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Article

Thomas Henry Porter

(b Spring Hill, PA, Jan 21, 1887; d Whittier, CA, July 3, 1960). American gospel composer and editor, brother of Bentley DeForest Ackley. He studied harmony and composition in New York and London, and later became an accomplished cellist. Ackley was ordained by the Presbyterian Church in 1914...

Article

Harry Eskew

(b Spring Hill, PA, Sept 27, 1872; d Winona Lake, IN, Sept 3, 1958). American gospel music composer and editor, brother of Alfred H(enry) Ackley. He learned to play several instruments, including melodeon, piano, reed organ, alto horn, cornet, piccolo, and clarinet. He studied shorthand and typing and then worked as a stenographer in New York and Philadelphia. Several of his secular songs were published in the 1890s. From 1908 to 1915 Ackley was pianist and private secretary to the evangelist Billy Sunday, and during this period he began to compose gospel songs. In 1910 he and Homer A. Rodeheaver founded the Rodeheaver–Ackley publishing company in Chicago, which became the Rodeheaver Co. the following year. He worked for the firm as a composer and editor until his death; with his brother and Charles H. Gabriel, he provided many of the firm’s copyrighted publications. More than 2000 of Ackley’s gospel songs were published, including “If your Heart Keeps Right” (...

Article

Liz Thomson

(Claxton)

(b Maynardville, TN, Sept 15, 1903; d Nashville, TN, Nov 23, 1992). American country singer-songwriter and publisher. He was first influenced by traditional music heard at home, much of it British, and by music at the church where his father was the pastor. His Southern Baptist heritage became evident in the mournful, wailing style of his vocals. A keen sportsman, he was denied a professional athletic career through ill-health, but learnt to play his father’s fiddle. His early career was in so-called medicine shows, and radio appearances with local musicians led to the formation of his first group, the Tennessee Crackerjacks. His first record followed in 1937, and he made his début on ‘The Grand Old Opry’ radio show, subsequently becoming a regular contributor as Roy Acuff and the Smoky Mountain Boys. His recording of the Carter family classic Wabash Cannonball earned him a gold disc and led to nationwide tours as well as work in Hollywood....

Article

Gary W. Kennedy and Barry Kernfeld

[Wilton Jameson ]

(b New Albany, IN, July 21, 1939). American educator, publisher, record producer, and saxophonist. He performed locally from the age of 15 and while studying at Indiana University (BM 1961; MM 1962) led groups that worked in southern Indiana and Kentucky. Having taught music education at Indiana University Southeast (1967–9) and classical saxophone at the University of Louisville (1970–72), in the early 1970s he established a week-long jazz workshop (or “jazz camp”) held during the summer; by the late 1990s the workshop took place twice annually. Aebersold also presented workshops in other countries, including Australia, Germany, England, Scotland, Denmark, and Canada. In 1992 he received an honorary doctorate in music from Indiana University and began teaching jazz improvisation at the the University of Louisville.

In addition to his principal instrument, Aebersold plays piano and double bass, but he is far better known as an educator than as a performer. In ...

Article

Carolyn Gianturco and Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Mosso Santa Maria, nr Biella, Jan 31, 1921). Italian musicologist. He took diplomas in piano at the Parma Conservatory (1942) and in choral music at the Turin Conservatory (1948), and studied music history with Della Corte at Turin University, where he took an arts degree (1946). He subsequently taught music history in the conservatories of Bolzano (1950–51), Parma (1951–5) and Milan (1954–88); he has edited the journals Almanacco musicale italiano (1954–5), Ricordiana (1955–7) and Musica d’oggi (1958–63) and has been vice-director of Enciclopedia della musica Ricordi (1960–64). He has been a consulting editor for Ricordi since 1964. Music education is one of his major interests: he became director of the series Manuali di Didattica Musicale and Canti nel Mondo (Ricordi) in 1965, and editor of Educazione musicale...

Article

Peter Andreas Kjeldsberg

revised by Martin Anderson

(b Fredrikstad, April 29, 1872; d Oslo, Dec 24, 1932). Norwegian composer, conductor and organist. He studied with Peter Lindeman (organ) and Iver Holter (harmony, counterpoint and composition) at the Christiania Music and Organ School (1888–92), and was then a pupil of Reinecke (composition) and Ruthard (piano) at the Leipzig Conservatory (1892–4). Appointments as organist followed in Drammen (1895–1907) and Oslo (1907–32), where he served at the cathedral from 1916; his First Symphony was completed during a course of study in Berlin in 1897. He was one of those responsible for the foundation of the Norsk Komponistforening, of which he was president from 1921 to 1923. As a member of the Koralbokkomiteen (1922–6) he harmonized most of the melodies in the chorale book of the Norwegian Church, and he edited preludes to all of the chorales. He was active as a choir-conductor, leading the Håndverksangforening (...

