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Article

Dezső Legány

(b Szent-György-Ábrány, Oct 15, 1822; d Budapest, Dec 20, 1903). Hungarian writer on music, composer and pianist. He came from the wealthy Eördögh family: the name means ‘devil’ and his father changed it to Ábrányi, the name of their estate. He studied the piano under János Kirch (1810–63) and Vilmos Dolegni. His first composition, Magyar ábránd (‘Hungarian Fantasy’), was published in 1841. In the early 1840s he gave concerts in Hungarian towns, and in 1846 left for Vienna to take piano lessons with Joseph Fischhof. There is no reliable evidence that he was ever a student of Chopin in Paris. From 1847 he lived in Pest, in the 1850s as a piano teacher, and studied composition with Mosonyi, together with whom he became a devoted follower of Liszt and Wagner. He was one of the founders of the first Hungarian music periodical, the Zenészeti lapok, in ...

Article

Liz Thomson

(Claxton)

(b Maynardville, TN, Sept 15, 1903; d Nashville, TN, Nov 23, 1992). American country singer-songwriter and publisher. He was first influenced by traditional music heard at home, much of it British, and by music at the church where his father was the pastor. His Southern Baptist heritage became evident in the mournful, wailing style of his vocals. A keen sportsman, he was denied a professional athletic career through ill-health, but learnt to play his father’s fiddle. His early career was in so-called medicine shows, and radio appearances with local musicians led to the formation of his first group, the Tennessee Crackerjacks. His first record followed in 1937, and he made his début on ‘The Grand Old Opry’ radio show, subsequently becoming a regular contributor as Roy Acuff and the Smoky Mountain Boys. His recording of the Carter family classic Wabash Cannonball earned him a gold disc and led to nationwide tours as well as work in Hollywood....

Article

Gary W. Kennedy and Barry Kernfeld

[Wilton Jameson ]

(b New Albany, IN, July 21, 1939). American educator, publisher, record producer, and saxophonist. He performed locally from the age of 15 and while studying at Indiana University (BM 1961; MM 1962) led groups that worked in southern Indiana and Kentucky. Having taught music education at Indiana University Southeast (1967–9) and classical saxophone at the University of Louisville (1970–72), in the early 1970s he established a week-long jazz workshop (or “jazz camp”) held during the summer; by the late 1990s the workshop took place twice annually. Aebersold also presented workshops in other countries, including Australia, Germany, England, Scotland, Denmark, and Canada. In 1992 he received an honorary doctorate in music from Indiana University and began teaching jazz improvisation at the the University of Louisville.

In addition to his principal instrument, Aebersold plays piano and double bass, but he is far better known as an educator than as a performer. In ...

Article

Theophil Antonicek

(b ?Milan, c1644; d Vienna, Sept 22, 1685). Italian composer and musician. He is first heard of in a letter of 6 September 1671 in which the Prince-Bishop of Olomouc, Karl Liechtenstein-Kastelkorn, told J.H. Schmelzer that he need not have apologized for some apparent bad behaviour on Albertini’s part, since he himself in any case had a good opinion of him. At the time of his death (he was murdered) Albertini was chamber musician in Vienna to the dowager Empress Eleonora. He himself prepared for publication his printed collection of sonatas and signed the dedication to Leopold I, but it did not appear until seven years after his death (the delay may have been due to the cost of engraving, towards which the emperor had granted a subsidy as early as 1686). The 12 sonatas have no regular pattern or number of movements. Most of the opening and closing movements are adagios; two sonatas begin with a separate movement marked ‘Praeludium’ characterized by figuration over a supporting bass. The form of each movement stems as a rule from freely varied development of phrases – usually, but not always, the initial one – which reappear in new guises and thus with a fresh impulse. Larger sections are never repeated literally. In a few of the sonatas there are thematic connections between several (though never between all) movements. Sonata no.9 is a passacaglia whose theme is presented at the beginning and end as a canon at the 5th and whose formal sections sometimes overlap with the statements of the ostinato theme. Double stopping appears conspicuously in the last sonata, which consists entirely of imitative movements....

