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Article

Bonnie J. Blackburn

[Piero]

(b Florence, c1480; d after 1545). Italian theorist and composer. Nothing is known of Aaron’s early training, his teacher, or his career before 1516. He claims to have had ‘the greatest friendship and familiarity’ with Josquin, Obrecht, Isaac, and Agricola in Florence (most likely between 1487 and 1495, and not necessarily at the same time). By 1516 he was a priest in Imola, where he wrote his first book, Libri tres de institutione harmonica, translated into Latin by the humanist Giovanni Antonio Flaminio. A contemporary poem by Achille Bocchi praises Aaron for rescuing music ‘from squalor and dismal neglect’. By March 1520 he was a singer in Imola Cathedral and from the next year a chaplain; he was also paid by the city to teach music to those who wished to learn. His career in Imola ended abruptly in June 1522 when he was wounded in a factional uprising and his chapel in the cathedral destroyed (Blackburn, forthcoming). By ...

Article

(b Montona [now Motovun], Istria [Croatia], c1480; d after 1538). Italian woodblock cutter, editor, publisher and composer of Croatian birth. His birthplace is frequently appended to his name, as in his papal privilege of 1516: ‘to our beloved son Andreas Antiquus de Montona, cleric of the diocese of Parenzo now living in Rome’. (Despite the reference to clerical status, there is no evidence that he was ordained as a priest or served the church.) Active as a woodblock cutter, editor and music publisher in Rome from 1510 to 1518, in Venice 1520–21 and again from 1533 to 1539, he was the earliest competitor of Ottaviano Petrucci, who had initiated the printing of volumes of polyphonic music at Venice in 1501. Antico was the first to publish such books in Rome.

Antico’s method differed fundamentally from Petrucci’s: Antico was a cutter of woodblocks from which music and text were printed in one impression, whereas Petrucci employed multiple impression from moveable type. Antico both cut the blocks for and published, in collaboration with printers and others, his Roman editions and those of his first two years in Venice. After ...

Article

Daniel Heartz

revised by Laurent Guillo

(b probably in or nr Douai, c1494; d Paris, late 1551 or 1552). French music printer, publisher, bookseller, punchcutter and typecaster.

By a document notarized 13 January 1513/14 Attaingnant, described as a ‘bookseller, living in Paris’, leased a press to Jean de la Roche, reserving the right to print ecclesiastical pardons and the like, should he receive commissions. He may have gone from Douai to Paris originally with a chorister’s scholarship for the Collège de Dainville, which was subject to the cathedral chapters of Arras and Noyon. This institution leased the part of its buildings on the rue de la Harpe to Philippe Pigouchet ( fl 1490–1514), the printer-engraver famous for his Hours and the master to whom Attaingnant was probably apprenticed. Marriage to one of Pigouchet’s daughters, Claude, made Attaingnant his heir. Another of Pigouchet’s daughters, Germaine, was married to Poncet le Preux (...

Article

M.K. Duggan

[Emericus, Johannes ]

(fl 1487–1506). German printer, active in Italy. He came from Udenheim in the diocese of Speyer. In 1487 he printed two books with Johann Hamman, in 1492 he began printing on his own, and in 1494 for Luc’Antonio Giunta and other Venetian publishers. His speciality was liturgical books with music. Of the 71 books he issued, 67 were liturgical and at least 24 contain printed music or space for manuscript music (20 missals, one gradual, one antiphonal, two processionals and two Libri catechumeni). To print music he used woodcut blocks (a 1493 Missale romanum), metal roman plainchant types in four sizes and added mensural music type for the mensural Credos of the 1499 Graduale. The Graduale has been called the largest book printed in the 15th century; it uses a very large chant type with a variety of designs for different-sized neumes as well as ornamentation or liquescence. The mensural type, a black notation, preceded that of Petrucci by two years....

Article

Lawrence F. Bernstein

(fl Paris, 1540–60). French editor, composer and arranger. He was employed as an editor by Pierre Attaingnant in Paris, where he was known as a ‘musicien compositeur’. The title-pages of books 3, 4 and 5 of Attaingnant’s Danceries state that the music was ‘looked over’ or ‘looked over and corrected’ by Claude Gervaise, sçavant musicien’. After Attaingnant’s death Gervaise continued to give editorial assistance to Marie Lescallopier Attaingnant, who maintained the printing establishment, bringing out volumes of music sporadically until 1558. His circle of friends is known to have included at least one other Parisian musician, Julien Le Maître, court oboist and violinist.

