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Article

Eckhard Neubauer

(b Baghdad, July 779; d Samarra’, July 839). Arab musician. He was a son of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mahdī and a Persian slave at court called Shikla. He became famous for his fine and powerful voice with its range of four octaves, and first took part in court concerts during the reigns of Hārūn al-Rashīd (786–809) and al-Amīn (809–13). Proclaimed caliph in 817 in opposition to al-Ma’mūn (813–33), he had to abdicate after barely two years and went into hiding. In 825 he was pardoned and became a court musician once more under al-Ma’mūn and his successor al-Mu‘taṣim (833–42). He was a follower of the school of Ibn Jāmi‘ and represented a ‘soft’ style, probably influenced by Persian music, which also allowed freedom in rendering older works. His rival Isḥāq al-Mawṣilī accused him of stylistic uncertainty; fragments of their polemic writings are quoted in the Kitāb al-aghānī al-kabīr...

Article

Alcaeus  

Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

[Alkaios]

(b Lesbos, c620 bc; d after 580 bce). Greek lyric poet. The earlier tradition of sung poetry on Lesbos had been choral, religious, impersonal; now choral lyric faced the challenge of monody. In contrast to the impersonality of the earlier poets, Alcaeus wrote as an individual, describing in an intensely personal manner his chequered political fortunes. Many of his poems, however, were amatory or convivial, consisting of drinking-songs and after-dinner verses (skolia); the range of subjects even included monodic hymns. His favourite metre was the compact four-line stanza which bears his name, although he also used the sapphic stanza. Like his compatriot and friend Sappho, Alcaeus wrote in the distinctive Aeolic dialect of Lesbos.

References to musical instruments show considerable diversity. He seems to have composed an address to the trumpet (salpinx), poeticized as a sounding conch (Edmonds, frag.85). He once mentioned the ...

Article

Alcman  

Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

[Alkman]

(fl c. 630 bce). Greek lyric poet. He was possibly a native of Sardis in Lydia. Alcman spent his entire professional life in Sparta. This city was then startlingly different from the grim barracks state that it had been and would again become: its citizens cultivated art, poetry, music, and dance with intensity and brilliance. The poet himself commented on this: ‘To play well upon the lyre weighs evenly with the steel’, that is, military valour (Edmonds, frag.62).

As the trainer of a choir of girls who sang and danced at Spartan religious festivals, Alcman wrote maiden-songs (see Partheneia), which brought him particular fame. Extensive portions of one of these have survived (PLouvre E3320); the lines recreate with great immediacy the half-humorous, half-impassioned rivalry of his young choristers. For solo performance he composed proöimia, preludes to the recitation of Homeric poetry (see Terpander...

Article

Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

(fl ?650 bce). Greek iambic and elegiac poet. He was a native of the Ionian island of Paros. ‘I am the squire of lord Ares’, he sang, ‘and skilled in the lovely gift of the Muses’ (Edmonds, frag.1). More artist than military man, he expressed both the external world and his responses to it in a remarkably personal tone.

His surviving poems contain no certain references to string instruments. The first word (tēnella) of his victory hymn, however, supposedly imitates the twang of a lyre string (Scholiast on Pindar, Olympian, ix.1–4); and one heavily restored fragment (Edmonds, frag.114, xiv) may refer to lyre playing accompanying the dance. He did clearly mention the aulos as a feature of religious or convivial occasions (frags.76; 32); possibly, though not certainly, he associated it with the performance of elegiac verse (frag.123) – a likely combination in this early period of elegy. According to a late source (Pseudo-Plutarch, ...

Article

Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

(fl c580 bce). Greek aulos player and poet. He wrote lyric and elegiac poems, but none has survived. He provided his elegiac verses with musical settings (during the central classical period elegy had no accompaniment). According to Pseudo-Plutarch (On Music, 1134a–c, 1135c), he was a skilled aulete who three times carried off the prize at the Pythian games, beginning in 586 bce. The reawakening of musical culture at Sparta after Terpander’s great initial changes was ascribed to Sacadas and a few others who kept the exalted Terpandrian manner but introduced new rhythms.

Pausanias’s Description of Greece (ii.22.8–9, iv.27.7, vi.14.9–10, ix.30.2, x.7.4) contains the additional point that Sacadas was the first to perform the ‘Pythian aulos tune’ at Delphi. This was not an auloedic Nomos but an auletic one, that is an extended piece for solo aulos in which the music itself is highly descriptive or evocative. In some way Sacadas portrayed the victorious combat of ...

Article

Arion  

Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Methymna [now Molyvos], Lesbos; fl 625–600 bce). Greek singer to the kithara and choral lyric poet. He was associated with the beginnings of the dithyramb. None of his works has survived. According to Herodotus he spent most of his life at the court of Periander, tyrant of Corinth (c625–585 bce); this account (i, 23–4) consists almost entirely of a legend that a music-loving dolphin saved Arion from drowning, but nevertheless describes him as ‘to our knowledge the first man who composed a dithyramb and gave it a name and produced it in Corinth’. The Suda attributes to Arion the invention of the tragic mode or style (tragikos tropos; cf Aristides Quintilianus 1.12 [Winnington-Ingram 30.2–3]) and the introduction of ‘satyrs speaking verses’, but without citing its authorities. Proclus (412–85 ce), in chapter xii of his Useful Knowledge, claims that Pindar had said ‘the dithyramb was discovered in Corinth’, and that Aristotle had spoken of Arion ‘as having begun the song’ (...

