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(b Frankfurt, Sept 11, 1903; d Brig, Switzerland, Aug 6, 1969). German writer on music and philosopher. The son of a businessman of Jewish extraction, Oscar Alexander Wiesengrund, and a professional singer of Catholic Corsican origin, Maria Calvelli-Adorno della Piana, he adopted his mother's name in the 1920s, initially as Weisengrund-Adorno, dispensing with the hyphen in 1938. In 1937–8 he also wrote briefly under the pseudonym Hektor ‘Rottweiler’.

Strongly influenced by Ernst Bloch's Vom Geist der Utopie and Georg Lukács's Theorie des Romans while still at school, and having had a musical upbringing, with piano, violin and composition lessons from an early age, in 1921 he went on to study philosophy (with Hans Cornelius) at the University of Frankfurt with musicology, sociology and psychology as subsidiary subjects, continuing composition studies with Bernhard Sekles and piano with Eduard Jung. During his student years he became friendly with the philosopher Max Horkheimer and the literary critic Walter Benjamin, who both had considerable influence on his development. Three years after starting university he took the doctorate with a dissertation on Husserl (...

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Owen Wright

[ibn Ghaybī al-Marāghi]

(b Maragh; d Herat, 1435). Timurid composer, performer and theorist. He first rose to prominence in the service of the Jalā’irid rulers of Iraq and Azerbaijan, al-Ḥusayn (1374–82) and Aḥmad (1382–1410). After the conquest of Baghdad by Tīmūr (1393), most of his career was spent in Samarkand and, especially, Herat, at the courts of Tīmūr and of his successors al-Khalīl (1404–9) and Shāh Rukh (1409–47).

‘Abd al-Qādir was one of the most important and influential theorists of the Systematist school. His most substantial surviving works are the Jāmi‘ al-al ḥān (‘Compendium of melodies’), largely completed in 1405 and revised in 1413, and the slighter Maqāṣid al-al ḥān (‘Purports of melodies’), which covers essentially the same ground and probably dates from 1418. Written in Persian, which was by then the language of culture, these works proved particularly influential among later 15th-century theorists; but although both thoughtful and highly competent, on the theoretical side they may be regarded as, essentially, restatements and amplifications of the theory elaborated by ...

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George Vlastos

(b Athens, Feb 17, 1960). Greek composer, musicologist, and keyboard player. Born into an artistic family, he took up jazz and free improvised music. During the period 1977–84 he took his first lessons in composition with Yannis Ioannidis while he also studied law at the University of Athens. Thereafter he continued his studies in composition at the Robert Schumann Musikhochschule (now Robert Schumann University, Düsseldorf) with Guenther Becker until 1986. Having a background both in jazz and electronic music, he showed an interest in the echo effect. Thus, in his early works (dating from the mid-1980s) he developed a heterophonic technique, which he called the ‘technique of linear heterophonic modulations’. In his music he makes extensive use of ancient Greek tetrachords, melodic ramifications, and modal structures deriving from the Greek and other non-Western traditions. Until 1994 his writing was abstract and rhythmically complex, while his later works are more conventionally structured and use consonant sonorities. His output includes operas, vocal music, works for orchestra, works for solo instruments, chamber music, incidental music, electronic music, ballet music, and music for films. Among his major works are the opera ...

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Robert Paul Kolt

(b Santiago, Chile, Jan 2, 1963). American composer, guitarist, ethnomusicologist, educator, and producer of Chilean birth. He immigrated to the United States as a child and studied guitar with Joseph Torello, Vincent Bredice, Lou Mowad, and George Aguiar. Amigo enrolled at Florida State University (1980) where he studied classical guitar with Bruce Holzman and William Carter and was active as a performer of popular music. In 1986, he moved to Los Angeles, earning a degree in political science from California State University, Northridge (BA 1995) and degrees in ethnomusicology (MA 1988, PhD 2003) from the University of Calfornia, Los Angeles. He studied in Los Angeles with Kenny Burrell, Gary Pratt, Harihar Rao, and wadada leo Smith. Amigo also performed with African, Arabic, funk, hard rock, free jazz, jazz, and reggae groups, and worked as a session guitarist for Hans Zimmer, Mark Mancina, Jay Rifkin, and Les Hooper, among others....