Gervaise is remembered principally for his instrumental music. In addition to editing three books of Danceries, he composed the music of the sixth volume. It contains numerous ensemble dances, almost all of them four-part, and closely resembles the other volumes of the series. The dance forms employed are the ...

Article

Miriam Miller

(d 1543). English music printer and publisher. He printed Myles Coverdale’s Goostly Psalmes and Spirituall Songes. Long conjectured on textual grounds to date from just before Gough’s death, this work has been located in John Rastell’s will, suggesting a publication date of before 20 April 1536. It employs the same type originally used by Rastell, with whom Gough had business connections; no other piece of music printing by Gough has survived. He worked at the ‘Sign of the Mermaid’, Lombard Street, London....

Article

Teresa Chylińska

(b Rothenburg, c?1467; d Kraków, 7 or Oct 8, 1525). Polish publisher and bookseller of German birth. Granted the first royal privilege issued in Poland, he began its earliest publishing business in Kraków in 1494. In 1503 he issued the Missale Wratislaviense in which the music in Gothic notation was printed from movable type in two colours. Possibly on his initiative, the German printer Kasper Hochfeder went to Kraków in 1503 and from 1505 to 1509 served as the firm’s technical manager. Haller’s output of about 250 publications included scientific books, university textbooks, state documents and liturgical books. In the field of music he is principally known for the printing of Bogurodzica (the knights’ hymn), and two treatises by Sebastian z Felsztyna, Modus regulariter accentuandi (1518) and Opusculum musicae compilatum (1517) in addition to the missal.

Przywecka-SameckaDM ‘Haller Jan’, Słownik pracowników książki polskiej...

Article

M.K. Duggan

[Hertzog ]

(b Landau; d ?Speyer, after October 1509). German printer. Between 1482 and 1509 he printed 85 books, all in Venice except the last, printed in his native Speyer diocese. Most were liturgical books for dioceses from England to Hungary; 16 contain printed notes and staves, or staves. Large, medium and small roman plainchant types appear in missals of corresponding formats – five folio, one quarto and five octavo. In addition he introduced a medium gothic plainchant type for an agenda for Passau. Together with his former partner Johann Emerich of Speyer, Hamman issued a third of the music books printed in 15th-century Italy....

Article

M.K. Duggan

[Gallus, Udalricus]

(b Ingolstadt; d Rome, c1478). German printer, active in Italy. He claimed in colophons to have been a citizen of Vienna (see Borsa). Colophons also tell us that Han was a priest (venerabile vir), attended a university (magister) and was a man of some social standing (dominus). He is probably the Ulrich Han from Ingolstadt who matriculated at the University of Leipzig in the winter of 1443–4 and the Udalricus of Ingolstadt registered for the winter term of 1438. He has been proposed (see Donati; reviewed by Wehmer) as the possible printer of the first book in Italy, an undated Passio Christi in Italian; the engraved illustrations are indicative of the work of Johann Numeister.

Between 1467 and 1478 Han published about 80 books in Rome. Early production focussed on classical works, many edited by Giovanni Andrea Campano. Between 1471 and ...

Article

Marie Louise Göllner

(b ?Nuremberg; d Leipzig, May 20, 1527). German printer. He was officially registered as a printer in Nuremberg from 1524 to 1526. Most of the actual business, however, was apparently conducted by his wife Kunegunde (d 7 Feb 1547), while he travelled about the country distributing pamphlets, often of a heretical or politically radical nature. He was caught circulating one of these, Von der newen Wandlung eynes Christlichen Lebens, in Leipzig, then ruled by Duke Georg of Saxony, a fierce opponent of both the Reformation and peasant reform. In proceedings supervised by the duke himself he was tried and condemned to death, and after a futile attempt on his wife's part to persuade the Nuremberg city council to intercede, was publicly executed. His widow continued the printing business in her own name until 1538, although she had married another Nuremberg printer, Georg Wachter, shortly after Hergot's death....

