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Saul Novack

(Ludwig)

(b Cologne, Nov 17, 1902; d Basle, Oct 19, 1996). American musicologist and pianist of German origin. After schooling in Cologne he was awarded a music teacher's diploma by the Austrian State Commission in 1930. He studied musicology at the University of Vienna (1933–8), and took the doctorate in 1938 with a dissertation on acoustical psychology. He also studied privately with Schenker. In 1940 he emigrated to the USA, later becoming an American citizen, and was active as a conductor, teacher, accompanist and répétiteur. He held teaching posts at the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music and Art (1947–53) and the University of California at Los Angeles (1953–6) before his appointment in 1956 as professor of music at the California State University at Los Angeles, where he taught until his retirement in 1970 as professor emeritus. He frequently served as accompanist to distinguished singers such as Elisabeth Schumann, Pinza and Fischer-Dieskau, and assisted Lotte Lehmann in her art-song courses. Albersheim was one of the first to write on the importance of the theories of Heinrich Schenker, whose influence is occasionally reflected in his writings. He wrote mainly on acoustics and the psychology of hearing, as well as its relationship to musical aesthetics....

Article

(b London, Oct 6, 1912; d Farnham, Surrey, Feb 2, 1997). English musicologist, conductor and instrumentalist, brother of the double-bass player and composer Francis Baines. During his education at Westminster School (King’s Scholar, 1925–30), his musical talents became evident, encouraged by the school director of music, C. Thornton Lofthouse. In 1930 he went to Christ Church, Oxford, where he studied natural sciences and graduated with honours in chemistry in 1933. The award of an open scholarship to the RCM changed the direction of his career, and after two years’ study devoted mainly to the bassoon he joined the LPO as third bassoon and double bassoon in 1935. This appointment (interrupted by six years’ army service) continued until 1948 and led to his election as assistant conductor in 1949. The following year he became associate conductor to the International Ballet Company, but remained a regular conductor of the LPO Schools Concerts. Between ...

Article

Ned Quist

revised by Linda L. Giedl

[Schlossberg, Artur ]

(b Hamm, Germany, Sept 27, 1909; d Aurora, CO, May 28, 2002). Composer, musicologist, conductor, and pianist of German birth; naturalized American. Born Artur Schlossberg, he grew up in an orthodox Jewish family. After the Schlossbergs moved to Mannheim in 1919, he was introduced to German organ and choral literature by Arno Landmann, first Kantor (1911–43) of Christuskirche, and received piano instruction from Landmann’s wife. With Mannheim’s proximity to Strasbourg and Alsace-Lorraine, Schlossberg became fluent in French. Shortly after entering the University of Heidelberg in 1928, he applied for musicological studies with medievalist Heinrich Besseler. At the end of three years of intensive work, he submitted his doctoral dissertation (Die italienische Sonate für mehrere Instrumente im 17ten Jahrhundert, diss., U. of Heidelberg, 1932). Later that year he was engaged as a coach and conducting assistant to Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt at the Darmstadt Opera.

Beaten with guns by Adolf Hitler’s Stormtroopers in early ...

Article

Keith Moore

(b Memphis, Jan 21, 1944). American composer, pianist, conductor and musicologist. He studied the piano with Roy McAllister at the University of Alabama (BM 1965), with Sophia Rosoff, and with Soulima Stravinsky at the University of Illinois (MM 1966), where he also studied composition with Ben Johnson (DMA, 1971) and had contact with Hamm, Hiller, Kessler and Brün. He served on the music faculty at Illinois (1968–74) before joining the staff at Wesleyan University. He was a member of the editorial committee of New World Records (1974–8), founding chairman of New England Sacred Harp Singing (1976) and has held visiting professorships at Middlebury College, Bucknell University and the University of Michigan. In 1980 he was Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Studies in American Music at Brooklyn College.

In 1968 Bruce founded the American Music Group (AMG), an ensemble innovative in its dedication to American music of all eras. AMG recorded the music of Anthony Philip Heinrich for Vanguard, toured widely in the United States and, under Bruce’s direction, gave the 20th-century première of Bristow’s ...