Article

Alexander Lingas

[Bereketēs, Petros; Byzantios, ho Melōdos, Glykys, Tzelepēs, Kouspazoglou]

(b Constantinople, ?1665; d ?1725). Romaic (Greek) composer and cantor. Though undoubtedly influenced by the works of Panagiotes, Germanos and Balasios, he appears never to have been directly associated with the patriarchal court that nurtured his older colleagues. His own substantial contributions to their continuing renewal of Byzantine chanting were made instead from the Constantinopolitan parish church of St Constantine (in the district of Hypsomatheia), where Bereketes held successively the offices of reader, domestikos, and prōtopsaltēs.

Among the traditional repertories, Bereketes virtually ignored the stichērarion and heirmologion recently ‘beautified’ by Panagiotes, Germanos, and Balasios in order to focus his compositional skills on the more structurally malleable chants of the Papadikē. He also brought the newer paraliturgical genre of the kalophonic heirmos to its highest point with the composition of 45 heirmoi for use in monastic refectories or during the distribution of antidoron (blessed bread) at the conclusion of the Divine Liturgy. Cultivating what Chatzigiakoumis and Stathis have described as a comparatively popular style of liturgical music, he occasionally composed works incorporating elements of the Arabo-Persian tradition of Ottoman secular music. Among his chants for Orthros are settings of the first and second ...

Article

James Grier

(b c965; d Limoges, April 26, 1025). French monk and cantor. He served at the abbey of Saint Martial in Limoges. Roger, who was the paternal uncle of Adémar de Chabannes, is known to have become cantor at the abbey after 1010 (see J. Grier, ‘Roger de Chabannes (d....

Article

Alexander Lingas

[Germanos Neōn Patrōn]

(b Tyrnavo, Thessaly, ?1625; d ?Wallachia, 1685). Romaic (Greek) composer, cantor, and hymnographer. He studied Byzantine chant in Constantinople under the patriarchal prōtopsaltēs Panagiotes. Some time before 1665 he was elevated to the episcopacy, possibly at the instigation of Patriarch Dionysios III (a fellow native of Thessaly), becoming Metropolitan of New Patras (now Ypati). He appears to have resigned from the see before 1683 and subsequently travelled to Wallachia.

Musically active from at least the early 1660s, Germanos is known to have produced five autographs: two copies of his edition of the Stichērarion, a Mathēmatarion in two volumes, and an anthology of the Papadikē. An abundance of grammatical and spelling errors in these manuscripts suggest that he had received little more than a rudimentary general education, but he was nevertheless highly respected as a musician, teaching the composers Balasios and Kosmas Makedonos as well as the Wallachian prōtopsaltēs...

Article

Edward V. Williams

revised by Christian Troelsgård

(fl c1300–50). Singer, composer and reviser of Byzantine chant. Traditionally known as the maïstōr (‘master’), the ‘second source of Greek music’ (the first being John Damascene, 8th century) and angelophōnos (‘angel-voice’), he was one of the most eminent Byzantine musicians during the Palaeologan dynasty (1261–1453) and was later made a saint of the Greek Orthodox Church.

Koukouzeles probably lived during the reigns of the Emperor Andronikos II Palaeologos (1282–1328) and his successor. Evidence in Byzantine music manuscripts suggests that his musical career was well established by about 1300, and by the mid-14th century he was considered the most important Byzantine composer.

Much of what is known about Koukouzeles’ life is contained in a short saint’s biography, or vita, the earliest extant copies of which date from the 16th century. According to this text he was born in Dyrrachium, now Durrës in Albania, but moved to Constantinople while still a child to attend the imperial school as a protégé of the Byzantine emperor. His mother appears to have been Slavonic, according to instances of her speech recorded (albeit in Greek letters) in the ...

Article

American rhythm-and-blues vocal group. The group, fronted by dramatic tenor “Little Anthony” (b Jerome Anthony Gourdine, New York, NY, 8 Jan 1940), with Ernest Wright Jr., Tracy Lord, Glouster Rogers, and Clarence Collins, formed in Brooklyn in 1957 as the Chesters, later changing their name to the Imperials. Their first recording session for End Records in 1958 produced what would become the classic doo-wop ballad “Tears on My Pillow” (no.4), backed by “Two People in the World.” They had three low-charting records before hitting gold again with the delightful novelty “Shimmy, Shimmy, Ko-Ko-Bop” (no.24, 1960). The group broke up in 1961, but reunited two years later. They were signed to the DCP label where former teen idol Teddy Randazzo wrote and produced four songs that put them in the forefront of sophisticated soul with a new, sleek sound—“I’m On the Outside Looking In” (no.15, 1964), “Goin’ Out of My Head” (no.6), “Hurt So Bad” (no.10, ...