Article

Carolyn Gianturco and Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Mosso Santa Maria, nr Biella, Jan 31, 1921). Italian musicologist. He took diplomas in piano at the Parma Conservatory (1942) and in choral music at the Turin Conservatory (1948), and studied music history with Della Corte at Turin University, where he took an arts degree (1946). He subsequently taught music history in the conservatories of Bolzano (1950–51), Parma (1951–5) and Milan (1954–88); he has edited the journals Almanacco musicale italiano (1954–5), Ricordiana (1955–7) and Musica d’oggi (1958–63) and has been vice-director of Enciclopedia della musica Ricordi (1960–64). He has been a consulting editor for Ricordi since 1964. Music education is one of his major interests: he became director of the series Manuali di Didattica Musicale and Canti nel Mondo (Ricordi) in 1965, and editor of Educazione musicale...

Article

Philip Bate

revised by William Waterhouse

(d 1831). English woodwind instrument inventor, maker and player and music publisher. Having originally trained as a turner, he began his career playing oboe, flute and flageolet at two London theatres. As maker, his first patent was in 1803 for a new model of ‘English flageolet’, which, by changing the fingering of the tonic from six to three fingers, led in about 1805 to the development of his double flageolet model in collaboration with John Parry (ii) (1776–1851). Between 1808 and 1821 he was in partnership with John Wood as Bainbridge & Wood, writing and publishing tutors and music for his instruments. From cto 1835 the business was continued by Bainbridge’s widow Harriet, and thereafter until 1855 by his successor, Hastrick, whose mark usually included the words ‘late Bainbridge, inventor’.

The firm’s speciality was the ‘English flute’ or ‘English flageolet’ – not to be confused with the French or the ‘quadrille’ flageolet – in its single, double and occasionally triple form. In addition they made single and double concert flutes with flageolet-type heads to be held transversely. These instruments, designed for amateurs of both sexes, enjoued enormous popularity, the double flageolet being much plagiarised (in spite of two unsuccessful legal actions) by rival makers both at home and abroad. Bainbridge was perhaps the earliest wind-instrument maker with the all-round abilities required to launch such projects successfully, combining single-handedly as he did the diverse skills of inventor, performer, teacher, manufacturer, author and publisher....

Article

J.M. Thomson

(Georg)

(b Altona-Ottmarschen, Sept 24, 1902; d London, Jan 13, 1988). British editor and harpsichordist of German birth. He studied the piano and the flute at the Leipzig Conservatory, but turned from a musical career to the study of law, which he pursued at Halle and Freiburg. He qualified in 1930 and set up his own practice in 1933, often acting on behalf of Jews. In 1938 he was arrested by the Gestapo and imprisoned for three months; shortly after his release he emigrated to London. After internment on the Isle of Man Bergmann worked at Schott as a packer, eventually becoming their most distinguished editor. He brought much hitherto unknown Baroque music into the repertory, especially that of Telemann, for whom he had a special affinity. His many editions include recorder sonatas by Handel, Francesco Barsanti, Francis Dieupart and (with Frans Brüggen) J.C. Schickhardt, and music by Blow and Purcell. Associated with Tippett at Morley College in London in the 1940s, he later taught at the Mary Ward Settlement which stimulated his flair for working with children and amateurs. He also appeared frequently at Alfred Deller's Stour Festival. As harpsichordist he performed with Ilse Wolf, April Cantelo and many other artists, and accompanied Deller in several recordings of Purcell's music. Endowed with a rare generosity of spirit, he encouraged recorder players, such as Brüggen and Michala Petri, and young scholars, notably David Lasocki. He also composed two sonatas for recorder....

Article

Geoffrey Norris

(b Mitau [now Jelgava, Latvia], 1794; d St Petersburg, 28 April/May 9, 1871). Russian music publisher, pianist and composer. In 1808 his family moved to Vilnius, where Bernard learnt to play the piano and decided on a musical career in preference to his father's military profession. Two years later he moved to Moscow, where he became involved in the leading musical circles, taking piano lessons from John Field and studying composition with Johann Hässler. Subsequently he decided to abandon his considerably successful performing career, and in 1816 was appointed to take charge of the serf orchestra on Count Potocki's estate. In 1822 he settled in St Petersburg and earned a reputation as a fine piano teacher.

