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Article

Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

(fl ?650 bce). Greek iambic and elegiac poet. He was a native of the Ionian island of Paros. ‘I am the squire of lord Ares’, he sang, ‘and skilled in the lovely gift of the Muses’ (Edmonds, frag.1). More artist than military man, he expressed both the external world and his responses to it in a remarkably personal tone.

His surviving poems contain no certain references to string instruments. The first word (tēnella) of his victory hymn, however, supposedly imitates the twang of a lyre string (Scholiast on Pindar, Olympian, ix.1–4); and one heavily restored fragment (Edmonds, frag.114, xiv) may refer to lyre playing accompanying the dance. He did clearly mention the aulos as a feature of religious or convivial occasions (frags.76; 32); possibly, though not certainly, he associated it with the performance of elegiac verse (frag.123) – a likely combination in this early period of elegy. According to a late source (Pseudo-Plutarch, ...

Article

Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

(fl c580 bce). Greek aulos player and poet. He wrote lyric and elegiac poems, but none has survived. He provided his elegiac verses with musical settings (during the central classical period elegy had no accompaniment). According to Pseudo-Plutarch (On Music, 1134a–c, 1135c), he was a skilled aulete who three times carried off the prize at the Pythian games, beginning in 586 bce. The reawakening of musical culture at Sparta after Terpander’s great initial changes was ascribed to Sacadas and a few others who kept the exalted Terpandrian manner but introduced new rhythms.

Pausanias’s Description of Greece (ii.22.8–9, iv.27.7, vi.14.9–10, ix.30.2, x.7.4) contains the additional point that Sacadas was the first to perform the ‘Pythian aulos tune’ at Delphi. This was not an auloedic Nomos but an auletic one, that is an extended piece for solo aulos in which the music itself is highly descriptive or evocative. In some way Sacadas portrayed the victorious combat of ...

Article

Zalzal  

H.G. Farmer

[Manṣūr Zalzal al-Ḍārib ]

(d after 842). Arab musician . He was a famous instrumentalist (hence the name ‘al-Ḍārib’: ‘the player’) during the early Abbasid period. Isḥāq al-Mawṣilī testified that he had no equal as a lutenist, and in the ‘Iqd al-farīd (‘The unique necklace’) (10th century) it was stated that he was ‘the most pleasant of the string instrumentalists’. He is also known as the inventor of a ‘perfect lute’, the ‘ūd al-shabbūṭ, which superseded the Persian lute previously used. Its shape was probably like that of the Portuguese machete. Above all, his name is associated with the neutral 3rd fret (wusṭā Zalzal) placed midway between the major and minor 3rd frets, which recognizes for the first time the existence of the neutral intervals still characteristic of Arab and Persian music today.

See also Arab music §I 2., (iv).

EI1

H. von Helmholtz: Die Lehre von den Tonempfindung (Brunswick, 1863, 4/1877; Eng. trans., 1875, as ...