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Anthem  

John Harper, Peter Le Huray, Ralph T. Daniel and John Ogasapian

A choral setting of a religious or moral text in English, generally designed for liturgical performance. See also National anthems .

John Harper

In the Middle Ages the term derived from and was synonymous with Antiphon . After the Reformation the term denotes a polyphonic setting of a sacred English text, normally sung by the choir after the collects at Matins and Evensong; the text is freely chosen, most often from the Bible (especially the psalms) or from the Book of Common Prayer. The connection between Latin antiphon sung within the Office and English anthem sung as an appendage to Matins or Evensong is found in the Commemoration, Memoiral or Suffrage in which the antiphon was the most important musical element. In the medieval liturgy a Commemoration, Memorial or Suffrage was often appended to the main Office (e.g. Lauds or Vespers); this observance normally consisted of Benedictus or Magnificat antiphon, versicle and response, and collect – effectively a truncated Office commemorating an intention additional to the main Office (e.g. the saints, the dead, or a saint remembered on that day but not taking precedence in the main Office; see ...

Article

Michel Huglo and Joan Halmo

In Latin Christian chant generally, a liturgical chant with a prose text, sung in association with a psalm. In Gregorian psalmody, for example, psalms and canticles are usually preceded and followed by a single antiphon, and the psalm tone used for the recitation of the psalm itself is often musically incomplete without the antiphon. Antiphons of this kind may be regarded as typical and are represented above all by the Gregorian antiphons to the psalms of Matins, Lauds and Vespers in the Divine Office. There are also other categories of antiphon, some of which may lack psalmody or have versified texts.

The antiphon and responsory are the two musical genres with Latin prose texts that occur in all the Western liturgies and are the most abundant within the chant repertory. A given medieval Office source might have as many as 1500 antiphons, and even up to 2000; such a large number could occur in a monastic usage, whereas the secular (or canons') repertory would generally have fewer (see §4 below)....

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Michel Huglo

revised by David Hiley

[antiphonal, antiphonary] (from Lat. antiphona; antiphonarius [liber], antiphonarium, antiphonale)

Liturgical book of the Western Church containing the antiphons and other choir chants sung at the services of the Divine Office .

Although the word antiphona as a term for a liturgical chant can be traced back to the 3rd century, the term antiphonarius (rarely also antiphonale – see below) for a book of chants first appears in the 8th century. In his Dialogus ecclesiasticae institutionis Archbishop Egbert of York (d 766) refers to an ‘antiphonarium’ and even ‘antiphonaria’ of Gregory the Great (d 604), which he had seen in Rome in the 730s ( PL , lxxxix, 440–42). The term was also used in Carolingian library catalogues from the end of the 8th century:Catalogue from St Wandrille de Fontenelle in Normandy, compiled between 787 and 806 (‘antiphonarii romanae ecclesiae’; G. Becker: Catalogi bibliothecarum antiqui, Bonn, 1885/R, §4, no.21);Catalogue from St Riquier in Picardy, in 831 (‘antiphonarii sex’: ibid., §11, no.238);Catalogue from Cologne, in the 9th century (ibid., §16, nos.7, 18, 33);Catalogue from St Gallen in the mid-9th century (‘antiphonarii III et veteres II’; ...