As a composer, Bernard is known primarily for his songs and for an opera, Ol′ga, doch′ izgnannika (‘Olga, the Exile's Daughter’), which enjoyed some success when it was first produced in St Petersburg during the ...

Article

Christopher Fifield

(b Berlin, Feb 17, 1852; d Niederschönenhausen, nr Berlin, June 12, 1889). German pianist, teacher and editor. He was a piano pupil of Theodor Kullak and Richard Wüerst in Berlin, and studied philosophy and modern languages at Berlin University (1868–72), taking the doctorate at Göttingen in 1873 with a dissertation on Bernart de Ventadorn. He taught the piano and (from 1879) theory at Kullak’s Neue Akademie der Tonkunst (1873–8), and later at the Stern Conservatory, where he remained until his death. He also had an active career as a concert pianist, playing mainly chamber music; with the violinist W. Helmich he organized the Monday Concerts at the Berlin Sing-Akademie. He was a leading figure among 19th-century German critical editors. His editions of piano music were exemplary for their time and encompass keyboard works of Bach, Handel, Mozart, Clementi, Weber, Schubert and Schumann, including the first variorum edition of Bach's ...

Article

Thomas F. Heck

(Vassilievich )

(b Kharkiv, Ukraine, May 13, 1898; d Rosendale, NY, Nov 1986). American guitarist and editor of Ukrainian birth. His study of art at the Imperial Kharkiv Art School was halted by the Russian Revolution. He immigrated to the United States in 1922, and became successful in New York as a commercial artist. The classical guitar, to which Andrés Segovia first drew his attention in New York on a tour in 1928, captured Bobri’s deep interest. He became president of the Society of the Classic Guitar in 1936 and editor of its publication The Guitar Review (Guitar Review from 1961) in 1946. His own guitar pieces, editions of guitar music, pedagogical publications, and contributions to Guitar Review for over 35 years attest to his devotion to the instrument. He wrote The Segovia Technique (New York, 1972) and compiled A Musical Voyage with 2 Guitars (New York ...

Article

Józef Powroźniak

revised by Klaus-Peter Koch

(b Kraków, May 12, 1805; d Dresden, Nov 2, 1881). Polish guitarist, composer and publisher. He studied in Vienna with Mauro Giuliani (1816–19). After a short career as a soloist he was made, in 1829, secretary of the senate of the Kraków Republic. When news of the 1830 Warsaw uprising reached him, he volunteered for the Polish Army and served as aide-de-camp to Bem; he was awarded the Virtuti Militari order. On the collapse of the uprising in 1831 he emigrated to Germany. In Leipzig he performed at the Gewandhaus with Karol Lipiński, Clara Wieck and others. Liszt called him ‘Chopin sur la guitare’. He wrote about 40 pieces for his instrument, mostly fantasies, marches, polonaises and waltzes, published by Hofmeister or Breitkopf & Härtel. In addition, he revised Carulli's tutor and published his own with Sennewald in Warsaw. He gained particular importance between 1833 and ...

Article

John Bergsagel

(b c1570; d Copenhagen, Dec 20, 1632). Danish composer, anthologist, organist and instrumentalist probably of Dutch origin. Bonaventura Borchgrevinck, who was possibly his father, took him with him as a treble when he was appointed director of music at the Danish court at Copenhagen on 1 January 1587. Bonaventura left six months later but Melchior stayed on as an instrumentalist and rapidly gained the respect and confidence of the new king, Christian IV. In 1593 his salary was almost doubled, making him, despite his youth, the best-paid musician at court. In 1596 he was sent to Danzig to buy instruments and engage choristers, and at Christmas of that year he was appointed an organist with a further rise in salary. The next year he travelled to England, again to buy instruments, with the party that was sent to bring back the late King Frederik II's Order of the Garter. In ...