Article

(b Mainz, Jan 13, 1883; d Wiesbaden, Sept 15, 1978). German librettist and publisher. In 1909 he joined his father Ludwig Strecker (1853–1943) as a partner in the music publishing house of Schott in Mainz, becoming a director with his brother Willy Strecker (1884–1958) in 1920. From an early age he had shown a deep interest in literature and poetry, and during the 1930s began to develop his skills as a librettist, adopting the professional pseudonym of Ludwig Andersen. His first efforts were in oratorio, but he soon moved on to opera, adapting Franz Graf von Pocci’s tale Die Zaubergeige (1935) for Werner Egk, Karl Simrock’s version of the medieval puppet play Doktor Johannes Faust (1936) for Hermann Reutter, and Hermann Heinz Ortner’s drama Tobias Wunderlich (1937) for Joseph Haas. The first two of these works ranked among the most frequently performed contemporary operas in Nazi Germany and were largely responsible for securing Schott’s reputation as the pre-eminent German publisher of music-theatre works of the period. During World War II Andersen completed librettos for two comic operas, Wolf-Ferrari’s ...

Article

Alec Hyatt King

(b Galway, March 17, 1891; d London, Oct 26, 1962). Irish editor and translator. She was educated privately and at the universities of Berlin and Marburg, and in 1923, after a short period as lecturer in German at University College, Galway, entered the Foreign Office where she served until 1951, having been seconded to the War Office from 1940 to 1943 for intelligence work in the Middle East. She dedicated most of the scanty leisure of her working life and all her retirement to the successive tasks of editing and translating the letters of Mozart and his family and the letters of Beethoven. Her tireless, worldwide search for original sources of the text was complemented by scrupulous accuracy and thorough annotation. She developed a style of timeless English which she handled in as lively and readable a manner as was consistent with fidelity to the German. Despite an occasional lapse in musicological detail, the two editions were a fine achievement and likely to remain the standard English version for some time to come. Of the two, the Beethoven was perhaps the more remarkable because his illegible handwriting had produced so many inaccurate readings in earlier texts that Anderson, besides mastering his orthography, had either to inspect personally all the extant autographs or else procure photographs. Of the ...

Article

Roxanne R. Reed

(b Anguilla, MS, March 21, 1919; d Hazel Crest, IL, 15 June, 1995). American gospel director, singer, composer, and publisher. Anderson established a career forming and training gospel groups in Chicago. His formative years were spent as one of the original Roberta Martin Singers, one of the premiere gospel groups of the 1930s and 1940s. He left briefly, between 1939 and 1941, to form the first of his many ensembles, the Knowles and Anderson Singers with R.L. Knowles. He rejoined Martin, but ultimately resigned because of the travel demands. In 1947 he formed Robert Anderson and his Gospel Caravan, but after several members left in 1952, he formed a new set of singers that recorded and performed under the name the Robert Anderson Singers through the mid-1950s. Throughout his career, Anderson recorded on a multitude of labels including Miracle and United with Robert Anderson and the Caravans; and later with the Robert Anderson Singers, on Apollo. Anderson wrote, and often sang lead on, many of the songs his groups performed, including “Why Should I Worry” (...

Article

(b Comber, Co. Down, Aug 10, 1904; d Oxford, Oct 10, 1965). Northern Irish music scholar, teacher, organist, composer and editor. He went to Bedford School, and studied at the RCM in London, Trinity College, Dublin, and New College, Oxford, gaining doctorates of music at both universities. In 1938, after four years as organist and choirmaster at Beverley Minster, he moved to a similar position at New College. Thereafter, he lived and worked in Oxford, where he was a university lecturer in music and a Fellow of New College, and later of Balliol. He also taught at the RCM.

Andrews's published work consists of three books, various articles (including contributions to the fifth edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music), reviews, and several motets, services and songs. The Oxford Harmony, vol.ii, traces the development of chromatic harmony through standard repertory works and relates this to techniques of composition. The opening chapters of ...

Article

Greg A. Handel

(Eugene)

(b West Hempstead, NY, April 26, 1956). American music educator, choral arranger, editor, and conductor. He was a member of the American Boychoir (1969–71), and received degrees from St Olaf College (BM 1978), the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (MM 1980), and Michigan State University (DMA 1987). He was on the summer faculty of the American Boychoir School and now serves on the Board of Trustees. He taught at Calvin College (1980–90) before becoming the fourth conductor of the St Olaf Choir and the Harry R. and Thora H. Tosdal Endowed Professor of Music (1990–). Armstrong is the editor for Earthsongs publications and co-editor of the St. Olaf Choir Series. He chronicled the history of the St Olaf Choir in his doctoral dissertation. He is featured on an instructional video for adolescent singers, Body, Mind, Spirit, Voice (2002...