Article

Maria Kostakeva

(b Plevnya, nr Drama, Jan 31, 1870; d Plovdiv, Jan 3, 1950). Bulgarian composer, conductor, pianist, and ethnomusicologist, one of the pioneers of professional music in Bulgaria. He received his musical education at the Prague Organ School, where he graduated in 1890. From 1894 he worked as a teacher in the King Alexander high school in Plovdiv. In 1896 he founded the Singing Society in Plovdiv, which he directed about 50 years. Between 1892 and 1898 he undertook folklore expeditions in Rodopi, Mittelforest, and Macedonia and recorded 2500 songs. In 1902 he became editor of the monthly Musicanthology. In 1921 he founded the first private music school, called Rodna pesen (‘Heimat song’), in Plovdiv and was its first director. He was among the first musicians to work professionally after Bulgaria's liberation from the Ottoman Empire in 1876. Like Dobri Khristov and other composers he collected previously unresearched folksongs from various regions of the country; 461 of these songs were published in the Bulgarian folklore anthology ...

Article

Gerald R. Benjamin

(Antonio)

(b Ahualulco, San Luis Potosí, Jan 28, 1875; d San Angél, Sept 9, 1965). Mexican composer, theorist, conductor, violinist, inventor and teacher. Born to an American family during a seemingly peaceful period of Mexico’s history, he received his early musical education at the National Conservatory in Mexico City, where he studied the violin with Pedro Manzano, composition with Melesio Morales and acoustics with Francisco Ortega y Fonseca. Between 1899 and 1905 he was in Europe, where he divided his time between the conservatories of Ghent and Leipzig; at Ghent he studied the violin with Albert Zimmer, and at Leipzig he was a pupil of Jadassohn (composition), Becker (violin) and Sitt (conducting), and led the Gewandhaus Orchestra under Nikisch. During these formative years he shaped his critical philosophy of the practical application and examination of all theoretical precepts. The results were revolutionary, and led him to a lifelong attempt at effecting greater accuracy among the discrepant postulates of physicists, mathematicians and music theorists, and at helping performers to apply, or at least understand, them (see his ...

Article

Godelieve Spiessens

revised by Sylvie Janssens

(b Boom, June 8, 1891; d Brussels, Dec 10, 1989). Belgian musicologist, pianist and conductor. As a prizewinner of Mechelen Conservatory, he began to appear as a pianist in 1911. In 1919 he obtained the doctorate in natural sciences at Brussels and became a professor at the Mechelen Atheneum. He founded the Pro Arte concerts at Brussels in 1921, with the principal intention of promoting the performance and appreciation of contemporary music. As director of the Flemish music service of Belgian Radio (1937–53) he was able to champion new music all the more effectively, though at the same time he also contributed to the rediscovery of figures such as Cavalieri, Cesti and Monteverdi. During World War I he applied himself to ethnomusicology and from 1953 was instrumental in organizing the annual international Colloques de Wégimont. He was also president of the scientific council of the International Institute for Comparative Music Studies in Berlin and was successful in obtaining support from UNESCO for the creation of the Department of Ethnomusicology at the Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale in Tervuren, near Brussels....

Article

Philip Brett

(Stanley)

(b Mason, MI, Nov 17, 1934). American musicologist, harpsichordist and conductor. He took the BMus at Michigan State University in 1955, and the MMus at the University of Illinois the following year. From 1957 to 1959 he studied in Amsterdam under Gustav Leonhardt, returning to the University of Illinois for the PhD degree, which he gained in 1963 with a dissertation on Sweelinck’s keyboard works. In 1960 he joined the University of California at Berkeley as an instructor; he became an assistant professor in 1962, associate professor in 1966 and professor in 1970. His scholarly work has concentrated on keyboard music and opera and includes several editions (including one of Monteverdi’s L’incoronazione di Poppea) and a book on Sweelinck. In addition to his work as a scholar, he has built up a considerable reputation as a harpsichordist and conductor in the USA and Europe, specializing in the authentic interpretation of the music of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. He made his La Scala début conducting ...

