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Daniel Zager

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(bNew York, Nov 2, 1920; dPoint Pleasant, NJ, Dec 23, 1974). Americanwriter. He studied geology at Columbia University (BS 1942), served as a navigator in the army air corps, and then returned to Columbia, where he gained a master's degree in mineralogy. Although an engineer by profession (PhD, Rutgers, 1964) and a teacher of ceramics engineering at Rutgers (1964-74), he was involved in jazz discography throughout his life, and with his scholarly training he recognized that this subject could be approached with the same rigorous concern for accuracy, weighing of evidence, and documentation of sources that would be expected in traditional fields. He prepared numerous brief discographies and wrote full-length bio-discographies of King Oliver and Fletcher Henderson, the latter being an exhaustive and definitive study. Allen published and distributed these books as part of his own Jazz Monograph series, which also included important works by Samuel B. Charters, Brian Rust, and others. As a further means of disseminating information he produced ...

Article

André Clergeat

(b Algiers, Feb 14, 1941). French pianist, arranger, leader, and musicologist. He discovered jazz following a period of classical piano studies. In 1962 he moved to Paris and performed in amateur bands, and in 1966 he became a professional musician. As house pianist at the Jazz O’Maniac he accompanied Albert Nicholas, Bill Coleman (1971–2), and Benny Waters (1971–3), as well as Benny Carter, Jo Jones, Illinois Jacquet, Buddy Tate, Slam Stewart, Stephane Grappelli, Vic Dickenson, Cat Anderson, and others. From 1976 to 1979 he was co-director, with Marc Richard, of the Anachronic Jazz Band, which aimed to present modern jazz themes with a traditional New Orleans jazz orchestration, as may be heard on Anachronic Jazz Band, i–ii (1976, 1978, Open 02, 09). From 1979 to 1983 he led the Happy Feet Quintet, with which he recorded the album Happy Feet and Friends (...

Article

(b Livorno, July 28, 1862; d Florence, Oct 7, 1952). Italian musicologist. He first studied law, then turned to music and joined the staff of the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Florence. He became successively professor of music history, assistant director and finally director and librarian of the Istituto Musicale (Reale Accademia di Musica Luigi Cherubini), Florence, retiring in 1932. His numerous writings (over 900) include regular contributions to newspapers and periodicals, among them the Gazzetta musicale di Milano, La critica musicale and the Rivista musicale italiana.

Saggio storico sul teatro musicale italiano (Livorno, 1913) La figura e l’arte di G. Verdi (Livorno, 1919) Bernardo Pasquini (Ascoli Piceno, 1923) Verdi (Paris, 1923) Mefistofele di Arrigo Boito (Milan, 1924) G. Puccini: l’uomo e l’artista (Livorno, 1925) L’opera italiana (Florence, 1928) Rossini (Florence, 1934) Publicazioni di Arnaldo Bonaventura nel cinquantenario, 1880–1930 (Florence, 1930) B. Becherini: ‘Ricordi di Arnaldo Bonaventura (1862–1952)’, RMI...

Article

E. Ron Horton

[Tony]

(b San Francisco, CA, March 17, 1953). American percussionist, composer, and scholar. He is a California-based artist and educator whose world travels and ethnic heritage have had a major influence on his musical career. His mother was a native of Tokyo, Japan, and his father was of African American and Choctaw decent. He grew up in a military family, moving between California, Germany, and Japan during his formative years. His career in music began in earnest after he returned to San Francisco in 1980. In 1985 he moved to New York and further developed his career while studying jazz performance at Rutgers University. He subsequently earned a PhD from the University of California, Berkeley, studying ethnomusicology, a field that allowed him to focus on the musical styles that reflected his cultural heritage. He then began an extensive relationship with the Smithsonian Institute working as the curator of American musical culture, director of the Jazz Oral History program, and a performer in the Smithsonian Jazz Trio. In ...

Article

(b 1843–4; d ?1917). English translator . He was a scholar of Oriel College, Oxford (BA 1866), and was ordained in the Church of England in 1868. He was choirmaster and organist of Christ Church, Marylebone, London, from 1878 to 1882.

For the production of Così fan tutte (at that time rarely staged) by the Royal College of Music at the Savoy Theatre in 1890, he wrote an amusing and elegant English version, ‘translated and adapted from the original Italian and the German paraphrase’, in a style Richard Brinsley Sheridan would not have disdained. It was published in vocal score by Novello, with the characters Fiordiligi and Guglielmo renamed Isidora and Gratiano, presumably for the convenience of English tongues. The long survival of this version, with modifications, extended to the ENO production of 1990. Browne also translated Cornelius’s Der Barbier von Bagdad (RCM, Savoy, 1891) and Hermann Goetz’s ...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(b Kensington, London, Nov 20, 1766; d Bristol, May 15, 1821). English composer and theorist. Entering music as a largely self-taught amateur, he became a popular glee composer and a respected authority on music theory.