Article

Robert Strizich

revised by Richard Pinnell

(fl 1646). Italian guitarist and music editor. He edited a collection of pieces for five-course Baroque guitar entitled Intavolatura di chitarra, e chitarriglia (Bologna, 1646). The book contains brief instructions on how to read tablature and tune the instrument, followed by 65 battute (strummed) and 24 pizzicate (plucked) pieces comprising such typical mid-17th-century Italian forms as the passacaglia, ciaccona, folia, spagnoletto and Ruggiero. According to the book's title-page it includes the works of two ‘professori’. Although no composers' names are given, 25 of the battute can be identified as paraphrases of works by Francesco Corbetta. The identity of the other ‘professore’ remains a mystery, but many of the other works in the book exist in earlier versions. The extent of Calvi's contribution as composer, rather than arranger, is therefore open to question.

W. Kirkendale: L'Aria di Fiorenza, id est Il ballo del Gran Duca (Florence, 1972), 23, 25, 27, 65, 79...

Article

Piero Rattalino

[Giuseppina]

(b Varzi, Jan 23, 1914; d Carpena, nr Forlì, Feb 27, 1993). Italian violinist and editor. She studied under Michelangelo Abbado at the Milan Conservatory, taking the diploma in 1930; in 1936 she was awarded the composition diploma and later attended Serato’s masterclasses at the Accademia di S Cecilia, where she also graduated in chamber music. In 1940 she won the Paganini Prize. Her concert career began in 1937 but she became internationally known when she became an advocate of Boccherini, founding the Boccherini Quintet (1949) and the Carmirelli Quartet (1954), which toured to other European countries and made a number of successful recordings. Later she also became established as a soloist, and formed a duo with the pianist Sergio Lorenzi. In 1970 she played the complete cycle of Beethoven’s sonatas with Rudolf Serkin at Carnegie Hall, New York, and then in Rome and elsewhere. In ...

Article

John Edward Hasse

(b Chicago, March 23, 1881; d Los Angeles, Aug 17, 1955). American popular pianist, teacher and editor. He studied the piano as a youth and in 1903 opened a teaching studio in Chicago with the advertisement ‘Ragtime Taught in Ten Lessons’. He simplified African-American ragtime piano playing to three essential melodic-rhythmic patterns or ‘movements’, and these became the basis for his teaching method and for a series of instruction books he brought out from 1904. Christensen’s Rag-time Instruction Book for Piano went through numerous revisions and title changes to incorporate early jazz and, eventually, swing styles; one method book remained in print until at least 1955.

Early in his career Christensen began establishing branch schools to teach ragtime piano. By 1914 he had founded 50 branches, and by 1918 he had schools in most major cities in the USA and also some abroad. By 1935 these schools had taught ragtime, popular piano and jazz piano to approximately 500,000 (mostly white) pupils....

Article

Rodney Slatford and Marita P. McClymonds

[Giovanni Battista; J.B.

(b Venice, 1761; d Bath, Feb 27, 1805). Italian composer, singer, violinist and music publisher. Born of a noble family, he studied the violin, cello and piano. In 1789 his Ati e Cibele, a favola per musica in two short scenes, was performed in Venice. This was soon followed by Pimmalione, a monodrama after Rousseau for tenor and orchestra with a small part for soprano, and Il ratto di Proserpina. Choron and Fayolle reported that, dissatisfied with Pimmalione, Cimador burnt the score and renounced composition. Artaria, however, advertised publication of the full score in 1791 in Vienna and excerpts were published later in London. The work achieved considerable popularity throughout Europe as a concert piece for both male and female singers, being revived as late as 1836. While still in Venice he wrote a double bass concerto for the young virtuoso Dragonetti; the manuscript survives, together with Dragonetti's additional variations on the final Rondo, which he evidently considered too short....

Article

Alan Tyson and Leon Plantinga

[Clementi, Mutius Philippus Vincentius Franciscus Xaverius]

(b Rome, Jan 23, 1752; d Evesham, Worcs., March 10, 1832). English composer, keyboard player and teacher, music publisher and piano manufacturer of Italian birth.

