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Scott Gleason

(b London, 11 Dec 1934; d Belle Mead, NJ, 26 April 1975). American composer, music theorist, and critic of English birth. Winham was educated at the Westminster School (1947–51), and studied at the Royal Academy of Music and privately with Matyas Seiber and Hans Keller before completing the AB (1956), MFA (1958), and PhD (1964) degrees at Princeton University. He married the soprano Bethany Beardslee in 1956.

He was a critic for The Music Review and the recipient of the first PhD in music composition from Princeton, he coined the term ‘array composition’ (see Milton Babbitt), and he wrote the MUSIC 4B PROGRAM (with Hubert Howe) and Music-on-Mini (with Mark Zuckerman) computer music languages. In 1970, with Kenneth Stieglitz, he established a digital-to-analogue conversion laboratory at Princeton, later renamed the Godfrey Winham Laboratory (see Computers and music). With his cohort at Princeton (including ...


Marta Ottlová, Milan Pospíšil, John Tyrrell and Kelly St Pierre


(b Leitomischl, Bohemia [now Litomyšl, Czech Republic], 2 March 1824; d Prague, 12 May 1884). Czech composer, conductor, teacher, and music critic often described as the ‘father’ or ‘inventor’ of Czech national music. While his first language was German and his first nationalist compositions were based on Swedish narratives, Smetana asserted himself as composer of specifically Czech music from the 1860s, and his music posthumously became synonymous with a Czech national musical style. Today, Smetana’s eight operas, including Prodaná nevěsta (‘The Bartered Bride’), as well as his cycle of symphonic poems Má vlast (‘My Fatherland’) form the foundation of the Czech classical musical canon. His opera Libuše is also frequently cited as an ‘apotheosis’ of Czech music, especially in conjunction with the first movement of Má vlast, entitled ‘Vyšehrad’.

After his death, Smetana was transformed in the minds of his audiences and advocates from a composer of nationalistic music to a national symbol himself; he and his works became enduring points of reference for Czechs’ ever-shifting borders, politics, administrations, ethnicities, and imagined futures through the 20th century. For this reason, the actual Smetana in many ways has become inseparable from the myth of ‘Smetana’, as later critics and historians molded his life and work to match their needs. The composer’s supposed greatness, genius, Czechness, tragic deafness, and heroism all give voice to the shifting needs, anxieties, and interests of his audiences as much as to the composer himself....


Nicola Scaldaferri

(b Shkodër, Albania, 14 June 1920; d Tirana, 12 March 2008). Albanian ethnomusicologist, musician, composer, and writer. He began his musical studies as a boy in Shkodër. In the years between 1940 and 1944 he studied the flute and composition at the Conservatory of Florence, Italy. Back in Albania in the early years of the Hoxha regime, Sokoli was imprisoned, as were other scholars who had studied abroad, and he spent five years in incarceration.

In 1952 he moved to Tirana, where he taught the flute and folklore in the high school. Although he was not qualified to teach at the higher academic level, he played a key role in musical research in Albania. He collaborated on ethnomusicological expeditions carried out in 1957 with East German scholars and in 1958 with Romanian scholars.

He was the author of numerous pioneering books and articles on Albanian musical folklore, employing both descriptive and analytical approaches, as well as surveying important figures of the musical, and wider cultural, Albanian tradition. His writings and ideas shaped the discipline and educated two generations of Albanians ethnomusicologists, including scholars in Kosovo. His many publications include the books ...


Ian Mikyska

(b Brno, 13 March 1966). Czech composer, pedagogue, and writer on music, son of zdeněk zouhar. He studied composition at the Janáček Academy of Music and Performing Arts (JAMU) in Brno (with Miloš Ištván and alois piňos) and musicology at the Masaryk University, followed by post-graduate studies at the Hochschule für Musik und darstellende Kunst Graz (with Herman Markus Preßl and younghi pagh-paan) and JAMU. He remains an external pedagogue at both these institutions, as well as being active as a researcher at the Palacký University Olomouc (vice-dean starting in 2010), Ostrava University, and Masaryk University.

His brand of postmodernism is surprisingly respectful, using disparate materials in a serious manner, and generally staying with a few pieces of material for the duration of a piece or movement. Often composed in an additive, evolutionary structure, his works are sonically reminiscent of New York post-minimalism, but are very European in their approach to expressivity and emotional intensity. This approach includes both the intense rhythms of ...


Ivan Čavlović

(b Tuzla, Sept 14, 1942). Bosnian-Herzegovinian composer, editor, and music critic. Nuić graduated from the Primary and Secondary Music School in Tuzla. She then graduated from the Academy of Music in Sarajevo, in the Department for Music Theory and Pedagogy; afterwards she studied composition with Miroslav Špiler.

She worked as music editor at Radio Sarajevo (1971–92) and at Radio Federacije Bosne I Hercegovine (1994–2007).

Initially engaged in radiophonic composition, Nuić has more recently turned to pieces for traditional instrumentation. Additionally, she is an author of music for numerous radio shows, TV films and educational shows, theatrical plays, and four short films. Nuić is also the composer of the ballet Prizivanje Peruna, choreographed by D. Boldin (première 21 May 1988), and one of the most often performed ballets at the National Theatre in Sarajevo.

