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Article

Anne Beetem Acker

[chip music]

Term related to music made by the eight-bit soundchips in 1980s and early 1990s gaming systems and microcomputers, as well as music composed using modified (‘modded’) gaming systems or environments designed to emulate the capabilities of early soundchips. (A chip, or microchip, is an integrated circuit packaged in a usually flat rectangular body with input and output pins for attachment to a larger circuit system.) The original systems include the NEC PC-8801, Commodore 64, Nintendo Entertainment Systems, Amiga, Game Boy, and Mega Drive/Genesis. The distinctive sound of music from these systems arises from their use of only a few simple waveforms, white noise, and beeps, as well as unreliable pitches and limited polyphony. Despite these restrictions, inventive chiptune composers in the 1980s emulated many styles of music using flutelike melodies, buzzing square-wave bass lines, rapid arpeggios, and noisy primitive percussion. Game music is designed to loop indefinitely and then quickly switch depending upon the characters or scenes of the game, requiring the music to be simple yet evocative. Composers used software ‘trackers’, tediously entering the note and other information in numerical codes that the hardware chip could use....

Article

Fanfare  

Edward H. Tarr

(Fr. fanfare; Ger. Fanfare; It. fanfara)

(1) A flourish of trumpets or other brass instruments, often with percussion, for ceremonial purposes. Fanfares are distinct from military signals in usage and character. In addition to its musical meaning, ‘fanfare’ has always had a figurative meaning. The root, fanfa (‘vaunting’), goes back to late 15th-century Spanish. Although etymologists believe the word to be onomatopoeic, it may in fact be derived from the Arabic anfár (‘trumpets’). The word ‘fanfare’ occurs for the first time in French in 1546 and in English in 1605, in both instances figuratively; it was first used to signify a trumpet flourish by Walther, although it may have been used earlier to mean a hunting signal: See (3) below.

Walther, Altenburg and an anonymous 18th-century author belonging to the Prüfende Gesellschaft in Halle all agreed that a fanfare was ‘usable on all days of celebration and state occasions’ and consisted of ‘a mixture of arpeggios and runs’ improvised by trumpeters and kettledrummers (J.E. Altenburg, 91); a ‘flourish’ in the British Army during the same period was ‘without any set rule’. Heyde has shown that this type of unreflective improvisation, the purpose of which was to glorify a sovereign, goes back to trumpeters’ ...

Article

Hubert Unverricht

revised by Janet K. Page

(Ger.: ‘field music’)

A term used for the fanfares, and later other compositions, also known as Feldstücke, ‘needed in the field at warlike happenings’ (Altenburg, 88); alternatively it applied to an ensemble that played such pieces. The term referred originally to the corps of military trumpeters which replaced the drum and fife bands widely used in the Middle Ages.

In 1704 J.P. Krieger published six suites in his collection Lustige Feld-Music, auf vier blasende oder andere Instrumenta gerichtet, extending the term to include works for wind groups. As these groups had at first played double-reed instruments, their members were known as Hautboisten or Oboisten, (see Hautboist) even though from early in the 18th century the ensemble often included other types of instrument. The Feldmusik were military musicians, but they also performed for court festivities and entertainments, either as a self-contained ensemble or as part of a larger group. These Feldmusik ensembles, especially as used for entertainment, became known in about ...

Article

H.G. Farmer

Tunes played on the fife to regulate military activities. When the fife was reintroduced into the British army in 1746 fife calls, to the drum’s accompaniment, became the rule. They were possibly founded on 17th-century calls such as those that existed in France. Ex.1 shows the ‘Drummers’ Call’ from Potter’s treatise. Fife calls were used in Britain until the 1890s, the last official version being ‘Drum and Flute [i.e. Fife] Duty’, issued ...

Article

Carolyn Bryant

Founded in 1972, the organization seeks to facilitate learning about the art, craft, and science of lutherie. It was organized by a group of craftsmen to provide a forum for sharing information about building string instruments, including guitars of all types, mandolins, lutes, violins, and others. In 2010 it had more than 3600 members from the United States and 40 other countries.

The Guild (<http://www.luth.org>) welcomes makers of all experience levels and is committed to advancing the free exchange of information to allow its members to learn from the experiences of others in the field. Its quarterly journal American Lutherie (published since 1985) is the primary vehicle for accomplishing the Guild’s goal of sharing information. In addition, the organization has published Historical Lute Construction (2001), an expanded version of articles written by master luthier Robert Lundberg, as well as Lutherie Tools (1990) and ...

Article

Roger Hellyer

In its widest sense, music for wind instruments. Within its ambit have come a variety of musical styles: for instance, the French commonly use the term ‘harmonie militaire’ to refer to military bands, even the massed wind bands of the Napoleonic era: Elgar wrote Harmony Music for his domestic wind quintet; the Germans refer to the wind quintet as the ‘Harmonie-Quintett’. The title of Haydn's Harmoniemesse (1802) is explained by the prominence of wind instruments in that work. Mendelssohn’s Harmoniemusik op.24 (1824) is for 23 wind instruments and percussion. In its more limited sense the term was fully current only from the mid-18th century until the 1830s when it was primarily applied to the wind bands (Harmonien) of the European aristocracy and the music written for them, and secondarily to their popular imitations in street bands (Mozart told in a letter to his father, 3 November 1781...

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John Caldwell and Christopher Maxim

In 

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John Caldwell, Christopher Maxim, Barbara Owen, Robert Winter, Susan Bradshaw and Martin Elste

In 

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Sarah Deters Richardson

[IDRS]

International organization established in 1971, dedicated to double reed players, instrument manufacturers, and enthusiasts. The society aims to enhance the art of double reed playing; encourage the performance of double reed literature; improve instruments, tools, and reed-making material; encourage the composition and arranging of music for double reeds; act as a resource for performers; assist teachers and students of double reed instruments; encourage cooperation and an exchange of ideas between the music industry and the society; and foster a world-wide communication between double reed musicians (IDRS Constitution, 1997). IDRS has over 4,400 members from 56 countries. The society’s website (www.idrs.org) hosts archives of its publications, conferences, and competitions, along with information on double reed performance, pedagogy, and research.

The society grew out of a thrice-yearly newsletter, To the World’s Bassoonists (1969–77). In the second year of its existence, a parallel newsletter, To the World’s Oboists...