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Mark Tucker and Travis A. Jackson

The term conveys different although related meanings: 1) a musical tradition rooted in performing conventions that were introduced and developed early in the 20th century by African Americans; 2) a set of attitudes and assumptions brought to music-making, chief among them the notion of performance as a fluid creative process involving (group) improvisation; and 3) a style characterized by melodic, harmonic, and timbral practices derived from the blues and African American religious musics, cyclical formal structures, and a supple approach to rhythm and phrasing known as swing.

Historians and critics using studies of concert music and literature as models have often portrayed the development of jazz as a narrative of progress. Their accounts suggest that jazz started as unsophisticated dance music but grew into increasingly complex forms, gradually gaining prestige and becoming recognized around the world as an art. Over that same period, the attitudes of cultural and institutional gatekeepers toward the music changed dramatically. In ...


William Gibbons

Ludomusicology is the study of music and sound in, or related to, games. Broadly speaking, the term may apply to any type of game or sport, or to the relationship between music and play more generally (see Moseley, 2016; Fritsch, 2018). In practice, however, ‘ludomusicology’ has most commonly referred to the study of music and video games, or interactive media.

The study of video game audio presents unique challenges. Games themselves, which are typically the objects of study, are often unstable. This instability may emerge because of the interactive nature of the medium, in which each user’s experience may differ; because games exist in multiple formats or versions; or because they are constantly evolving, as in updates to online games (see Summers, 2016; Reale, 2019). Furthermore, copyright restrictions, regionally restricted releases, and/or technological obsolescence sometimes render archival materials – even entire games – inaccessible to scholars. As a result, overviews of game music history and style have by necessity focused on readily available ‘canonic’ titles that were released widely in North America, Western Europe, and (to a lesser extent) Japan....


The instrumentarium of Western music throughout its history has been in a state of continuous change, and every type and period of music has given rise to its own modifications of existing instruments and playing techniques. The desire for instruments capable of greater range, volume, and dynamic control as well as for fresh timbres and easier playing techniques has led not only to the use of new materials and changes in design but also to the invention of new instruments, many of which, introduced by manufacturers seeking to promote their products through claims of novelty, have achieved small success and are now regarded as little more than curiosities. These developments form the matter of other articles in this dictionary, in which the evolution of individual instruments to their present state is described. The 20th century and early 21st saw an unprecedented expansion in the instrumentarium, especially electronic, and a host of new approaches by composers and performers to the use of existing instruments....


Christopher Palmer and Sergio Miceli


(b St Petersburg, Russia, 16/29 Oct 1901; d Rome, Italy, 7 June 1983). Italian composer and conductor of Russian origin. A grandson of the composer Nikolay Sokolov and a brother of the cellist Massimo Amfitheatrof, he studied with Vītols in St. Petersburg and Křička in Prague, but the greater part of his training was undertaken in Rome, where he studied composition with Respighi at the Conservatorio di S Cecilia (diploma 1924) and the organ at the Pontifical Academy of Sacred Music. He was engaged as a pianist, organist, and chorus assistant at the Augusteo (1924–9), also conducting the orchestra under Molinari's supervision. Thereafter he was artistic director of the Genoa and Trieste radio stations and conductor and manager for Italian radio in Turin; he also conducted elsewhere in Europe. In 1937 he went to the United States as associate conductor of the Minneapolis SO, and in ...


Kenneth Winters

(b Toronto, ON, 3 April 1918, d Toronto, ON, 20 April 2000). Canadian composer and arts administrator. He studied the piano with Boris Berlin, and theory and composition with Healey Willan, Ernest MacMillan, and Leonard B. Smith, before continuing composition studies with Roy Harris and Bernard Wagenaar in New York (1940–41). For the next eight years, Applebaum worked for the National Film Board of Canada, producing some 250 film scores. During this period he became increasingly concerned with improving the position of professional musicians in Canada. His combined interests in creative and socioeconomic development led to a career that influenced every aspect of Canadian music. During the 1960s he served as consultant for CBC television and chair of the planning committee for the National Arts Centre, Ottawa. His 1965 Proposal for the Musical Development of the Capital Region led to the formation of the National Arts Centre Orchestra and the University of Ottawa music department. Throughout the 1970s he served as executive director of the Ontario Arts Council and in ...