Article

John Bergsagel

revised by Henrik Karlsson

(Vilhelm)

(b Bredaryd, Feb 5, 1925). Swedish music administrator, writer and lexicographer. He studied the double bass, cello, organ and music theory privately and romance languages at Lund University (graduated 1958). He taught French and Spanish at the Malmö Gymnasium (1959–74), and has pursued various musical activities, including posts as music critic of the Malmö newspaper Kvällsposten (1950–80), founder and leader of Chamber Choir ’53 (1953–62), founder (1960) and director (1965–71) of the Ars Nova society for new music and programme director of Sal. Smith Chamber Music Society (1966–73). He has also taught music history at the Malmö National School of Drama (1963–71), and served as a board member of the Malmö Musikhögskola (from 1964) and the Swedish Royal Academy of Music (1966–73; general secretary from 1973–90), and as vice-chairman of the board of the Stockholm Elektronmusikstudion (...

Article

Watkins Shaw

(Algernon)

(b Llandaff, Nov 29, 1869; d Worcester, Nov 26, 1953). English organist, composer and editor. After instruction from his father and C. Lee Williams, Atkins became a pupil and assistant of G.R. Sinclair at Truro and Hereford, and was appointed organist of Ludlow parish church in 1893. In 1897 he became organist of Worcester Cathedral, retiring in 1950, having directed the Worcester Three Choirs Festivals from 1898 to 1948. He revived the festivals after World War I and was knighted in 1921. Though he was not a gifted conductor, the programmes of the Worcester Festivals under him showed considerable breadth of taste, and it was at his insistence that Elgar’s The Dream of Gerontius was performed in 1902. His own Hymn of Faith was given in 1905 and revived in 1993.

Atkins produced (with Elgar) an English-language edition of Bach’s St Matthew Passion, and (alone) of Bach’s St John Passion...

Article

Raoul F. Camus

(b Grafton, WV, March 20, 1865; d Oskaloosa, IA, Nov 18, 1929). American music publisher, bandmaster, and composer. As a child, he was given cornet lessons by his uncles. He became a proficient soloist, and by the age of 16 was director of the Grafton Band. He then toured for several years with musical comedy companies. In 1886 he moved to Mount Pleasant, Iowa, where he directed the local band and set up a music publishing business. He moved his family and business first to Burlington, Iowa, in 1888, and then to Oskaloosa in 1891. For many years he directed the Iowa Brigade Band, for which he provided a rehearsal hall. He published more than 100 of his own band compositions, including cornet solos, marches, galops, waltzes, and dirges; some works appeared under the pseudonyms Jim Fisk and A.M. Laurens. A number of his marches are recorded in the Heritage of the March series compiled by Robert Hoe, Jr. (6, A, G, O, FF, ZZ, RRR). His publishing business flourished, becoming one of the largest in the country. In addition to his own compositions, he published the works of such important composers as Fred Jewell, J.J. Richards, Karl King, Russell Alexander, and Walter English. The company bearing his name continues to publish band music of high quality....

Article

Thomas W. Bridges

revised by Maureen Buja

(b Langres; fl Rome, 1551–72). French printer. He was a singer in the Cappella Giulia intermittently from March 1552 until at least the end of 1554, and was also active as a composer: in 1552 his Madrigali a quattro voci were printed in Rome by Valerio and Luigi Dorico.

In 1555 he began to print music, publishing a series of collections entitled ‘delle muse’, Vicentino’s L’antica musica ridotta alla moderna pratica (1555; in 1551 Barrè had been a witness at the famous debate between Vicentino and Lusitano in Rome) and a few volumes devoted to single composers. His first publication, Il primo libro delle muse a cinque (1555), set a high standard, with canzone settings by Barrè himself, Berchem, Vincenzo Ruffo and Arcadelt, including Arcadelt’s superb setting of Petrarch’s Chiare, fresch’e dolci acque. Barrè’s Primo libro delle muse a quattro voci (1555) includes his own setting of four stanzas from Ariosto’s ...

Article

Mimi Tashiro

(Phillips) [Todd Mayfield, Ann; Todd, Ann E.]