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Lawrence Schenbeck

(b Detroit, MI, Sept 24, 1951). American composer, theorist, and jazz saxophonist. He attended public schools in Detroit, including Cass Technical High School, where he studied jazz and led his own band, the Seven Sounds. He continued his education at the University of Michigan (BMEd 1973, MA 1974) and at Yale University (MDiv 1977, PhD music theory 1993). Andrews was ordained as a minister in 1978, serving as Yale University campus chaplain and as faculty member in the Music Department and Department of African American Studies for more than a decade. During that period he met Lloyd Richards, director of the Yale Repertory Theatre, and playwright August Wilson. Andrews became resident music director (1979–86) for the company and contributed original music scores to a number of Wilson’s plays, including Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom, Joe Turner’s Come and Gone, Fences, The Piano Lesson, and Seven Guitars...

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(b Moscow, March 15, 1958). Russian musicologist, pianist and composer. In 1978 he entered the Gnesin Academy of Music, where he studied the piano with A.V. Aleksandrov and the theory of music with Yu.N. Kholopov, M.G. Kharlap and L.A. Mazel′. He completed his postgraduate studies there on the piano in 1988. In 1992 he began teaching at the Russian Academy of Choral Art in Moscow, becoming professor of the piano department in 1995. He is well known for his concert playing activities, as a soloist and ensemble player, and as an accompanist to the baritone Dmitry Hvorostovsky. His compositions include works for the piano, chamber and choral music, and a Missa brevis for mixed choir and organ, which is recorded on CD. He was made an Honoured Artist of Russia in 1995.

Arkad′yev's scholarly interests include the issues of time, rhythm and articulation in music. He gained the doctorate in ...

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Vera Lampert

[Weisshaus, Imre]

(b Budapest, Oct 22, 1905; d Paris, Nov 28, 1987). French composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist of Hungarian birth. He studied the piano at the Budapest Academy of Music with Bartók (1921–4), whose advice on composition he often sought in later years and who kindled his love for folksong and collection. (In a lecture given at Harvard in 1943, Bartók spoke of Arma’s textless song for solo voice on one pitch with variations of vowel sound, dynamic and rhythm.) Arma began his career as a member of the Budapest Piano Trio (1925–6). Between 1924 and 1930 he gave many recitals in Europe and the USA and lectured on contemporary music at American universities. He settled in Germany in 1931, and for a time he led the musical activities at the Dessau Bauhaus, lecturing on modern music and experimenting with electronic music produced on gramophone records. Later he lived in Berlin and Leipzig, where he conducted several smaller choirs and orchestras. The advent of the Nazi regime in Germany forced his move to Paris, where he made his permanent home. At first he was associated with the RTF, notably as founder-director of the Loisirs Musicaux de la Jeunesse (...

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Malcolm Gillies

(b Nagyszentmiklós, Hungary [now Sînnicolau Mare, Romania], March 25, 1881; d New York, Sept 26, 1945). Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist and pianist. Although he earned his living mainly from teaching and playing the piano and was a relentless collector and analyst of folk music, Bartók is recognized today principally as a composer. His mature works were, however, highly influenced by his ethnomusicological studies, particularly those of Hungarian, Romanian and Slovak peasant musics. Throughout his life he was also receptive to a wide variety of Western musical influences, both contemporary (notably Debussy, Stravinsky, Schoenberg) and historic; he acknowledged a change from a more Beethovenian to a more Bachian aesthetic stance in his works from 1926 onwards. He is now considered, along with Liszt, to be his country’s greatest composer, and, with Kodály and Dohnányi, a founding figure of 20th-century Hungarian musical culture.

At the time of Bartók’s birth, Nagyszentmiklós was part of the northern end of the ethnically diverse southern Hungarian province of Torontál. There, his father, also Béla Bartók (...

Article

(b Tarnopol′, 8/Feb 20, 1888; d L′viv, June 9, 1963). Ukrainian composer, musicologist, pianist and teacher. He took piano lessons first at the K. Mikuli Music School (1895–1905) and with W. Kurtz (1905–06) at the conservatory in L′viv. During the same period he studied jurisprudence at Lemberg University, and from 1907, philosophy at the University of Prague. In Prague Barvyns′ky studied musicology with Z. Nejedly and O. Hostinsky, the piano with I. Holfeld and composition with Vítězsláv Novák (1908–14), who exerted a powerful influence on him. From 1915 to 1939 Barvyns′ky taught at, and was director of, the Lysenko Music Institute in L′viv, and also taught at the conservatory there (1939–41 and 1944–8). A prolific organizer, he initiated and took part in many musical activities in L′viv and became a member of the editorial board of the journal ...