Article

M.K. Duggan

(b Parma,c1439; d Parma, c1500). Italian printer . Active at Parma, he was called a book printer and illuminator in documents of 1474 but later listed variously as a paper dealer, bookseller, ceramicist and bookbinder. He worked in the manuscript book trade before and after his publication of four printed books between 1477 and 1482, supplying the local Benedictine convent with liturgical books. His first printed book, an abbreviated Graduale of 1477 (issued with his brother Bernardo), was a milestone of early music printing, the third known printed music book after the c1473 Graduale and Han’s 1476 Missale. Its giant roman plainchant type, printed in black on pages with four red staves (each 55 mm high), is the largest known, nearly double that used in the Graduale printed by Emerich at Venice in 1499, with seven staves a page.

DugganIMI M.K. Duggan: ‘The Music Type of the Second Dated Printed Music Book, the 1477 ...

Article

Marie Louise Göllner

(b Reutlingen; d ?Augsburg, c1520). German printer. In 1491 he became a citizen of Basle, where he served his printer's apprenticeship. He was registered at the University of Tübingen in 1498 and joined the printer Johann Otmar, also a native of Reutlingen, with whom he moved to Augsburg in 1502. Here he printed works on a variety of subjects, some in collaboration with Otmar, some with Georg Nadler and some alone. They include several publications commissioned by Emperor Maximilian I.

In music Oeglin is known mainly for two collections: the four-part settings of 22 Latin odes by Petrus Tritonius (1507) and a group of 42 German songs and six Latin texts, also set for four voices (RISM 1512¹). Of a further collection of 68 German songs only the discant partbook survives (c1513³). The books of German songs include the works of such composers as Isaac, Hofhaimer and Senfl, all associated with Maximilian's court, and thus reflect the court’s musical repertory. An excellent craftsman, Oeglin was the first German printer to use Petrucci's technique of multiple impression, although he reduced it to double impression by printing the lines and notes together. The songbooks are decorated with woodcuts by Hans Burgkmair....

Article

M.K. Duggan

(b Ingolstadt, c1451; d Milan, March 7, 1511). German printer, active in Italy . His name first appears in 1473 as witness to a contract of the first music printer in Milan, Christoph Valdarfer. There, in 1477, his own first book was issued in association with Ulrich Scinzenzeller, with whom he printed until ...

Article

Stanley Boorman

(dei )

(b Fossombrone, June 18, 1466; d ?Venice, May 7, 1539). Italian publisher . He was the first significant publisher of polyphonic music.

Apart from the evidence of his birth and his family’s residence in Fossombrone for some generations, nothing certain is known of Petrucci’s life before 1498. He is thought to have been among the young men whom Guidobaldo I, Duke of Urbino, allowed to be educated at court. On 25 May 1498 Petrucci was granted a Venetian privilege for 20 years. His petition stated that he had discovered what many had sought, a way to publish ‘canto figurado’. He added that it would make the printing of chant much easier also; but this was probably no more than self-advertisement, given that he did not seek to include chant in his privilege, nor, probably, did he print any. His request was for the exclusive right to print both ‘canto figurado’ and ‘intaboladure dorgano et de liuto’. The privilege also included a ban on the importation or sale of these repertories in the Venetian states by anyone else....

Article

M.K. Duggan

(b Passau, c1457; d Rome, Feb 17, 1501). German printer, active in Italy . He apparently worked with Ulrich Han in Rome; he came into possession of Han’s business in 1478, issuing the first of 325 books in 1479 from ‘the house of the former Udalricus’. Between 1482 and 1497 he used the earliest Roman plainchant type (that in Han’s 1476 Missale) for eight music books – five missals (1482, 1488, 1492, 1494, 1496), two pontificals (1485, 1497) and a baptismal (1494). In addition he introduced 12 text types, some as early as 1479; he retained only the music type of his predecessor, adding a few characters of his own. Planck’s ability as type designer and cutter, and his skill in setting the type for complicated melismatic chant, suggests he participated in creating the first music type in Italy.

DugganIMI M.K. Duggan...