Article

Mark E. Perry

(b San Juan, PR, March 26, 1854; d San Juan, PR, April 4, 1934). Puerto Rican composer, flutist, scholar, and conductor. His earliest achievements came as a flutist; he studied flute with Italian-born Rosario Aruti. Chiefly self-taught as a composer, he was influenced musically by his father, a cellist and double bass player, and Felipe Gutiérrez Espinosa, an established Puerto Rican composer of sacred music. In 1877 Dueño Colón received the gold medal from the Ateneo Puertorriqueño for the symphonic work La amistad (1877). In 1880 he formed a municipal band in Bayamón and shortly afterwards served as the flutist for the chapel of San Juan Cathedral. Awards for his compositions continued, including a silver medal at the Pan American Exposition, held in Buffalo in 1901, for Canciones escolares, a collection of original songs as well as arrangements for Puerto Rican school children. In addition to showing substantial interest in European masterworks, he embarked on the scholarly study of the Puerto Rican ...

Article

Giselher Schubert

(b Hanau, nr Frankfurt, Nov 16, 1895; d Frankfurt, Dec 28, 1963). German composer, theorist, teacher, viola player and conductor. The foremost German composer of his generation, he was a figure central to both music composition and musical thought during the inter-war years.

Hindemith descended on his father’s side from shopkeepers and craftsmen who had settled primarily in the small Silesian community of Jauer (now Jawor, Poland), where the family can be traced back to the 17th century, and on his mother’s side from small farmers and shepherds in southern Lower Saxony. While no signs of musical interest can be found among the relatives of his mother, Maria Sophie Warnecke (1868–1949), his father, Robert Rudolf Emil Hindemith (1870–1915), came from a family of music lovers. Robert Rudolf supposedly ran away from home when his parents opposed his wish to become a musician; after arriving in Hesse, however, he became a painter and decorator. As he was never able to provide a secure income for his family, the Hindemiths were forced to move frequently. Paul spent three years of his childhood with his paternal grandfather in Naumburg. He was sincerely devoted to his mother, whom he is said to have resembled closely, even in similarity of gestures, and dedicated the first volume (...

Article

George Pratt

(Jarvis Haley)

(b Nottingham, Sept 10, 1941; d Cambridge, September 24, 2014). English conductor, scholar and harpsichordist. He read classics and music at Pembroke College, Cambridge, one of many students influenced by Thurston Dart. He studied harpsichord with Rafael Puyana and Gustav Leonhardt, and spent a postgraduate year in Prague on a British Council scholarship. He was a founder member with David Munrow in 1967 of the Early Music Consort, an ensemble whose influence is still felt in Britain. He contributed substantially to the group through his admired recordings as solo harpsichordist and radio talks (starting with ‘The Young Idea’ in 1970).

In 1973 Hogwood founded the Academy of Ancient Music to play Baroque music on period instruments. Since then it has achieved worldwide renown in concerts, and in an impressive tally of recordings. These initially explored Baroque repertory (for much of which Hogwood prepared performing editions) and have later moved on to embrace the complete symphonies of Mozart and Beethoven, many of Haydn's symphonies and the complete Mozart piano concertos (with Robert Levin). Hogwood also recorded a number of operas with the Academy of Ancient Music, ranging from Purcell's ...

Article

J.W. Junker

[Edward] (Leilani)

(b Honolulu, Hawaii, Aug 4, 1927). Hawaiian musician, bandleader, songwriter, and researcher. A leading figure in the late 20th century revival of Hawaiian culture, Kamae has led the seminal Sons of Hawaii band for over 50 years. He has reintroduced a large number of classic Hawaiian songs from earlier eras, composed several standards, and has documented important Hawaiian topics on over 1000 hours of film.