Nuić has also written extensively for newspapers and magazines such as ...


Allan B. Ho

(Harris )

(b New York, NY, Dec 3, 1929; d New York, NY, July 10, 2012). American composer and critic. Following study with karol Rathaus at Queens College, CUNY (BA 1950), he studied with roger Sessions at the University of California, Berkeley (MA 1951) and with bernard Wagenaar at the Juilliard School (1951–3). He was a lecturer in music at the City College of New York (1960–3) and a visiting professor at Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts (1963–4). After 1964 he devoted his time to composition and to reviewing concerts and recordings for Fanfare, Music Journal, Musical America, the New York Herald Tribune, the New York Times, Ovation and his own publication, Turok’s Choice, established in 1990. He was one of the most insightful and often-quoted music critics of his time.

Turok composed over 160 works and received honors such as the Dillon Prize in Chamber Music (...


Tatjana Marković

(b Belgrade, Feb 10, 1927; d Belgrade, Oct 13, 2009). Serbian composer and music critic. He studied composition with Milenko Živković at the Academy of Music in Belgrade, graduating in 1955, and at the Accademia Nazionale di S. Cecilia in Rome (1967–8). He was a conductor of the choral society Napredak (1953–5), and then taught at Stanković music school (1955–66) and at the Music Academy (today Faculty of Music, 1966–96). As a music critic, he collaborated with various newspapers (Borba, Naša borba, Politika, Večernje novosti) and translated several books. He received awards from Udruženje kompozitora Srbije (‘the Association of Serbian composers’) and Yugoslav Radio, and received the Vukova nagrada. He followed the aesthetic of Stevan Mokranjac and his own professor Živković. His lyric music, predominantly choral, is distinguishable by his afinity for humour, both in his choice of lyrics and the musical means. He uses verbal punning (...


George J. Grella

[Robert ]

(b Albuquerque, NM, April 19, 1957). American composer, performer, instrument builder, and journalist. In high school he learned to play guitar, flute, violin, and percussion. In 1976 he enrolled at the Oberlin Conservatory, where he built a Serge modular synthesizer. He also formed the Fall Mountain ensemble with the reed player Ned Rothenberg and the violinist Jim Katzin. After leaving Oberlin in 1979 without a degree, he toured with Anthony Braxton’s Creative Music Orchestra then settled in New York. There he began playing with John Zorn, Eugene Chadbourne, Wayne Horvitz, and Fred Frith and embarked on an idiosyncratic and individualistic career.

Ostertag’s work is holistic; he has developed his compositions inseparably from the instruments he has designed, the musicians with whom he has collaborated and improvised, and the explicit and passionate political opinions he has sought to express. In 1980 he released his first solo album, Getting a Head...


Brett Boutwell

(b New York, NY, June 3, 1943). American music critic, journalist, consultant, composer, and educator. He graduated with a BA from Harvard University and a senior diploma in voice from the Longy School before studying composition at the Yale School, where he earned a master’s degree in 1974. He has contributed criticism on classical and popular music to a wide variety of publications, including the Village Voice (1980–86), the Los Angeles Herald-Examiner (1988–9), Entertainment Weekly (1990–92), and the Wall Street Journal (intermittently since 1983). His online columns for http://www.newmusicbox.org (2001–04) led to an ASCAP Deems Taylor Award in 2002, and since 2003 Sandow has written a blog for the website http://artsjournal.com (http://artsjournal.com/sandow). His concerns regarding the contemporary health and future prospects of classical music—a recurring theme of his criticism—led to consultancies on audience development and engagement with leading orchestras, arts organizations, and institutions of higher learning, including a faculty position at the Juilliard School (since ...


Liliana González Moreno

[Frederick] (Anthony)

(b New York, NY, March 16, 1929; d Matanzas, Cuba, July 21, 1977). composer, music critic, and pedagogue, active in Mexico and Cuba. He started his musical studies in Los Angeles. In 1949 he moved to Mexico City where he studied with Blas Galindo, Rodolfo Halffter, José Pablo Moncayo, and Carlos Jiménez Mabarak. In the 1950s he actively composed and promoted new music, organizing concerts and collaborating in theater productions by Alfonso Arau. In the early 1960s he lived in the southwestern Mexican state of Michoacán, where he conducted folk music research and directed folk music groups. In 1962 Smith moved to Havana, Cuba, to collaborate with Alfonso Arau in a project about the reorganization of the Teatro Musical de La Habana and opted to stay in the island. From 1963 to 1966 he taught harmony, analysis, music history, and composition at Havana’s Escuela Nacional de Música. His interest in the use of mathematical models in music composition and analysis was very influential in the development of chance, stochastic, and electroacoustic music in Cuba. He became active as a composer and arranger with the Instituto Cubano de Radio, Cine y Televisión, and later joined the faculty of the Grupo de Experimentación Sonora del ICAIC. In the early 1970s, he moved to Matanzas, Cuba, where he remained until his death, working as a music teacher and conductor....