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Article

Dimitri Conomos

revised by George Leotsakos

(b Piraeus, May 19, 1929). Greek composer and musicologist. He graduated in theology from Athens University (1954), in neo-Byzantine music (1955) and harmony (1956) from the Piraeus League Conservatory, and in counterpoint, fugue and composition (1959) from the Hellenic Conservatory, where he studied with Yannis A. Papaïannou. At Brandeis University (1962–5) he studied composition (with Arthur Berger), Byzantine music palaeography and electronic music. In 1950 he revived the boys' choir of the Greek Royal Palace, which he directed until 1967. He also established and conducted the Athens Chamber Chorus (1958–61). Between 1961 and 1963 he taught Byzantine music at the Holy Cross Theological Academy, Boston, Massachusetts. In 1965 he established the first electronic music studio in Athens. He was a founder-member (1965) and later president (1975–85) of both the Hellenic Association for Contemporary Music and the Greek section of the ISCM. In ...

Article

Juan Orrego-Salas

(b Santiago, June 29, 1885; d Santiago, Aug 17, 1959). Chilean composer and ethnomusicologist. He studied the violin, music theory and composition at the Santiago Conservatorio National de Música (1899–1908). The Chilean government then sent him to France and Spain for further study (1910–11). On returning to Chile he was elected to the Folklore Society and worked for the Ministry of Education in improving the teaching of music in the state schools (1924–8). He travelled again to Europe in 1922 and was one of the founders of the International Academy of Fine Arts in Paris (1923). In 1928 he was appointed professor of composition at the Conservatorio National, which had recently become part of the arts faculty of the University of Chile. There, until his retirement in 1946, he taught many Chilean composers who later came to international prominence. On another visit to Europe, also in ...

Article

Robert Paul Kolt

(b Santiago, Chile, Jan 2, 1963). American composer, guitarist, ethnomusicologist, educator, and producer of Chilean birth. He immigrated to the United States as a child and studied guitar with Joseph Torello, Vincent Bredice, Lou Mowad, and George Aguiar. Amigo enrolled at Florida State University (1980) where he studied classical guitar with Bruce Holzman and William Carter and was active as a performer of popular music. In 1986, he moved to Los Angeles, earning a degree in political science from California State University, Northridge (BA 1995) and degrees in ethnomusicology (MA 1988, PhD 2003) from the University of Calfornia, Los Angeles. He studied in Los Angeles with Kenny Burrell, Gary Pratt, Harihar Rao, and wadada leo Smith. Amigo also performed with African, Arabic, funk, hard rock, free jazz, jazz, and reggae groups, and worked as a session guitarist for Hans Zimmer, Mark Mancina, Jay Rifkin, and Les Hooper, among others....

Article

Owen Wright

[Avenpace]

(b Zaragoza, north Spain; d Fez, Morocco, c1139). Philosopher, administrator and composer. He spent much of his life, first in Zaragoza and then in Játiva, south Spain, as vizier to various Almoravid governors, and later moved to Fez.

His Kitāb fī al-nafs (‘Book on the soul’) deals with acoustics. He is also reported to have written a substantial treatise on music that could stand comparison with that of al- Fārābī, but this, unfortunately, has not survived. However, his reputation as a composer stayed alive for some considerable time, and his songs are still mentioned by Ibn Khaldūn (1332–1406). He was also a dexterous ‘ūd player. The fullest, if still succinct, account of his achievements is provided by al-Tīfāshī (d 1253), according to whom he studied for several years with female professional musicians (qiyān) and subsequently introduced two important innovations. One resulted in improvements to two of the important song forms, while the other, more general, is intriguingly characterized as a fusion of ‘Christian’ and ‘Eastern’ song. The resulting synthesis was to establish itself as the dominant style in Muslim Spain, effacing that of the earlier school of Ziryāb....

Article

Viorel Cosma

(b Lugoj, 20 March/April 2, 1877; d Bucharest, Dec 19, 1968). Romanian composer, folklorist and administrator. He studied privately in Lugoj with Josif Czegka and Sofia Vlad-Rădulescu, in Blaj with Iacob Mureşianu, in Sibiu with Hermann Kirchner and in Braşov with Paul Richter. Extremely active in the musical life of Romania, he participated in the foundation of the Romanian Opera, the Romanian National Theatre (1919), the Dima Conservatory, Cluj (1920), the Society of Romanian Composers (1920) and the Astra Conservatory, Braşov (1928); during this period he directed the opera houses in Cluj and Bucharest. He collected more than 2000 folksongs, recorded on 214 cylinders, and made use of them in his ten books of Doine şi cântece poporale (‘Doinas and Other Folksongs’) and in eight books of instrumental pieces published as Jocuri populare româneşti (‘Romanian Folkdances’); he also published a scholarly collection, ...

Article

Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...

Article

Matteo Sansone

(b Naples, Aug 25, 1933). Italian composer, musicologist and artistic director. He studied at the Naples Conservatory with Tita Parisi (piano) and Renato Parodi (composition). After starting a career as a pianist, he turned to composition, writing music for films, ballet and TV serials. His research interests led him to tour his native region, Campania, collecting and editing popular and religious songs. An expert on 18th-century Neapolitan opera, De Simone made his début as a director in 1979 with the revival of Vinci’s Li zite ’ngalera for the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino. He also edited and produced Jommelli’s La schiava liberata (Naples, S Carlo, 1984), and, most significantly, Pergolesi’s Flaminio (Venice, Fenice, 1982), Adriano in Siria with the intermezzo Livietta e Tracollo (Florence, Maggio Musicale, 1985) and Lo frate ’nnamorato (Milan, Scala, 1989–90). He was artistic director of the Teatro S Carlo in Naples from ...

Article

Wayne D. Shirley

(b Paris, July 21, 1883; d New York, May 6, 1944). American musicologist, administrator and composer of German birth. After studying at the universities of Strasbourg and Munich and as a composition pupil of Thuille in Munich, he emigrated to the USA (1905), becoming an American citizen in 1917. He was music editor for the Boston Music Company (1909–22), head of the Music Division of the Library of Congress (1922–34), president of the music publishing firm of G. Schirmer (appointed 1929) and honorary consultant in musicology to the Library of Congress (from 1934). Concurrently he worked as a columnist (1922–44) and editor (1929–44) of the Musical Quarterly. In 1934, with Sonneck and Kinkeldey, he founded the American Musicological Society, subsequently serving as its president (1937–8).

Engel was one of the first generation of American musicologists trained in Europe who applied the standards of continental musicology to American scholarship. He was closely associated with Sonneck (succeeding him as head of the Music Division of the Library of Congress, as president of G. Schirmer and as editor of the ...

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...

Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Bad Salzbrunn [now Szczawno-Zdrój], Silesia, Nov 20, 1925). German musicologist, choir director and composer. He studied singing with Hüsch, choir directing with Kurt Thomas, and musicology at the universities of Tübingen and Frankfurt, with sociology, Protestant theology and folklore as subsidiary subjects. In 1961 he received the doctorate at Frankfurt under Helmuth Osthoff with a dissertation proving through style criticism that Ghiselin and Verbonnet were the same person; he has also edited the complete works of that composer. He was Kantor at St Paul's in Stuttgart (1958–70) and in 1960 he founded the Stuttgart Schola Cantorum, which he led until it disbanded in 1990. He was adviser for new music for the South German Radio in Stuttgart (1969–88). In 1972 Pierre Boulez selected him to help in the planning of the Centre Beaubourg in Paris. His musicological estate is held by the Paul Sacher Stiftung....