Article

Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

[ Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus ]

( b Dec 15, 37 ce; ruled 54–68 ce; d June 9, 68 ce). Roman ruler and musician . Our knowledge of his passionate concern with music comes from Tacitus (Annals, xiii–xvi), Suetonius (Nero) and Dio Cassius (lxi–lxiii). While still a boy he showed a dilettante's interest in musical performance, which had reached remarkable heights of technical perfection during this period. Immediately upon his accession, and encouraged by his tutor Seneca, he began studies with the famed kitharode Terpnus and undertook a severe regimen of dieting and purges, even wearing lead plates to strengthen his chest. So great was his commitment that six years passed before he would take part in a public musical competition. There is much testimony, moreover, to his elaborate and unfailing observance of every tiny detail of professional etiquette, carried out with the greatest apparent diffidence.

After predictable triumphs at Rome, he ventured to make appearances elsewhere, eventually in Greece itself. His repertory consisted principally of kitharoedic ...

Article

Alexander Lingas

[Panagiotēs Chrysaphēs ho Neos]

(b? 1620–25; d after 1682). Romaic (Greek) composer, cantor, and hymnographer. As prōtopsaltēs of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople from about 1655 to 1682, he helped bring to fruition the revival of Byzantine chanting initiated by his predecessor, Theophanes Karykes. He was a student of the patriarchal prōtopsaltēs Georgios Raidestinos, at whose suggestion he claims to have embarked on the recomposition of the late medieval stichērarion popularly attributed to Manuel Chrysaphes. This task, described by Panagiotes as ‘beautification’ (kallōpismos), was accomplished through the incorporation of novel melodic formulae (theseis) hitherto transmitted orally in the patriarchal chapel. He also revised in similar manner the entire anastasimatarion and excerpts from the heirmologion. Among his other chants for the Divine Office are a modally ordered series of eight kekragaria for Hesperinos, responsories, acclamations, troparia, idiomela, and megalynaria for Orthros, and a modally ordered series of eight pasapnoaria...

Article

Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Miletus, c450 bce; dc360 bce). Greek composer and singer to the kithara. He represented the more extreme manifestations of the ‘new music’ that dominated the final decades of the 5th century bce and the succeeding period in Greece. The Suda credits him with 19 musical nomoi, 36 preludes, 18 dithyrambs, 21 hymns, and other works. Some Greek musicographers considered his works to be rather crude and daring violations of the tradition of the Nomos, but his Persians (more than 200 lines of which survive in a nearly contemporary papyrus fragment, PBerol 9875; Campbell, frag.791) nevertheless won the competition at the Athenian games, probably some time between 420 and 416 bce. Moreover, according to Satyrus's Life of Euripides, the prelude to this nomos was written by Euripides himself, who championed Timotheus against his opponents. Timotheus's Persians affords a clear view of the literary style and character of the later ...

Article

Zalzal  

H.G. Farmer

[Manṣūr Zalzal al-Ḍārib ]

(d after 842). Arab musician . He was a famous instrumentalist (hence the name ‘al-Ḍārib’: ‘the player’) during the early Abbasid period. Isḥāq al-Mawṣilī testified that he had no equal as a lutenist, and in the ‘Iqd al-farīd (‘The unique necklace’) (10th century) it was stated that he was ‘the most pleasant of the string instrumentalists’. He is also known as the inventor of a ‘perfect lute’, the ‘ūd al-shabbūṭ, which superseded the Persian lute previously used. Its shape was probably like that of the Portuguese machete. Above all, his name is associated with the neutral 3rd fret (wusṭā Zalzal) placed midway between the major and minor 3rd frets, which recognizes for the first time the existence of the neutral intervals still characteristic of Arab and Persian music today.

See also Arab music §I 2., (iv).

EI1

H. von Helmholtz: Die Lehre von den Tonempfindung (Brunswick, 1863, 4/1877; Eng. trans., 1875, as ...

Article

Ziryāb  

Eckhard Neubauer

[Abū ’l-Ḥasan ‘Alī ibn Nāfi‘ ]

(b Iraq; d Córdoba, Spain, Aug 852). Arab musician . A mawlā (‘freedman’) of Caliph al-Mahdī (775–85) at Baghdad, he was a pupil of Ibrāhīm al-Mawṣilī and a rival of Isḥāq al-Mawṣilī at the court of Hārūn al-Rashīd (786–809). He left Baghdad for Syria, served the Aghlabid ruler Ziyādat Allāh (817–38) in Qairawan (Tunisia), and later received a generous welcome from ‘Abd al-Raḥmān II (822–52) in Córdoba. His influence there as a court musician and companion (nadīm) must have been exceptional: customs in clothing and eating that he had brought from Baghdad became fashionable, and the tradition of his school of music was maintained by his descendants at least two generations after his death. Like his contemporary al-Kindī he seems to have known the musical theory of late antiquity and to have reconciled it with the teachings of his masters in Baghdad. Details of his vocal training techniques are described by Ibn Ḥayyān (...