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Article

Giovanni Carli Ballola

revised by Roberta Montemorra Marvin

(b Alessandria, March 20, 1851; d Alessandria, May 2, 1894). Italian organist and composer. He began his musical studies with his stepfather, Pietro Cornaglia. From 1868 to 1871 he attended the Milan Conservatory, studying the piano with Antonio Angeleri and composition with Lauro Rossi and Mazzucato. His graduation exercise, the cantata Caino e Abele, won the first prize and a medal of honour. He toured abroad as a concert pianist, but from 1880 until his death was organist at the cathedral in Alessandria, where he also founded a school of composition, singing and piano, and conducted concerts for the Associazione filarmonica alessandrina. He composed three operas, Isabella Spinola (1877, Milan), Maria di Warden (1884, Venice) and Una partita a scacchi (1892, Pavia), the latter based on Giuseppe Giacosa's popular comedy. In these works, which did not have much success, Abbà Cornaglia remained uninfluenced by the innovatory tendencies of the ‘Scapigliatura’ and of Catalani and by the new ...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(b London, Sept 5, 1785; d London, Sept 15, 1858). English organist and composer. At 11 years of age he began to study music under Thomas Busby. He became organist at Carlisle Chapel, Lambeth (1802), at St Paul's, Deptford (1814), and at St George's, Camberwell (1824). On his appointment to the newly rebuilt church of St Dunstan-in-the-West, Fleet Street (1833), he retained the Camberwell post and he continued to hold both until his death. He was one of the most prominent organists of his time, and gave many performances of a kind that would now be termed ‘recitals’. He was much in demand at the openings of newly built organs, and from 1817 onwards he supervised and often took part in the periodic evening performances on Flight & Robson's giant ‘Apollonican’ in St Martin's Lane, London.

Adams was a master of the developing art of imitating orchestral effects on the organ. A typical recital of his, at the opening of the new Exeter Hall organ on ...

Article

Maria Eckhardt

(b Mosonszentjános, April 20, 1789; d Buda, 1862). Hungarian composer. From 1800 to 1827 he was a church musician in Győr. In 1827 he went to Pest-Buda, where he became a founding member of the Táborsky String Quartet (playing second violin). In 1838 he became regens chori of the Mátyás church in Buda, a post he held until his death. His daughter Adél (1820–99) married Ferenc Erkel and his son Vince (1826–71) became famous as a piano virtuoso in France and Switzerland.

Alder wrote a quantity of vocal and chamber music, much of which was published in his lifetime: a set of variations on a Hungarian theme and a Grande Polonaise for string quartet; a sonata for violin and piano; various piano works, including a sonatina, an ‘easy and agreeable’ fantasia, a set of variations, and a rondo on a theme from Rossini's La Cenerentola...

Article

Siegfried Gmeinwieser

(b Wasserburg am Inn, Feb 23, 1779; d Munich, May 6, 1867). German composer. Although his first contact with music may well have been through the choirmaster of St Jakob in Wasserburg, Johann Sebastian Dietz (1711—93), Aiblinger received his first musical training at the Benedictine Abbey at Tegernsee. In 1795 he moved to the Jesuit Gymnasium in Munich, run by Benedictines since 1794, at the same time having lessons in composition with Joseph Schlett. From 1801 he studied theology at the university of Landshut. He then went to Italy: to Vicenza (1803), Venice (1810) and briefly to Milan (1811). During this time Simon Mayr, who lived in Bergamo, was his adviser and friend. In 1819 he returned to Munich, where he became Kapellmeister at the Italian Opera (he failed to obtain the job of vice-Kapellmeister at the royal court). In ...

Article

Kathleen Dale

revised by Axel Helmer

(Emanuel)

(b Stockholm, Jan 19, 1860; d Stockholm, Jan 20, 1938). Swedish composer, organist and conductor. He attended the Swedish Royal Academy of Music (1882–6), studying counterpoint and composition with J. Dente, and was a pupil of Franck in Paris (1887–8). In Stockholm he was coach at the Royal Opera (1888–90), organist at the synagogue (1890–1928), music teacher at Norrmalm’s grammar school (1895–1923) and teacher at Richard Anderssons Musikskola (1897–1909). From 1886 he conducted several choirs, including the Bellman Choir (1895–1926), which he also founded, and the Philharmonic Society (1900–03). Åkerberg’s compositions often approach the style of Swedish folk music, especially the ballads Kung Svegder and Prinsessan och Svennen. They are technically sound but conventional.