(b Denver, CO, Aug 26, 1931). American music librarian, editor, and publisher. Daughter of composer Burrill Phillips and Alberta Phillips, and wife of composer Robert Basart, she was raised by her maternal grandparents who named her Ann Todd Mayfield. As Ann E. Todd, she was a child actress featured in more than twenty films such as Intermezzo, All This, and Heaven Too, and Three Daring Daughters. In 1953 she graduated from University of California, Los Angeles in Music History and continued her studies at the University of California, Berkeley earning an MLS in 1958 and MA in 1960. She had a distinguished career as reference librarian at the UC Berkeley Music Library from 1960–61 and 1970–90, during which time she founded and edited the library’s newsletter, Cum Notis Variorum, which gained a national audience. It contained news, reviews, and substantial articles, including bibliographies, checklists, and indexes on various topics and sources. Basart also wrote numerous reviews for ...

Article

Jonas Westover

(b Plainfield, NJ, March 14, 1949). American composer, engraver, author, and editor. Báthory-Kitsz has written under a wide array of aliases, including Kalvos Gesamte, Grey Shadé, D.B. Cowell, Brady Kynans, and Kalvos Zondrios. He is a self-proclaimed humanist and believes strongly in the power of everyday people to create and perform music. He has also advocated for locally-centered performances and has been a tremendous force in the creative life of Vermont, where he has made his home. While Báthory-Kitsz remains a highly prolific composer, penning over one thousand works since the late 1960s, he is also recognized as an important writer, both on music and on other topics, such as computers and Vermont country stores. Báthory-Kitsz’s commitment to the life of music reaches out from his own compositions, which he allows people to download and perform for free, and also to his advocacy for the performance of contemporary music, seen especially in his involvement with several festivals and projects that keep “modern” music in the forefront. He has served on the board, directed, and founded many of these events himself. He was the director and founder of Dashuki Music Theater (...

Article

Shirley Beary

revised by Harry Eskew

(b Lebanon, AL, Dec 8, 1887; d Dallas, TX, Jan 21, 1960). American publisher and composer of gospel songs. He attended singing schools of Thomas B. Mosley and Anthony J. Showalter and became proficient in writing both words and music of gospel songs, probably composing more convention songs than any other gospel music publisher of his time. A compilation of his songs, Precious Abiding Peace, was published in 1960. He was an outstanding singing school teacher and conducted his own schools until 1922, after which he managed the Showalter office in Texarkana, Texas. In 1926 Baxter joined with Virgil O. Stamps in establishing the Stamps-Baxter Music Company in Jacksonville, Texas. When the company moved to Dallas in 1929, Baxter opened a branch office in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Stamps-Baxter became the foremost publisher of gospel music in seven-shape notation. Following Stamps’s death in 1940, Baxter moved to Dallas and became president of the firm. By ...

Article

J.M. Thomson

(Georg)

(b Altona-Ottmarschen, Sept 24, 1902; d London, Jan 13, 1988). British editor and harpsichordist of German birth. He studied the piano and the flute at the Leipzig Conservatory, but turned from a musical career to the study of law, which he pursued at Halle and Freiburg. He qualified in 1930 and set up his own practice in 1933, often acting on behalf of Jews. In 1938 he was arrested by the Gestapo and imprisoned for three months; shortly after his release he emigrated to London. After internment on the Isle of Man Bergmann worked at Schott as a packer, eventually becoming their most distinguished editor. He brought much hitherto unknown Baroque music into the repertory, especially that of Telemann, for whom he had a special affinity. His many editions include recorder sonatas by Handel, Francesco Barsanti, Francis Dieupart and (with Frans Brüggen) J.C. Schickhardt, and music by Blow and Purcell. Associated with Tippett at Morley College in London in the 1940s, he later taught at the Mary Ward Settlement which stimulated his flair for working with children and amateurs. He also appeared frequently at Alfred Deller's Stour Festival. As harpsichordist he performed with Ilse Wolf, April Cantelo and many other artists, and accompanied Deller in several recordings of Purcell's music. Endowed with a rare generosity of spirit, he encouraged recorder players, such as Brüggen and Michala Petri, and young scholars, notably David Lasocki. He also composed two sonatas for recorder....

Article

William R. Lee

(b Cambridge Springs, PA, July 13, 1866; d Carlisle, MA, Feb 27, 1946). American music publisher and music educator. Son of a Pennsylvania physician, Birchard taught music in public schools and managed summer schools for music songbook publishers in the 1890s. In 1901 he became founder and president of C.C. Birchard and Co., specializing in the publication of school music and the works of American composers. His school series, The Laurel Song Book (1901), was highly successful and set new standards in music selection and graphics. He promoted American composers, including Ives, Still, Hanson, and Copland, and encouraged Arthur Farwell to organize the Wa-Wan Press (1901) to stimulate American composition. He was one of the founders (at Keokuk, Iowa, 1907) of the Music Supervisors National Conference (MSNC). He took advantage of the community singing movement, the patriotic fervor of World War I, and the Americanization drive of the 1910s and published several collections of which the ...