He was the son of a builder, Thomas Callcott, by his second wife, Charlotte Wall, and was educated at a private school by William Young; he was a brilliant student of classics, Hebrew and philosophy. Until he was 13 it was planned that he should become a surgeon, but he was so disgusted by witnessing an operation that he gave up this idea. He had learnt something of music from Henry Whitney, organist of Kensington parish church, and he began to practise the organ seriously while continuing to pursue, untaught, the study of languages and mathematics. He also learnt to play the clarinet and the oboe, and began to compose. In 1782 he became acquainted with Samuel Arnold and Benjamin Cooke, who encouraged him to enter the profession; the next year he became assistant organist of St George’s, Bloomsbury. Through Cooke he was admitted as a ‘supernumerary hautboy’ at the concerts of the Academy of Ancient Music. From this time onwards his efforts in composition were mainly devoted to the glee. His first glee, ...

Article

Mark Miller

(Arthur )

(b Moose Jaw, Canada, Oct 27, 1918; d Toronto, Jan 16, 1981). Canadian theorist, teacher, and composer. He led dance bands and played trumpet in Toronto (1939–49) before he ended his career as a performer for reasons of health and turned to teaching (1950). He wrote texts on arranging, harmony, counterpoint, 12-tone music, and melody (New York, 1965–76) that became widely used, and he taught many leading jazz musicians in Canada in the 1950s and 1960s. He also composed several works in the third-stream idiom, of which he was an enthusiastic advocate; these include Collage no.3 and Song and Dance, both of which were recorded by Duke Ellington with the Ron Collier Orchestra on Duke Ellington: North of the Border (1967, Decca 75069). His Three Entertainments for Saxophone Quartet (1969) was recorded by the New York Saxophone Quartet. (EMC2...

Article

Nicholas Tochka

(b Durrës, Albania, Jan 20, 1914; d Tirana, Albania, March 30, 1977). Albanian folk music researcher and composer. Born into an intellectual family, he studied music in Bucharest (1936) and later Milan (1939) before returning to Albania during World War II. Initially, Dheri was appointed music instructor at the high school in Shkodra, where he organized small ensembles and choral groups following the war. In 1949, he was transferred to the Committee for the Arts and Culture in Tirana and, in 1953, to Radio Tirana. During this period, Dheri contributed to the Radio’s sound archives, collected and transcribed folk pieces, created pedagogical texts, and composed light popular waltzes, tangos, and foxtrots. His primary contribution followed his appointment to the newly formed Institute of Folk Culture in 1968. As an editor and the founding director of the national archives for folk music, Dheri oversaw the publication of early systematic collections including ...

Article

(b Los Angeles, CA, March 21, 1941). American Gospel music historian, performer, and songwriter. She founded and has served as CEO of the Heritage Music Foundation, which seeks to establish a permanent home and museum for gospel music. Brought up within the Los Angeles public school system, she earned degrees from California State University and the University of Southern California before earning the PhD from the University of Beverly Hills. As a youth she directed and accompanied the children’s choir at Mount Moriah Baptist Church, a church founded in Los Angeles by her father, the Rev. Earl A. Pleasant. Thereafter she became the accompanist for the Sunday School Baptist Training Union and the Young People’s Choir. A prolific arranger and composer, she has composed hundreds of songs performed by some of the best gospel ensembles and artists, including Rev. James Cleveland and the Gospel Music Workshop of America, the Mighty Clouds of Joy, Vanessa Bell Armstrong, and the Sounds of Blackness. Her most well-known songs include “Give me a Clean Heart” (...

Article

Brenda M. Romero

(b Tlaxiaco, Mexico, Sept 9, 1967). Mexican singer, composer, and anthropologist. She was already well known in Mexico when she emerged in the US mainstream with her performance in the film Frida (2002). Her father was Scottish American and her mother is Mixtec from Oaxaca, thus Downs grew up traveling back and forth between the United States and Mexico and between cultures. She began singing at the age of five and began formal classical voice studies at 14 at Bellas Artes in Oaxaca. She subsequently studied in Los Angeles and at the University of Minnesota, where she earned a bachelor’s degree in anthropology, focusing on Oaxacan highland textiles. In addition to crediting African American music in general, and female singers and the music of jazz in particular, for showing her the many ways in which the voice can be used as an instrument to articulate a wide palette of expressiveness, she credits a range of musical influences, including the Grateful Dead, Woody Guthrie, Bob Dylan, Meredith Monk (especially her extended vocal techniques), Thelonious Monk, and John Coltrane. She has conducted most of her work in collaboration with her husband ...