MSS in S-Skma, Svenska Tonsättares Internationella Musikbyrå

Article

(b Spanish Basque region, c1755; d San Sebastián, June 23, 1831). Spanish composer and theorist. After serving as maestro de capilla in San Sebastián, he took up the same post in Logroño collegiate church during the French invasion (1795). Five years later he returned to San Sebastián as maestro de capilla at S María la Redonda, where he remained until 1829. He composed a large number of sacred works, which enjoyed great success throughout northern Spain during his lifetime, in particular masses, Vespers, the Office for the Dead, motets and villancicos, many of which survive in manuscript at the churches which he served. He also wrote some piano music (of which a sonata is edited in J. Nin’s Classiques espagnols du piano, i, 1925) and a 133-page theoretical work, Instrucción metódica, especulativa, y prática, para enseñar á cantar y tañer la música moderna y antigua...

Article

(b Meadow, TN, Oct 24, 1867; d Birmingham, England, Oct 13, 1920). American revivalist and publisher. He attended Maryville College, Tennessee, and the Moody Bible Institute, Chicago; in 1893 he assisted Moody in his revival at the World’s Colombian Exposition in Chicago. From 1908 he toured with J. Wilbur Champman through the USA, Great Britain, Australia and missionary areas of East Asia. He was noted for his skill in inspiring a congregation to sing enthusiastically and in conducting large choirs. He published a number of revival songbooks and owned the copyrights of several popular gospel hymns, such as Charles H. Gabriel’s ...

Article

Dennis Libby

revised by Emanuele Senici

(b Rome, June 29, 1801; d Rome, June 12, 1863). Italian musicologist and composer. Ordained a Roman priest in 1823, his life was entirely directed towards the deliverance of liturgical music from what he saw as the debased theatrical style of contemporary composers and the neglect and incompetence of singers and organists in regard to Gregorian chant and Renaissance music. He contributed most importantly to this goal through his editions, particularly the Raccolta di musica sacra (Rome, 1841–6), the seven volumes of which provided the first large modern collection of Palestrina's music. Palestrina was Alfieri's ideal for new church music, which, according to his Ristabilimento, should be grave, succinct and suited in expression to the words, which were to be presented clearly and with few repetitions. His own compositions, many of them published at Rome, exemplified these principles.

Alfieri was also a pioneer in Italy in the historical study of Gregorian chant, which he sought to restore to its original purity, although along lines that now appear somewhat arbitrary and subjective. His early ...

Article

Walter Hüttel

(b Freiberg, Saxony, Oct 17, 1790; d Freiberg, Aug 21, 1854). German Kantor and composer. He studied at the Freiberg Gymnasium, then at Leipzig University, where he took the master’s degree. He continued his education with J.G. Schicht, W.F. Riem, G.C. Härtel and Friedrich Schneider and lived in Leipzig as a singer, pianist and music teacher. In 1821 he was given a post in Freiberg as the city’s music director, becoming the cathedral Kantor and a teacher at the Gymnasium and the teachers’ training college; he also founded the Singakademie in 1823 and reorganized the Bergmusikkorps. He visited Beethoven in Vienna and became a champion of his music; he was also a friend of Mendelssohn, Reissiger and Wagner. His most important pupils were K.F. Brendel, Reinhold Finsterbusch and Robert Volkmann.

Anacker anticipated the modern German Kantor who was principally concerned with musical education and artistic competence. His compositions, mainly sacred and secular choral, are distinguished for their modernity and emotional intensity; the oratorio ...

Article

Bernarr Rainbow

(b Norwich, Aug 15, 1836; d Durham, Feb 10, 1908). English cathedral organist, teacher and composer. After training as a chorister at Norwich Cathedral (1846–8) and at Rochester Cathedral (1848–50) Armes became pupil-assistant to J.L. Hopkins at Rochester (1850–56). He was subsequently organist of Trinity Church, Gravesend (1855–7), St Andrew’s, Wells Street, London (1857–61), Chichester Cathedral (1861–2) and Durham Cathedral (1862–1907). He took the Oxford BMus in 1858 and DMus in 1864. He was resident examiner in music at the University of Durham from 1890 and became its first professor in 1897; he was examiner at Oxford from 1894. During the 1880s Armes collated and indexed the four sets of manuscript partbooks surviving at Durham. These contained the service music together with separate organ parts of a wide repertory from Tallis to Purcell, formerly used in the cathedral. He composed three oratorios, various anthems, services and other church music....

