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Katy Romanou

(b Athens, Greece, May 5, 1969). Greek musicologist specialising in Byzantine music, university professor, cantor, and choir conductor. Chaldaeakes studied theology at the University of Athens. Due to his musical talent and vast knowledge of church music, he was employed in 1992 in the newly established music department of the same university, to assist professor Gregorios Stathis, the first teacher of Byzantine music in the department. In 1998 he earned the PhD in musicology there, and in 1999 he was elected a faculty member of the music department.

He is a diligent and ingenious researcher, with over 150 publications in Greek and other languages on Byzantine and post-Byzantine music and musicians. His scientific competence is well represented in the voluminous collection of Stathis’ writings that he edited in 2001. Aiming at closer communication between Greek and Western musicologists, he has collaborated with musicologists in the USA, England, Austria, Denmark, and Russia. As of ...


Joseph A. Bomberger

(b Milford, ME, May 26, 1853; d Minneapolis, MN, Dec 12, 1924). American singer, teacher, conductor, and composer. Patton studied voice under F.S. Davenport, J. Whitney, and W.W. Davis. He later received instruction from Achille Errani and Dudley Buck in New York. From 1877 to 1882 he gave concerts and sang tenor in oratorios, as well as being a chorus trainer in Maine from 1875. He organized the Handel Association in Bangor, Maine (1877). After touring the Mid-West in 1883, he moved to Minneapolis to be a concert singer and teacher. From 1886 to 1889 he served as vocal instructor at Hamline University. In 1890 he founded the Philharmonic Club, which he conducted until 1894. One of the organizers of the Minnesota State Music Teachers Association, he twice served as president. His compositions include the operettas The Gallant Garroter (1882) and La Fianza (...


Katy Romanou


(b Litochoro, Pieria, Greece [then, Ottoman Empire], 1854; d Athens, Greece, 15 December 1938).Greek cantor, choral conductor, arranger of church music, music teacher, and composer. He studied philology at the University of Athens and was instructed in both Byzantine and Western music. He taught music in schools and in private lessons. From 1904 to 1907 he taught H.J.W. Tillyard the New Method of Byzantine notation.

In the controversy called ‘The Music Question’ (whether church music should preserve its monophonic texture and neumatic notation or become homophonic notated in stave notation), Sakellarides was an enthusiastic exponent of the second option. Gifted with a flexible tenor voice, he attracted large congregations in central Athenian churches, including the cathedral, performing his own versions of liturgical chant, the product of his elementary knowledge of harmony. He attracted also wrathful criticism from purists.

Collaborating with Athens University professor Georgios Mistriotis, founder in ...


David Charlton

(b Hüfingen, May 16, 1789; d Hüfingen, Aug 6, 1837). German singer, conductor and teacher. He was a choirboy at Obermarchtal, moving in 1803 to the Donaueschingen Gymnasium. His singing career from 1808 to 1814 centred on the Stuttgart court and opera house, where he sang tenor and baritone roles. From 1812 he also taught at the Stuttgart Royal Musical Institute, and in 1814 went to tour in German opera houses and in Vienna. The Frankfurt theatre engaged him from 1817 to 1819; he left because of ill-health. In 1818 he founded the Frankfurt Cäcilienverein. Built on the lines of the Berliner Sing-Akademie, it performed numerous choral works by Mozart, Handel, Palestrina, Scarlatti and others, and was highly regarded by critics. Schelble participated in the Bach revival, conducting the St Matthew Passion on 2 May 1829: unlike Mendelssohn, Schelble rewrote the recitatives in more ‘polished’ style. He conducted the Cäcilienverein up to the year of his death. Schelble developed a system of teaching young musicians rudiments and sight-singing that was later adapted by Lanz, Widmann and F.W. Rühle. His compositions chiefly comprise choral and vocal works, some chamber music and various teaching exercises....


Rachel Samet

(b Greenville, MS, July 19, 1944; d New York, NY, March 23, 2007). American conductor, singer, and teacher. After attending Tougaloo College (BA 1966), he moved to New York City, seeking a career as an operatic tenor. He attended the Manhattan School of Music (MA 1968, DMA 1984) and performed as a singer with several opera companies, including Houston Grand Opera (Joplin’s Treemonisha, 1982) and on Broadway. He is best known as a prominent African American conductor; he created and headed the internationally acclaimed Boys Choir of Harlem, an organization he founded in 1968 as an after-school music program. The choir was celebrated for its virtuosity and its ability to perform a wide range of repertoire, from classical works to African American spirituals, gospel, jazz, and popular music. The cornerstone of the program was Turnbull’s commitment to musical excellence while meeting the social, educational, and emotional needs of inner-city boys and girls through teaching values of discipline, hard work and self-respect. The choir, which disbanded in ...


Armineh Grigorian

revised by Robert Atayan and Aram Kerovpyan

[Gomidas Vartabed; Soghomonian, Soghomon]

(b Kütahya, Turkey, Oct 8, 1869; d Paris, Oct 22, 1935). Armenian composer, ethnomusicologist, choral conductor, singer and teacher. One of the first Armenians to have a classical Western musical education, as well as instruction in the music of his own people, he laid the foundations for a distinctive national style in his many songs and choruses, all of which are deeply influenced by the folk and church traditions of Armenia. His work on Armenian folksong is also of musicological importance.

Robert Atayan, revised by Aram Kerovpyan

Both of his parents (his father Gevorg Soghomonian was a cobbler) had gifts for music and poetry; in 1881, however, the boy was orphaned and sent to Armenia to study at the Gevork’ian Theological Seminary in Vagharshapat (now Edjmiadzine), and was ordained as a celibate priest in 1894, being given the name Komitas (a 7th-century Catholicos who was also a hymn composer). There his beautiful voice and his musical talents attracted notice, and under Sahak Amatuni’s guidance he mastered the theory and practice of Armenian liturgical singing. He also made decisive contact with folksong, to the collection and study of which he gave himself wholeheartedly. When he had only just learnt Armenian modern notation he set about recording the songs of the Ararat valley peasants and immigrant Armenians of other regions. Although he had no knowledge of European music theory, he harmonized these songs for performance with a student choir at the academy. His earliest surviving collection of folk melodies dates from ...