He began his career in 1948 performing light classics and pop with Shoi Ikemi as The Ukulele Rascals. Self taught, Kamae developed chord voicings and plucking techniques that expanded the instrument’s reach. In 1959 Kamae met Gabby Pahinui and formed Sons of Hawaii. He radically transformed his style for the group, moving between rhythmic accompaniment and pa‘ani (soloing) in a fluid give and take. He also began singing in a distinctive voice full of Hawaiian vocal inflections. With mentoring from scholar Mary Kawena Pukui and others, Kamae began researching older Hawaiian repertoire and composing. His arrangement of waltzes, such as “Sanoe,” and other songs of the 19th century introduced a classical elegance into the group. At the same time The Sons performed downhome party favorites, like “‘Ama ‘Ama.”...

Article

J.M. Thomson

(b Werne, nr Dortmund, May 24, 1930). Swiss recorder player, flautist, conductor and composer of German birth. He studied the flute with Gustav Scheck and conducting with Konrad Lechner at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik, Freiburg (1947–51), then became solo flautist of the Cappella Coloniensis of WDR at Cologne. A chance meeting with August Wenzinger in Cologne led to his appointment to the Schola Cantorum at Basle in 1957 and his joining the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis. He directs the vocal ensemble and in 1971 became joint director of the concert group. His high international reputation as a recorder player and flautist (he plays modern and Baroque flutes), is founded on an impeccable virtuoso technique and a scholarly sense of style. Linde tours widely and his extensive and important recordings include flute concertos by Leclair, Mozart, Stamitz and Dittersdorf, and recorder concertos by Sammartini, Vivaldi and Naudot. With his own Linde-Consort, augmented as required, he has recorded works ranging from early English consort music to Baroque orchestral and choral works. He has appeared as a guest conductor with several orchestras in Europe and the USA, and has conducted a number of 18th-century operas, including Keiser’s ...

Article

Gerard Béhague

( b El Paso, TX, May 18, 1906; d Tepoztlán, March 29, 1975). Mexican ethnomusicologist, conductor and violinist . He studied first in El Paso at the Manuel Gil Academy of Music, then at the Conservatory of Music in Chicago, where he was also active as a violinist. On moving to Mérida (1935) he founded and directed the Orquesta Sinfónica de Yucatán and the Conciertos Martí, which remained active for over 20 years. Subsequently he settled in Mexico City and devoted himself to ethnomusicological research, concentrating on pre-Columbian music, instruments and dances of Mexican cultures, a subject he pioneered. In 1968 he discovered a new Mixtec archaeological site in the heart of the Sierra Madre of Oaxaca, which proved to be one of the richest areas of pre-Columbian culture.

Técnica básica para violín y viola/Basic Violin-Viola Technique (Mérida, 1938) ‘Música de las Américas’, Cuadernos americanos, no.56 (1951), 153–68...

Article

Lars Helgert

(Raymond )

(b Pittsburgh, PA, Feb 2, 1954). American lutenist, conductor, and musicologist. Initially a guitarist, O’Dette began playing the lute while in high school in Columbus, Ohio. He then studied with Thomas Binkley at the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, an early music conservatory in Basel, Switzerland, from 1973–6. O’Dette has made more than 100 recordings as a soloist, accompanist, and conductor. The five-volume Dowland: Complete Lute Works (1995–7) is his best-known recording as a solo lutenist; other notable solo recordings are the Grammy-nominated Daniel Bacheler: The Bachelar’s Delight (2006), Johann Sebastian Bach: Lute Works, vol. 1 (2007), and Marco dall’Aquila: Pieces for Lute (2010). As an accompanist and ensemble member, O’Dette has performed on a variety of instruments. He plays the archlute on Sylvia McNair’s Grammy-winning The Echoing Air with Christopher Hogwood and the Academy of Ancient Music (1995), the baroque guitar on ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b New York, April 22, 1944). American musicologist, pianist, conductor and composer. He studied with Persichetti at the Juilliard School of Music (BS 1964), with Reese at New York University (1964–6), at the University of Göttingen (1966–7) and with Lockwood, Mendel, Babbitt and Oster at Princeton University (MFA, 1969); he also worked with Stockhausen at the Darmstadt summer courses of 1961 and 1965. He held various positions with Nonesuch Records in New York (1964–75) and from 1970 to 1982 he was on the faculty of Brandeis University. He has also been a visiting faculty member at Harvard, New York University, Yale, Rutgers and Bard College. His principal areas of musicological research are Renaissance and Baroque music. He has advanced controversial theories about the performance of Bach’s vocal music, particularly the B minor Mass, and has presented these theories in both scholarly settings (notably in a long-running debate between Andrew Parrott, Ton Koopman and Christoph Wolff and Rifkin in ...