Article

Ferenc Bónis

(b Paks, June 6, 1781; d Szabadka [now Subotica, Serbia], Oct 25, 1848). Hungarian composer and church musician. He studied music with his father József Arnold (1751–96), cantor of the Catholic church in Hajós, and Pál Pöhm, cathedral choirmaster in Kalocsa. In 1800 he was appointed music director of the town and regens chori of St Theresa’s church in Szabadka, posts which he held until his death. In order to enlarge his establishment, which in 1803 consisted of only five musicians, he gave free musical tuition to 12 boys from 1805 to 1814. His first known compositions are offertories based on themes from fashionable operas (Grétry’s Richard Coeur-de-Lion, Don Giovanni and Weigl’s Die Schweizerfamilie). In 1815, on the return of Pope Pius VII from captivity in France, he composed an offertory for which he received a letter of thanks from the pope, and in 1826...

Article

Margaret Cayward

(b Cubo de Bureba, Burgos, Spain, Apr 29, 1780; d Mission Santa Inés, CA, Sept 20, 1840). Spanish musician and Franciscan missionary to Alta California. He entered the Franciscan order in Burgos in 1796, and in 1804 was ordained to the priesthood. He sailed for New Spain in September 1804, and, from 1804 to 1807, was assigned to the Colegio de San Fernando in Mexico City, the Franciscan missionary college that supplied priests for Alta California. In 1807, Arroyo de la Cuesta departed for Alta California, arriving in Monterey in 1808. He managed temporal, spiritual, and musical matters at Mission San Juan Bautista (about 30 miles from Monterey) from 1808 to 1833, when ill health forced him to retire from active missionary life. His superiors lauded his merit, ability, and zeal as a missionary, as well as his skill in teaching music to native musicians. His contemporaries noted his linguistic abilities, as a master of California Indian languages. To his detailed ...

Article

Paul C. Echols

(b Detroit, MI, Feb 19, 1803; d New Haven, CT, Dec 23, 1881). American author of hymn texts and hymnbook compiler. The son of a missionary to the Native Americans, he was educated at Yale University and Andover Theological Seminary. While at Andover he compiled a small pamphlet containing 101 missionary hymns, three of them his own: entitled Hymns and Sacred Songs; for the Monthly Concert (Andover, MA, 1823), it was intended for use at missionary prayer meetings and was the first such collection to be published in the United States. In 1825 Bacon was ordained and became pastor of the Center Church, New Haven, where he served until he joined the faculty of the Yale Divinity School in 1866. In 1833 he published in New Haven a revision of Timothy Dwight’s edition of Isaac Watts’s Psalms and Hymns, to which he appended the collection Additional Hymns, Designed as a Supplement to Dwight’s Psalms & Hymns...

Article

Bernarr Rainbow

(b London, Oct 15, 1834; d London, Oct 17, 1891). English church musician, writer and musical educationist. He was trained as a chorister at St Paul's Cathedral between 1846 and 1849, and worked first as a commercial artist and journalist; but in 1859 he became a professional lay clerk, and was appointed to the choir of St Paul's Cathedral in 1866. In the same year he was made music critic of the Morning Post and he subsequently became editor of the Monthly Musical Record (1877), The Orchestra (1881) and the Musical Times (1887). Barrett graduated BMus at Oxford in 1871 and was appointed assistant Inspector of Music in the same year, working first with Hullah, then with Stainer, until his death. He was joint editor with Stainer of the Dictionary of Musical Terms (1876); and also published English Glee and Madrigal Writers...

Article

Arthur D. Walker

(b Berkeley, Glos., Nov 29, 1831; d Purton, nr Berkeley, June 12, 1911). English music critic and writer. He attended singing classes at Berkeley Town Hall, was solo boy in the parish church choir, and also studied the organ, violin, viola and cello. He was a church organist in Margate from 1853 to 1855, when he moved to London. In the early 1860s he served in the Regiment of Volunteers under Colonel J.H. Mapleson (later manager of Drury Lane Theatre).