Article

John Milsom

(b Coventry or London, c. 1475; d London, June 1536). English lawyer, publisher, and music printer. He had a diverse career in which music played only a small part; principally he was active as a lawyer, stage owner, playwright, adventurer, protestant propagandist, Member of Parliament, and printer of books and ephemera, including histories, law books, interludes, poetry, and statutes. As a music printer, Rastell was active in the 1520s, and pioneered the technology of printing music by single impression using movable type, seemingly for the first time in Europe. This advance over double-impression printing revolutionized the economics of music publishing.

To judge from the few surviving examples of Rastell’s printed music, his preferred format was the single sheet rather than the book. Two large songsheets are extant, each containing a single three-voice composition printed on one side of the sheet. Both are fragmentary and undated, but typographical evidence places one of them about ...

Article

Marie Louise Göllner

(b Augsburg, 1447; d Augsburg, late 1527 or early 1528). German printer. According to his own diary covering the years 1462–1523 ( A-Wn 15473), he first went to Venice in 1462, after the death of his father. Returning there in 1474, he began printing with two German partners, Peter Löslein and Bernardus Pictor (whether ‘Pictor’ is a latinized version of the surname, ‘Maler’, or whether it refers to its bearer’s profession of illuminator, remains uncertain). Following the departure of both partners in 1478 or 1479 and after a one-year interim, he resumed business by himself in 1480. In 1485 the diocese of Augsburg commissioned a breviary from Ratdolt, which particularly pleased the bishop; efforts were made to persuade the printer to return to Augsburg, first by Bishop Johann von Werdenberg and, after his death in 1485, by his successor, Friedrich von Hohenzollern. He apparently did so shortly afterwards (his last Venetian publication is dated ...

Article

M.K. Duggan

(fl 1468–c1504). German printer. With his brother Michael he began printing at Strasbourg, where in 1471 he became a citizen and member of the printers’ guild. When he moved to Würzburg in 1479 he was awarded a monopoly on liturgical books by Bishop Rudolph of Scherenberg (1446–99), renewed by Bishop Lorenz von Beba (1495–1519). His printed music books for the Würzburg diocese include at least eight missals, a giant three-volume gradual and antiphonal, an agenda and a vigil, besides a missal (1482) for the Mainz diocese. Printed in large folio books, black notes on red staves, his two gothic plainchant types reveal masterful design from the first of 1481 to the improved and more elaborate fount of the Graduale of 1496–9.

After working with Georg, Michael Reyser established a branch in 1483/4 at Eichstätt, where he used a new gothic plainchant type for the ...

Article

(b ?Eindhoven, ?1475–1500; d London, 1531). Dutch printer. He worked in Antwerp from 1523 to 1531, becoming a member of the Guild of St Luke in 1524. Of the 40 books known to have been printed by him, the majority were for the English market, including an important series of liturgical books ‘ad usum ecclesie Sarum’ – a series which helped to establish Antwerp as a rival to Paris for liturgical music printing. This series includes Manuale (1523), Processionale (1523), Hymnorum cum notis opusculum (1524), Psalterium cum hymnis (1524), Breviarium (1525), Missale (1527) and Horae Beatae Mariae Virginis (1530). All his liturgical music was printed by double impression, with black notes on red staves. He also printed missals for the dioceses of Tournai and Utrecht. Ruremund had two sizes of type with Roman neumes, which may both have originated from Paris, and one with Gothic neumes (used for the Utrecht Missal of ...

Article

Susan Forscher Weiss

(b Kemnath, c1505; d St Lorenzen am Steinfeld, Lower Austria, c1564). German songbook editor and poet. He studied at the University of Vienna about 1523, but in the mid-1530s he married, had a child, and worked as a Protestant cantor in the city of Amberg in Bavaria. About 1540 he deserted his wife and child, moved back to Vienna, reconverted to Catholicism and became a priest, singing in the choir of the Salvatorkapelle and becoming a schoolmaster at the Schottenstift (1540–43). He is thought to have written the first plays in German verse for Viennese audiences (some of them school dramas) and to have taught the first German songs with choral odes to Viennese pupils. He edited Guter seltsamer un kunstreicher teutscher Gesang (Nuremberg, 1544), the earliest known songbook compiled in Vienna. A set of four partbooks, CH-Bu kk IV 19–22, contains one of the few complete copies of Schmeltzl's German lieder (RISM ...