Leon Plantinga

The oldest of seven children of Nicolo Clementi (1720–89), a silversmith, and Magdalena, née Kaiser, Clementi began studies in music in Rome at a very early age; his teachers were Antonio Boroni (1738–92), an organist named Cordicelli, Giuseppi Santarelli (1710–90) and possibly Gaetano Carpani. In January 1766, at the age of 13, he secured the post of organist at his home church, S Lorenzo in Damaso. In that year, however, his playing attracted the attention of an English traveller, Peter Beckford (1740–1811), cousin of the novelist William Beckford (1760–1844) and nephew of William Beckford (1709–70), twice Lord Mayor of London. According to Peter Beckford’s own forthright explanation, he ‘bought Clementi of his father for seven years’, and in late ...

Article

Frank Howes and Christina Bashford

(b Blackheath, London, July 11, 1847; d London, Jan 22, 1937). English amateur violinist, patron and lexicographer. Cobbett's efforts in the field of chamber music were important to the development of the English musical renaissance and to the cultivation and appreciation of chamber music in Britain; he is noted in particular for editing Cobbett's Cyclopedic Survey of Chamber Music (2 vols., London, 1929–30; rev. 2/1963 by C. Mason). In an autobiographical article, ‘The Chamber Music Life’, published in this encyclopedia, he related how he studied the violin with Joseph Dando, received a Guadagnini violin from his father and was fired with a lifelong enthusiasm for chamber music after hearing Joachim play at St James's Hall. From that time he played chamber music regularly at home, and also led several amateur orchestras, including the Strolling Players Orchestral Society. He became a connoisseur of violins and delighted in lending instruments from his fine collection to suitable players....

Article

Robert Strizich

revised by Gary R. Boye

(b ?Milan; fl ?1616–27). Italian guitarist, printer and possibly lutenist. He belonged to the second generation of a family of Milanese printers, and according to Picinelli he was nicknamed ‘lo Stampadorino’. In 1620 he was in the service of Count G.C. Borromeo and Duke Francesco Gallio of Alvito; by 1623 he was employed by Prince Theodoro Trivultio of Misocco. He compiled several books for five-course Baroque guitar containing his own battute accompaniments to popular songs and dances, including passacaglias, passamezzos, galliards and folias. The music is notated in the alfabeto tablature devised by Girolamo Montesardo in 1606, a system of chord notation in which letters of the alphabet designate fingering positions for various major and minor chords. In the first book of 1620 Colonna included instructions on reading the tablature, on the execution of strums and on the proper tempos for certain types of piece. The book also includes the earliest printed description of a transpositional system for three guitars of different tunings (called ...

Article

David Nicholls and Joel Sachs

(Dixon )

(b Menlo Park, CA, March 11, 1897; d Shady, NY, Dec 10, 1965). American composer, writer, pianist, publisher, and teacher. Described by Cage as “the open sesame for new music in America,” he was an early advocate for many of the main developments in 20th-century music, including the systematization of modernist techniques, the exploration of timbral resources, and transculturalism.

Many facets of Cowell’s remarkable personality resulted from the unusual circumstances of his upbringing. His father, Harry, had immigrated to British Columbia with his brother after their own father, the Dean of Kildare’s Anglican Cathedral, bought them some land. Finding no satisfaction in farming life, Harry moved to San Francisco in search of a literary career. Henry’s mother Clara (usually called Clarissa) Dixon, a gifted writer, was the daughter of a fundamentalist Midwestern farming family. She had left the church and their community, married, and produced a son called Clarence. After he ran away from home as a teenager, Clarissa fled her stifling small-town life for San Francisco. In the Bay area, she met Harry, with whom she founded a philosophical-anarchist newsletter. As dedicated anarchists, they rejected the heavy hand of government, including what they saw as the homogenizing power of conventional public schooling. They built a little cottage on the still-rural edge of Menlo Park, where Stanford University was being constructed. Henry Cowell was born there, and Menlo Park remained his principal base until ...