Article

K.M. Knittel

(b Meedl, Moravia, June 13, 1795; d Bockenheim, nr Frankfurt, Jan 16, 1864). Moravian violinist, conductor, writer and biographer of Beethoven. The eldest of 12 children, he studied the violin with his father before becoming a choirboy at St Mauritz in Olmütz. Although music was his main interest, he moved to Vienna in 1813 to study law. He claimed that he first met Beethoven in March 1814, when Schuppanzigh asked him to deliver a note to the composer, and that later that year, his brief arrest for involvement in student protests aroused the interest of Beethoven, who then sought a closer acquaintance with him.

Despite his attempts to show otherwise, including forgeries in the conversation books, Schindler was not in close contact with Beethoven until 1820, and there are only scattered (authentic) earlier references to him in the conversation books. With the departure that year of Franz Oliva, Schindler became Beethoven's unpaid private secretary. By late ...

Article

Henry Burnett

(b St Petersburg, March 26, 1906; d New York, Dec 31, 1983). American musicologist, violinist and conductor, of Russian birth. He studied musicology with Schering, Wolf and Sachs at the University of Berlin (1930–36) and completed his studies at Columbia University with Paul Henry Lang. In 1950 he was awarded the doctorate for his dissertation on French instrumental music between the revolutions. He studied the violin with Flesch in Berlin (1922–5), continuing with Jacques Thibaud and Lucien Capet in Paris (1925–6). At the age of 14 he made his violin concert début in Hanover with his father, the pianist Joseph Schwarz; he was first heard in London in 1931. After performing throughout Europe he settled in the USA in 1936. He was leader of the Indianapolis SO (1937–8) and a member of the NBC Symphony Orchestra under Toscanini (1938–9...

Article

Ioannis Fulias

(b Athens, Dec 4, 1968). Greek musicologist, conductor, and guitarist. He studied guitar from his early childhood and in 1986 he received the diploma from the National Conservatory in Athens under the guidance of Dimitris Fampas. In the 1980s and 1990s he won awards in international music competitions, gave many concerts in Greece, Italy, France, England, and Russia, and also recorded four discs with works for solo guitar, violin and guitar, and guitar and orchestra. With a Russian state scholarship, from 1987 to 1993 he studied orchestra conducting in both the Moscow and the St. Petersburg State Conservatories, and then he collaborated as a conductor with many orchestras in Russia and in Greece, especially in opera and musical theatre productions.

From 1995 onwards, he has taught in the faculty of music studies at the University of Athens, where he also defended his doctoral dissertation on Mystification and Temporality in the Late Works of Wagner and Mahler...

Article

Francisco J. Albo

(b Alzey, Rheinhessen, Germany, Dec 14, 1834; d Deal Beach, NJ, July 30, 1907). American pianist, teacher, conductor, and composer of German origin. He studied with Aloys Schmitt in Frankfurt, making his début there in 1848. Later he studied with Vincenz Lachner and toured Bavaria. After a two-year stay in London, he moved to the United States in 1854, settling in Philadelphia. A scholarly performer, for the next twenty years he gave annual series of chamber music concerts and piano recitals, introducing many classical works to American audiences. He gave recitals devoted entirely to the piano music of Chopin and Schumann, a rare feat at the time. In 1866–7 he performed the complete piano sonatas of Beethoven in a series of matinées in New York. In 1873 he moved to Chicago, where he gave momentum to the musical life of the city and founded the Beethoven Society choir. His goal being education through the works of the masters, he gave several “historical” recitals with programs designed chronologically, from Couperin to Brahms. Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler was one of his pupils....