Bennett was precentor of Weigh House Chapel and organist of Westminster Chapel, and in 1865 assisted Henry Coleman, music critic of the Sunday Times; when Coleman retired, Bennett was appointed in his place. In 1870 he joined the Daily Telegraph as leader writer and music critic, remaining there and exercising great influence until his retirement. In addition he wrote for the Pall Mall Gazette, Graphic, Pictorial Times and ...

Article

E.D. Mackerness

(b Carlisle, Aug 13, 1826; d Liverpool, May 10, 1897). English organist. He abandoned a career as a civil engineer to take up music professionally some time after 1840, and held appointments at churches in Liverpool before becoming organist to the Liverpool Philharmonic Society in 1848. From 1852 to 1855 he resided in London and for short periods was organist at the Royal Panopticon of Science and Art (Leicester Square), the Lincoln’s Inn Chapel and St Martin-in-the-Fields. In August 1855 he was elected to the post of organist at St George’s Hall, Liverpool. During his long tenure of this office Best became nationally known for his solo performances, and despite heavy commitments undertook many engagements in other cities. In 1871 he opened the Willis organ at the Royal Albert Hall, and in 1873 gave the inaugural recital on a Cavaillé-Coll instrument in the Albert Hall, Sheffield. During 1872...

Article

William J. Gatens

(b London, Aug 6, 1861; d Stoke Newington, London, April 10, 1913). English antiquarian and writer on cathedral music and ecclesiology. He was the son of Benjamin Bumpus, a London bookseller, and the twin brother of Thomas Francis Bumpus (d Stoke Newington, 11 Nov 1916), a noted writer on cathedral architecture.

J.S. Bumpus was deeply influenced by the ecclesiological movement in the Church of England, and was a member of the St Paul's Ecclesiological Society. Watkins Shaw observed that ‘it does not seem to be known whether J.S. Bumpus followed any profession or occupation’, but that ‘he seems to have enjoyed ample leisure to indulge his interconnected passions for ecclesiology and cathedral music’. In 1901 he was appointed honorary librarian of St Michael's College, Tenbury, a post he held until his death. In this capacity he was in charge of the large and important collection of manuscripts and early printed editions assembled by Sir Frederick Ouseley, the founder and first warden of the college. In addition, Bumpus compiled a considerable collection of his own (described in ‘Libraries and Collections of Music’, ...

Article

Vernon Gotwals

revised by Judi Caldwell

(b Bloomfield, NJ, March 2, 1865; d New York, Dec 8, 1936). American organist. A pupil of Samuel P. Warren, he became organist of First Presbyterian Church in Newark, New Jersey, in 1882. Later (c1890) he studied in Paris with Alexandre Guilmant, and in 1892 he became organist of Old First Presbyterian Church in New York. In 1899 he founded the Guilmant Organ School, apparently the first institution of its kind in the USA. As a teacher Carl advocated, in place of the older, rhythmically slack tradition, the “clean-cut playing of Guilmant.” As a recitalist throughout the USA and abroad and as a teacher of organists, Carl introduced an expanded repertory, a more brilliant technique, and a broader view of church music. The Guilmant Organ School trained hundreds of professional church musicians, many of whom became well known. Although not himself a composer, Carl edited at least ten volumes of organ music between ...

Article

Almonte Howell

(fl 1786–1815). Spanish liturgist, organist and composer. A pupil of José Lidón, he served in Madrid as organist to the royal convent of his order, the Carmelitas Calzados. In 1789 his two-volume Ritual carmelitano appeared; it included an erudite introduction to Gregorian chant (useful for clarifying the traditional terminology of Spanish theory) and detailed information on the organ mass practice. His Forma canendi in missis of 1805, printed in large choirbook format, contained a series of plainsong mass propers according to the Toledan ritual; this project was apparently not continued. The same year saw the appearance of his Rudimentos de música, a small volume of elementary theory prepared for the pupils of the Real Seminario de Nobles in Madrid. Publication of the second part, consisting of graded melodic exercises over a bass, was delayed ten years by the Napoleonic occupation. Carrera also published two sets of psalm versets for organ, the ...

Article

Helmut Kallmann

(b Norwich, c1796; d Quebec, Oct 6, 1852). Canadian organist of English birth. A pupil of Beckwith and Crotch, Codman went to Quebec in 1816 to become organist at the Anglican Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, a position he occupied until 1852. He also taught music. On ...