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Stanislav Tuksar, Hana Breko Kustura, Ennio Stipčević, Grozdana Marošević, Davor Hrvoj, and Catherine Baker

Country in south-east Europe. Once the ancient Roman province of Illyricum, it was settled at the beginning of the 7th century by Slavs, who were converted to Western Christianity by the end of the 8th century. Medieval principalities were quickly formed, and a kingdom of Croatia existed from 925 (the dynasty of Trpimirović) to the end of the 11th century. In 1102 Croatia entered into a personal royal union with Hungary, with dynasties of Árpád, Anjou, and those of the Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia, and Poland on its throne during the 14th and 15th centuries; in 1527 it became part of the Habsburg Empire by electing Ferdinand King of Croatia. This political, cultural, and social union with Hungary and Austria lasted until 1918. Between 1409 and 1797, however, the Croatian maritime provinces of Istria and Dalmatia were under Venetian control, and from 1526 to 1699 other parts (e.g. the continental province of Slavonia) were conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The region comprising the Republic of Dubrovnik claimed autonomy from ...


David Brackett

[Penniman, Richard Wayne]

(b Macon, GA, 5 Dec 1932). Rhythm and blues singer, songwriter, and pianist. His early influences were gospel music, Louis Jordan, and other jump blues and urban blues artists of the late 1940s. After making several unsuccessful recordings in the early 1950s, he recorded “Tutti Frutti” in September 1955, which was a success on both the rhythm and blues and the pop charts. Although part of the first wave of rock and roll hits, it was far more aggressive and retained more aspects of African American vernacular music-making than other early recordings in this style.

“Tutti Frutti” set the tone for the Little Richard's hits that followed between 1956 and 1958—including “Long Tall Sally,” “Rip it up,” “Lucille,” “Keep a knockin’” and “Good Golly, Miss Molly”—over a fast boogie-shuffle rhythm with many stop-time breaks, he sings playful double-entendres near the top of his range in a searing timbre interspersed with trademark falsetto whoops. His piano playing derives from the boogie-woogie style, emphasizes the upbeat, and features a great many glissandos. In performance Little Richard would frequently leave the piano to dance exuberantly, occasionally on top of the instrument itself. In addition to his manic presence as singer, pianist, and dancer, his visual appearance added to the sense of his outrageousness: with his large pompadour, liberal use of makeup, and gaudy clothing, he raised the specter of cross-dressing and ambiguous sexuality at a time when such issues were strictly taboo. However, it is possible that he was accepted by the white public at the time because his performance style was perceived as an updated form of minstrelsy....



Mark Tucker and Travis A. Jackson

The term conveys different although related meanings: 1) a musical tradition rooted in performing conventions that were introduced and developed early in the 20th century by African Americans; 2) a set of attitudes and assumptions brought to music-making, chief among them the notion of performance as a fluid creative process involving (group) improvisation; and 3) a style characterized by melodic, harmonic, and timbral practices derived from the blues and African American religious musics, cyclical formal structures, and a supple approach to rhythm and phrasing known as swing.

Historians and critics using studies of concert music and literature as models have often portrayed the development of jazz as a narrative of progress. Their accounts suggest that jazz started as unsophisticated dance music but grew into increasingly complex forms, gradually gaining prestige and becoming recognized around the world as an art. Over that same period, the attitudes of cultural and institutional gatekeepers toward the music changed dramatically. In ...


Philip V. Bohlman

(b Prague, 14 March 1930). Ethnomusicologist of Czech birth. He was educated at Indiana University (AB 1950; MA 1951; PhD 1953) and the University of Michigan (MALS 1960). His distinguished teaching career has been anchored at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (appointed associate professor of music, 1964; professor of music and anthropology, 1967–92; emeritus professor, 1992), but has included numerous guest professorships, including Kiel (Fulbright professor, 1956–8), Washington (1985, 1988, 1990), Louisville (Bingham Professor, 1983), Colorado College (1992, 1998), Harvard (1990), and Chicago (1996). Among numerous honors are four honorary doctorates (Chicago 1993; Illinois 1996; Carleton College 2000; Kenyon College 2002), the Fumio Koizumi Prize (Tokyo 1993), and a Festschrift (1991).

Nettl's scholarship has been seminal for the growth of ethnomusicology during the second half of the 20th century. He has written or edited numerous works surveying and broadening theoretical and methodological principles, notably ...


Laurie Shulman


(b Baltimore, MD, 15 Feb 1949). Composer. As a child he demonstrated interest in both classical and popular music, and learned percussion. He attended the Oberlin College Conservatory of Music (BM 1971), studying composition with Richard Hoffmann and Randolph Coleman, and for two years had private lessons with George Crumb (1971–3). He then studied with Karel Husa and Robert Palmer at Cornell University (DMA 1977). After teaching at the University of Michigan between 1978 and 1981, he joined the composition faculty at the Eastman School of Music, where his students included Michael Torke, Kamran Ince, and Kevin Puts. From 1997 he also taught at the Juilliard School. In 2002 he left Eastman and became full-time faculty at Juilliard. His students there have included Nico Muhly and Huang Ro. Rouse has been composer-in-residence with the Baltimore SO (1986–9), the Santa Cecilia and Schleswig-Holstein festivals (...