Martin Marks

(b New York, NY, 19 April 1888; d Ukiah, CA, 13 Feb 1959). Composer and conductor. After private music study in Berlin, he conducted for Oscar Hammerstein's Manhattan Opera Company, which closed in 1910, and then for productions on Broadway. By 1921 he had become an assistant conductor at the Capitol Theater, where silent films were presented with full orchestral accompaniment; in 1923, in partnership with David Mendoza, he replaced Erno Rapée as principal conductor. In addition to conducting, he composed incidental film music for the Capitol as needed, including 57 pieces published in the Capitol Photoplay Series (New York, 1923–7). From 1925 to 1929 he collaborated with Mendoza in New York on compilation scores for at least 20 MGM films, beginning with The Big Parade. Their collaboration continued with the music for Don Juan (1926), the first feature film score to be presented using the Vitaphone process, which mechanically synchronized the playback of music recorded on wax discs with the projection of the film. In ...


Joseph Dyer

Benedictine monks and nuns live in communities guided by the Rule of Benedict (c530) as interpreted by the customs of each monastery and under the authority of the abbot or abbess. They make vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, but they also vow ‘stability’ – that they will reside in the abbey of their profession until death. Monasteries also founded priories, which have a lower judicial status. In the Middle Ages, male Benedictines were also known as ‘black monks’ from the colour of their tunic, scapular, and choir robe (cuculla).

It is improper to speak of a Benedictine ‘order’, especially in the Middle Ages, since each monastery that followed the Rule of Benedict maintained a degree of independence, based on specific customs (consuetudines) that varied from house to house. When monastic confederations like Cluny came to be established, they were often based on similarity of observance as much as on geographical contiguity. Benedictines ...


Richard Swift

revised by Steve Metcalf


(b Seattle, WA, 9 July 1938). Composer. He studied composition with Robert Palmer (i) at Cornell University (MA in English literature 1961, DMA 1965), and continued his studies with Nadia Boulanger in Paris (1962–3), Ernst Pepping in Berlin (1965–6), and Gunther Schuller at the Berkshire Music Center (1966). He joined the faculty of UCLA in 1966 and was associate professor of music until 1976; during those years he founded and directed the Twice Ensemble, conducted the collegium musicum and was composer-in-residence for the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra (1971–4). He was Andrew Mellon Professor at the California Institute of Technology in 1975 and taught at the California Institute of the Arts (1976). In 1980 he became composer-in-residence for the San Francisco Ballet. He re-joined the UCLA faculty in 1996 and was Visiting Professor in 1999. He has written over 15 film scores and has worked as a consultant and arranger for stage musicals, including Duke Ellington's ...


Sergio Barcellona

(lit. ‘for the boat’)

In the first half of the 18th century this expression—associated with the term ‘canzone’, ‘aria’, ‘arietta’, or ‘canzonetta veneziana’—referred to strophic songs for solo voice and basso continuo songs in Venetian dialect, in AABB musical form. Initially this repertoire was used for ‘freschi’ (nocturnal gondola rides), which explains the origin of the term.

Lyrical texts, written by amateurs often belonging to the aristocracy and Venetian nobility, were mostly lover’s serenades, but also humorous or satirical songs related to the Carnival. Musical borrowings were quite common and heterogeneous, since they came from oral tradition or opera arias, as Benedetto Marcello satirized in Il Teatro alla moda (1720) and as it has recently been confirmed.

From the 1710s to the 1760s hundreds of anonymous songs ‘da battello’ were collected in manuscript anthologies and most of them were later published by John Walsh in the three volumes of Venetian Ballads (London, ...


Richard C. Lynch

(b New York, NY, 5 July 1912; d Rancho Mirage, CA, 30 Dec 1993). Lyricist and composer. He attended Cornell University for two years, then left to study law briefly at St. John's University, soon giving up these pursuits to follow his love for songwriting. He started writing lyrics for popular songs in the early 1930s, achieving his first major successes (1939–40) in partnership with André Kostelanetz. He subsequently wrote over 1000 songs, including many for film and television, receiving eight Academy Award nominations, the first in 1950 for his song “Bibbidi, Bobbidi, Boo” from the Walt Disney animated film of Cinderella. In the early 1950s he wrote songs with Jerry Livingston for three musicals for Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis; other collaborators have included Ellington, Bacharach, Basie, Gold, and Mancini. His composing style was flexible enough to produce hits for The Shirelles, Ella Fitzgerald, and the Judds as well as theme music for ...