocal octet Preporod, and the academic female vocal ensemble, also called Preporod. She was an editor and reviewer of the collection of papers of the International Symposium, ...


Laurence Libin and Jessica L. Wood

Term introduced in the 20th century for instruments that had become obsolete but later were reintroduced as copies based on historical models. Some 19th-century antiquarians essayed earlier music on harpsichords, lutes, viols, recorders, and other types that had fallen out of production, for example in concerts organized by François-Joseph Fétis at the Paris Conservatoire from the mid-1830s, by Prince Albert at the court of Queen Victoria in 1845, and later by Edward John Payne and A.J. Hipkins in London, Paul de Wit in Leipzig, and the Mozart Symphony Club in New York. Better to serve such practical needs and to meet demand from collectors, replicas and modernized versions of old instruments were occasionally made at that time. Obsolete instruments also reappeared in new guises in the course of 19th-century nationalistic folk revivals, as in the case of German lute-guitars and the decorative, French Baroque-inspired ivory cornemuses produced by the obscure P. Gaillard. Despite the general inaccuracy of their portrayals of instruments, Pre-Raphaelite artists were influential in heightening awareness of rebecs, psalteries, portative organs, and other obsolete instruments. Newly designed harpsichords by Érard and Pleyel were showcased at the ...


Jonathan Pieslak

Music has always been a part of war. While much of music’s role throughout history has been to signal commands and maneuver troops, it also appears as a powerful way to inspire troops for combat, to boost morale, or even to intimidate an adversary. Plato believed that the Phrygian mode could incite aggressive behavior. In American history, George Washington felt that music was so important to the morale of his troops that he ordered drum and fife majors to improve the quality of music or suffer a deduction in wages....


J. Bradford Young

Music libraries classify and arrange their collections by content according to one of several systems. The M schedule of the Library of Congress (LC) Classification, developed by oscar g.t. Sonneck in 1902, is the most widely used. It was taken up by many other libraries to reduce cataloging costs, when the Library of Congress increased the distribution of its printed catalog cards. The Dewey decimal classification (DDC), still in use especially in public libraries, did not distinguish music from music literature until 1958 (16th edition), by which time many libraries had abandoned it. The 1989 edition (20th edition) of the DDC included a wholly new schedule for music, which is highly faceted with a capacity for synthesis. Complex topics, such as German Baroque choral cantatas for Christmas, can be expressed. This feature has, to date, attracted little interest in the United States. A previous multi-faceted scheme, devised in 1938 by George Sherman Dickinson for the scores of Vassar College, although adapted at Columbia University and SUNY Buffalo, is not widely used. Some research libraries established before ...


Lodewijk Muns

(b Nijmegen, Netherlands, Aug 4, 1812; d Delft, Netherlands, Nov 1, 1896). Dutch musician, music historian, and instrument collector. The son of a musician and instrument seller, he studied flute and violin at the conservatory of The Hague. After positions as an orchestra musician in the Court Chapel and the French Opera of The Hague, with the Casino Paganini in Paris, and as a conductor at the opera of Metz, he returned in 1841 to his native city, where he conducted several choral societies. In 1853 he was appointed city music director in Delft.

Boers was a pioneer of the study of early music in the Netherlands. He started collecting musical instruments about 1870, with an emphasis on the work of Dutch builders. Most of his research on organology has remained sketchy and is unpublished. In 1899 the major part of his collection of some 130 instruments (including a Couchet harpsichord of ...