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Saul Novack

(Ludwig)

(b Cologne, Nov 17, 1902; d Basle, Oct 19, 1996). American musicologist and pianist of German origin. After schooling in Cologne he was awarded a music teacher's diploma by the Austrian State Commission in 1930. He studied musicology at the University of Vienna (1933–8), and took the doctorate in 1938 with a dissertation on acoustical psychology. He also studied privately with Schenker. In 1940 he emigrated to the USA, later becoming an American citizen, and was active as a conductor, teacher, accompanist and répétiteur. He held teaching posts at the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music and Art (1947–53) and the University of California at Los Angeles (1953–6) before his appointment in 1956 as professor of music at the California State University at Los Angeles, where he taught until his retirement in 1970 as professor emeritus. He frequently served as accompanist to distinguished singers such as Elisabeth Schumann, Pinza and Fischer-Dieskau, and assisted Lotte Lehmann in her art-song courses. Albersheim was one of the first to write on the importance of the theories of Heinrich Schenker, whose influence is occasionally reflected in his writings. He wrote mainly on acoustics and the psychology of hearing, as well as its relationship to musical aesthetics....

Article

Carolyn Gianturco and Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Mosso Santa Maria, nr Biella, Jan 31, 1921). Italian musicologist. He took diplomas in piano at the Parma Conservatory (1942) and in choral music at the Turin Conservatory (1948), and studied music history with Della Corte at Turin University, where he took an arts degree (1946). He subsequently taught music history in the conservatories of Bolzano (1950–51), Parma (1951–5) and Milan (1954–88); he has edited the journals Almanacco musicale italiano (1954–5), Ricordiana (1955–7) and Musica d’oggi (1958–63) and has been vice-director of Enciclopedia della musica Ricordi (1960–64). He has been a consulting editor for Ricordi since 1964. Music education is one of his major interests: he became director of the series Manuali di Didattica Musicale and Canti nel Mondo (Ricordi) in 1965, and editor of Educazione musicale...

Article

Lawrence Schenbeck

(b Detroit, MI, Sept 24, 1951). American composer, theorist, and jazz saxophonist. He attended public schools in Detroit, including Cass Technical High School, where he studied jazz and led his own band, the Seven Sounds. He continued his education at the University of Michigan (BMEd 1973, MA 1974) and at Yale University (MDiv 1977, PhD music theory 1993). Andrews was ordained as a minister in 1978, serving as Yale University campus chaplain and as faculty member in the Music Department and Department of African American Studies for more than a decade. During that period he met Lloyd Richards, director of the Yale Repertory Theatre, and playwright August Wilson. Andrews became resident music director (1979–86) for the company and contributed original music scores to a number of Wilson’s plays, including Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom, Joe Turner’s Come and Gone, Fences, The Piano Lesson, and Seven Guitars...

Article

Vera Lampert

[Weisshaus, Imre]

(b Budapest, Oct 22, 1905; d Paris, Nov 28, 1987). French composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist of Hungarian birth. He studied the piano at the Budapest Academy of Music with Bartók (1921–4), whose advice on composition he often sought in later years and who kindled his love for folksong and collection. (In a lecture given at Harvard in 1943, Bartók spoke of Arma’s textless song for solo voice on one pitch with variations of vowel sound, dynamic and rhythm.) Arma began his career as a member of the Budapest Piano Trio (1925–6). Between 1924 and 1930 he gave many recitals in Europe and the USA and lectured on contemporary music at American universities. He settled in Germany in 1931, and for a time he led the musical activities at the Dessau Bauhaus, lecturing on modern music and experimenting with electronic music produced on gramophone records. Later he lived in Berlin and Leipzig, where he conducted several smaller choirs and orchestras. The advent of the Nazi regime in Germany forced his move to Paris, where he made his permanent home. At first he was associated with the RTF, notably as founder-director of the Loisirs Musicaux de la Jeunesse (...

Article

Ada Benediktovna Schnitke

(b Odessa, 18/Jan 31, 1906; d Leningrad, June 25, 1985). Russian musicologist, pianist and teacher. He studied the piano with G.M. Biber and composition with V.A. Zolotaryov at the Odessa Conservatory (1920–25) and mathematics at Odessa University (1922–5). He later completed his musical studies with F. Blumenfel′d at the Moscow Conservatory (1925–30). He taught in a music school in Odessa (1923–5), and worked at the Moscow Central School of Music from 1930 and in the Moscow Music Department of the Commissariat for Public Education (1930–31). Concurrently he was deputy chairman of the piano and methodology section of the State Institute for Musical Sciences in Moscow. From 1931 to 1939 he taught at the Moscow Conservatory, where he ran a class for the piano and the methodology of piano teaching. He was appointed senior scientific officer at the Science Research Institute for Music attached to the Moscow Conservatory in ...