William Gibbons

Ludomusicology is the study of music and sound in, or related to, games. Broadly speaking, the term may apply to any type of game or sport, or to the relationship between music and play more generally (see Moseley, 2016; Fritsch, 2018). In practice, however, ‘ludomusicology’ has most commonly referred to the study of music and video games, or interactive media.

The study of video game audio presents unique challenges. Games themselves, which are typically the objects of study, are often unstable. This instability may emerge because of the interactive nature of the medium, in which each user’s experience may differ; because games exist in multiple formats or versions; or because they are constantly evolving, as in updates to online games (see Summers, 2016; Reale, 2019). Furthermore, copyright restrictions, regionally restricted releases, and/or technological obsolescence sometimes render archival materials – even entire games – inaccessible to scholars. As a result, overviews of game music history and style have by necessity focused on readily available ‘canonic’ titles that were released widely in North America, Western Europe, and (to a lesser extent) Japan....


Polyphonic setting of secular or devotional poems in Middle Dutch (14th–15th centuries) or early standard Dutch (16th century). The genre is sometimes referred to with the less precise term ‘liedeken’ (little song), which is found in 16th-century printed collections of both monophonic and polyphonic songs. The earliest Dutch polyphonic songs date from the late 13th century, are for two or three voices, and are often cast in a forme fixe. In the later 16th century in which the genre flourished, through-composed, often imitative settings up to eight voices are found. The complete corpus of songs, which is described in Bonda (1996) and included in the online catalogue of Dutch songs (www.liederenbank.nl), consists of almost 500 settings representing more than 330 song families. This also includes compositions with mere textual incipits in Dutch and settings with mingled texts including Dutch. Unity within this repertory depends on the musical environment in which the songs were created, the textual relationship with genres of Dutch poetry, and the musical correlation with monophonic songs in Dutch....


Ronald Brown Byrnside

revised by Aaron Ziegel

[Dukelsky, Vladimir Alexandrovich]

(b Parafianovo, nr Minsk, Russia, 10 Oct 1903; d Santa Monica, CA, 16 Jan 1969). Composer and songwriter of Russian birth; naturalized American. He studied with Reinhold Glière (1916–19) and Marian Dombrovsky (1917–19) at the Kiev Conservatory until forced to flee the Revolution with his family, settling first in Constantinople (1920–21) and then in New York (1921–4). There he wrote a piano concerto for Artur Rubinstein, but it remained unperformed and unorchestrated. From 1924 he was in Paris and was commissioned by Sergey Diaghilev to write a ballet, Zephyr and Flora, which was performed in 1925 by the Ballets Russes at Monte Carlo and Paris. He wrote music for the London stage (1926–9) before returning to New York, where he began composing for both Broadway shows and formal concert venues. He also briefly studied orchestration with Joseph Schillinger...


Deborah Hayes

(b Melbourne, Australia, 29 Dec 1912; d Sydney, Australia, 25 June 1990). Australian composer, naturalized American. She was a major figure in American musical life as a New York–based critic, composer, and concert organizer from the late 1940s into the 60s. From about 1960 she spent increasing amounts of time outside the United States, especially in Greece. In 1967 she underwent surgery in New York to remove a brain tumor; she recovered but virtually ceased composing. In 1975 she moved from Greece to Australia, where her music attracted renewed attention from performers and audiences. In 1987 the University of Sydney awarded her the honorary DMus.

She received her first training from 1927 at the Melbourne Conservatorium, where she studied with conductor and opera composer Fritz Hart. In 1931 she won a scholarship to the RCM, where she studied with Ralph Vaughan Williams (composition), Arthur Benjamin (piano), and Constant Lambert and Malcolm Sargent (conducting). The award of an Octavia Travelling Scholarship (...


The instrumentarium of Western music throughout its history has been in a state of continuous change, and every type and period of music has given rise to its own modifications of existing instruments and playing techniques. The desire for instruments capable of greater range, volume, and dynamic control as well as for fresh timbres and easier playing techniques has led not only to the use of new materials and changes in design but also to the invention of new instruments, many of which, introduced by manufacturers seeking to promote their products through claims of novelty, have achieved small success and are now regarded as little more than curiosities. These developments form the matter of other articles in this dictionary, in which the evolution of individual instruments to their present state is described. The 20th century and early 21st saw an unprecedented expansion in the instrumentarium, especially electronic, and a host of new approaches by composers and performers to the use of existing instruments....