Article

(b Tarnopol′, 8/Feb 20, 1888; d L′viv, June 9, 1963). Ukrainian composer, musicologist, pianist and teacher. He took piano lessons first at the K. Mikuli Music School (1895–1905) and with W. Kurtz (1905–06) at the conservatory in L′viv. During the same period he studied jurisprudence at Lemberg University, and from 1907, philosophy at the University of Prague. In Prague Barvyns′ky studied musicology with Z. Nejedly and O. Hostinsky, the piano with I. Holfeld and composition with Vítězsláv Novák (1908–14), who exerted a powerful influence on him. From 1915 to 1939 Barvyns′ky taught at, and was director of, the Lysenko Music Institute in L′viv, and also taught at the conservatory there (1939–41 and 1944–8). A prolific organizer, he initiated and took part in many musical activities in L′viv and became a member of the editorial board of the journal ...

Article

Jean-Paul Montagnier

(b Mantes-la-Jolie, 5/June 6, 1665; d Paris, July 6, 1734). French composer, harpsichordist, theorist and teacher. He probably learnt music in the maîtrise of the collegiate church of Notre Dame, Mantes, and in that of Evreux Cathedral. According to the Etat actuel de la Musique du Roi (1773) he then studied with Caldara in Rome. In 1692 Bernier was living in the rue Tiquetonne in Paris and was teaching the harpsichord. On 20 November 1693 he failed to win the post of maître de musique at Rouen Cathedral in competition with Jean-François Lalouette. He was appointed head of the maîtrise of Chartres Cathedral on 17 September 1694 and remained there until 18 March 1698, when he obtained a similar position at St Germain-l'Auxerrois, Paris. A Te Deum performed before the king at Fontainebleau on 24 October 1700 was very successful, and was sung again in several Parisian churches in ...

Article

Howard Schott

( b Lausanne, May 5, 1944). Swiss clavichord player and musicologist . After piano studies in Lausanne (1963–7) and Vienna (1968–9), he became increasingly attracted to the clavichord and its repertory. He made his European début at Fribourg, Switzerland, in 1972 and his American début at Marlboro College, Vermont, in 1973. He studied musicology at the New England Conservatory with Julia Sutton (MMus 1976) and began research in early Iberian clavichord music with Macario Santiago Kastner in Lisbon in 1977. He regularly tours Europe and North America, performing and recording a wide repertory of Renaissance and Baroque clavichord music, with an emphasis on Iberian composers. He has won high praise as a sensitive and tasteful performer. In contrast to most other modern clavichord players, he restricts himself to the fretted form of the instrument. Brauchli has given summer courses in many European countries, has lectured at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and was appointed professor of clavichord at the New England Conservatory in ...

Article

F.E. Sparshott

(Jeanne Marie Noémie)

(b Fontenay-le-Comte, Vendée, March 6, 1915; d Sèvres, June 21, 1973). French musicologist and pianist. She studied the piano at the conservatories of Nantes (under G. Arcouet) and Paris (under Lazare Lévy), and biology and philosophy at the Sorbonne (doctorat d'Etat in philosophy 1949). From 1950 she directed the Bibliothèque Internationale de Musicologie, and in 1952 was appointed solo pianist to the RTF for whom she also lectured and produced musical programmes. She published extensively in the aesthetics of music, with special emphasis on the status of music as the art of time and on the privileged role of the virtuoso performer.

Brelet's work elaborates the view of music borrowed from Pierre Souvtchinsky by Igor Stravinsky, to whom she assigns the central place in 20th-century music. Her three books develop a single argument. The first contrasts the traditional poetics of music, according to which a system of intervals forms the basis of harmonic and melodic structures, with an alternative poetics of temporal form. The second book elaborates this theme into an encomium on music. Since time is the form of the inner life, music must be the most perfect art, for it directly imparts formal perfection to experience itself. From this standpoint, modern non-tonal music appears as aberrant, since the absence of a tonal centre eliminates expectation and thus makes significant temporal form impossible. The third book uses this view of music to prove that the virtuoso performer is the only true musician. Music, being a form of temporal experience, can exist only as and when it is performed. The composer merely provides possibilities which he leaves to performers to actualize in various ways. It follows that performers should not strive to recreate the original effect of a work, or respect a composer's intentions: historical fidelity is not aesthetic fidelity....

Article

Keith Moore

(b Memphis, Jan 21, 1944). American composer, pianist, conductor and musicologist. He studied the piano with Roy McAllister at the University of Alabama (BM 1965), with Sophia Rosoff, and with Soulima Stravinsky at the University of Illinois (MM 1966), where he also studied composition with Ben Johnson (DMA, 1971) and had contact with Hamm, Hiller, Kessler and Brün. He served on the music faculty at Illinois (1968–74) before joining the staff at Wesleyan University. He was a member of the editorial committee of New World Records (1974–8), founding chairman of New England Sacred Harp Singing (1976) and has held visiting professorships at Middlebury College, Bucknell University and the University of Michigan. In 1980 he was Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Studies in American Music at Brooklyn College.

In 1968 Bruce founded the American Music Group (AMG), an ensemble innovative in its dedication to American music of all eras. AMG recorded the music of Anthony Philip Heinrich for Vanguard, toured widely in the United States and, under Bruce’s direction, gave the 20th-century première of Bristow’s ...